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“The present day, in particular, with is too rigid, Protestantism is divided need and toil, to come to its full strength its moral slackness, stands in urgent need by opposition between older and newer

and unfold more freely its eternal truth.” of rousing and regeneration through the types. Courage and sincerity are absomoral earnestness of Christianity. In the lutely necessary for the constructive

An extended study of Eucken's phibosom of Christianity unfathomable forces are slumbering, forces which have by no

work of the coming religion, which losophy as set forth in his various means lived themselves out and are still

works is made in the London Quaris to be a world-religion, a necessity capable of breaking forth again and driv- of the world's development

, carrying terly Review by W. R. Boyce Gibson. ing human life into new channels with an “within itself the sure guarantee of Broadly compared, we are told, Bergirresistible and elemental violence. The success, however uncertain we may be son's outstanding emphasis is upon incontact of divine and human begets dai- to-day of paths to the goal.” “All

tuition, Eucken's upon action. monic forces which may work either for anxious considerations as to the posrevolution and renewal, or for destruction sible and probable result of an open union of theory with practice on the one

“It is precisely through its intimate and desolation. To gain control of these and courageous line of action,” says hand and with mystical insight on the and lead them into the paths of produc- Eucken, “may be met by the following other that Activism makes to many of us tive work is one main task of the religious community.” reflection,” which he quotes from his so profound an appeal. We stand in need

of a practical philosophy of life, of a phiBut, he points out, “the particular previous book, “Truth of Religion":

losophy which takes us as we are, heirs way of apprehending this task may in “Either religion is merely a product of of the past and makers of the future, the lapse of time become narrow and human wishes and ideas which have been places us in our historical and cultural stereotyped. Then arises the need of sanctioned by tradition and society, in setting, shows up the great organized appealing from it to the primal force

which case, as a human fabrication, it movements out of which our civilization itself and summoning this to the task

must be destroyed by the advancing tide has arisen and within which it is still opof new creation.”

of spiritual progress, and no art or might erative for good or for evil, sets before Eucken, does not definitely formulate religion is based upon facts which are or cunning can arrest its downfall ;—or a clear live option between the rule

of Nature and the rule of Spirit, and a new religious dogma but he continu

more than human, and then the fiercest calls us to register our decision daily and ally insists upon an attitude toward

attack is powerless to shake it, but will hourly, if need be, in token of continuous evolutionary Christianity. Catholicism rather help it, through all stress of human loyalty to spiritual ideals.”





ISHOPS of the Church of is accounted a victory for the High “The only question really at issue re-
England in Convocation have Church Bishop Gore, of Oxford, whose lates to a detail, the actual resuscitation
solemnly resolved “That the open letter to his clergy, “On the

of the dead body of the Lord from the denial of any of the historical Basis of Anglican Fellowship in Faith

tomb. The accounts that have come down facts stated in the Creeds goes and Organization," opened the flood

to us seem to be too conflicting and con

fused to prove this. But they do seem beyond the limits of legitimate interpre- gates of controversy in the London

to prove that in any case the detail is of tation, and gravely imperils that sin- Times. Bishop Gore contended that less importance than is supposed. Becerity of profession which is plainly "if a man is to be free to think and whatever it was, the body which the incumbent on the ministers of Word say anything he pleases, and still be disciples saw was not the natural human and Sacrament." counted a fit candidate for a bishopric, body that was laid in the grave.

A naThe issue before the Bishops was as there can be no corporate principles of

tural human body does not pass through clear as petitions could make it. On any kind at the back of the Church.” closed doors. Its identity would not esthe one hand, were petitions from the Regarding the prescribed theological cape recognition by intimate friends, Council of the Churchmen’s Union, for minimum, however, Dean Henson, of either for a shorter time (as by Mary freedom to study, interpret and restate Durham," pointed out that Dr. Gore Magdalen) or for a longer time (as by

the disciples on the way to Emmaus). traditional doctrines in the light of himself interprets the articles which No coherent and consistent view can be newly-discovered truth; on the other declare the ascension of Christ and his worked out as to the nature of the Risen hand, from clergy and laymen, for re descent into hell in a symbolical sense, Body.” moval of doubt as to whether an orwhile affirming the literalness of the

Of the Incarnation Dr. Sanday says: dained minister is free to continue to statements of virgin birth and physical exercise his ministry after he has de

resurrection. Every Christian church “In regard to the Birth of our Lord, liberately come to the conclusion that has to meet the genuine difficulties ! would say that I believe most emphatany historical statement of the Apostles' which modern knowledge raises con

ically in His Supernatural Birth; but I Creed and the Nicene Creed is not true.

cannot so easily bring myself to think ning these articles, says Dean Hen

that His Birth was (as I should regard No calm in the religious storm has

it) unnatural. This is just a case where resulted from the Bishops' resolutions, Books, editorials and leading articles,

I think that the Gospels use symbolical which proceed as follows:

no less than the debate and pronuncia- language. I can endorse entirely the sub“At the same time, recognizing that our mento of the Bishops' Convocation, in- stantial meaning of that verse of St. Luke generation is called to face new problems dicate the tremendous interest in Eng- (i, 35): ‘The Holy Ghost shall come upon raised by historical criticism, we land aroused by the loud demand for thee, and the power of the Most High anxious not to lay unnecessary burdens intellectual liberty in

shall overshadow thee: wherefore also

the spiritual upon consciences, nor unduly to limit

that which is to be born shall be called freedom of thought and inquiry whether sphere. Dr. Sanday, professor of di- holy, the Son of God." This is deeply among clergy or among laity. We de- vinity and canon of Christ Church, metaphorical and symbolical, and carries sire, therefore, to lay stress on the need Oxford, publishes a reply to Bishop us into regions where thought is baffled. of considerateness in dealing with that Gore's open letter in which he af I do not doubt that the Birth of our which is tentative and provisional in the firms belief in the central reality of Lord was sanctified in every physical rethought and work of earnest and rever the Supernatural Birth and the Super- spect in the most perfect manner ent students.” natural Resurrection, but not in all that

ceivable. The coming of the Only-begot

ten into the world could not but be atThis decision to "lash themselves to the Church of the past has believed of

tended by every circumstance of holiness. the creeds and let the tide of new them as literal fact. Of the Resur

Whatever the Virgin Birth can spiritually thought go by,” as one writer puts it, rection he writes:

mean for us is guaranteed by the fact




not go.

that the Holy Babe was Divine. Is it exist, no Liberal Christian does any vio- ford presumes to draw between one not enough to affirm this with all our lence to his conscience by remaining in kind of symbolism and another. They heart and soul, and be silent as to any fellowship. Precisely the same issue was

will simply say: ‘On your own printhing beyond?”

raised at the beginning of what is called ciples, you have no more right to be a

the New Theology movement in the stree minister of the Church of England than The London Guardian recognizes the Churches; and it will be raised again importance of the occasion which has whenever’any new movement of the in- the men you are now assailing."" The called forth the ction of the Bishops tellect and spirit of free and instructed Nation concludes: in recognizing student-liberty but set men and women begins to threaten the ting a limit beyond which loyalty shall traditional habits of thought and modes “We might afford to dismiss this eccle

“It is not for the ministers of worship in the Churches. Only a frank siastical hair-splitting if it were merely of the Faith,” says the Guardian, “to and willing recognition of the fact that a quarrel of the schools. But the Bishops teach the negation of Faith.” But The spiritual loyalty and intellectual freedom of the Church of England are invested

are the twin pillars upon which Liberal by the State with large executive powers, Christian Cominonwealth declares:

Christianity reposes can save organized and, as one of the Divinity Professors at “The controversy now raging in the religion from the repeated disruptians Cambridge has pointed out, it lies in the Anglican Church on the basis of fellow- which must follow a victory of the ob- last resort with the Bishops to accept or ship is pursued on one side as tho the scurantists.”

reject a candidate whom these Professors sole end to be gained is the reinstate

have trained for the work of the minment of the creeds as records of histor The Church of England, says the istry. A candidate who has been trained ical fact rather than of religious truth. London Nation, is on the verge of at one or other of our universities for Liberal churchmen recognize quite as a crisis which is bound to have a Holy Orders on modern methods may, clearly as Bishop Gore and his friends momentous effect on its future as a and undoubtedly will, find himself rethat if the emphasis is laid upon the his- Christian and a national institution.

jected by Bishops whose orthodoxy is toric elements in the creeds, and not “Bishop Gore is under the strange de

framed on Dr. Gore's lines. All the laupon the spiritual values they contain, lusion for so able a man that the par

bors of a lifetime will be suddenly wasted; their position in the Church becomes impossible. All the restatements and new ticular views of orthodoxy which he

all the aspirations of a lifetime will be

suddenly dashed to pieces. His career interpretations of Christian doctrine which happens to hold are at the same time

will be broken before it has begun. If scientific knowledge and biblical criticism the doctrines of the Church of England.

Dr. Gore and his friends prevail, we shall have made necessary to the modern mind, ... As a matter of fact, the Church have, as in the Roman Communion, a cesare ruled out before they are made. If of England, in the explanation which sation of all relations between the Church that demand for liberty of intellect is not is given of the second article of the and modern learning. The Professors at conceded, not by the Anglican Church creed in the Church's Catechisin, is the universities will teach one interpretaalone, Liberal thinkers in all the churches much more liberal than the Bishop

tion of the beliefs of the Church in the must go out into the wilderness again. of Oxford.” It is because it

name of scholarship. The Bishops will inBut if, as we believe, such freedom of the

sist upon another in the name of orthomind as we claim for all scholars and lays emphasis not on historic state

doxy. In such circumstances, the Church, thinkers in the churches is compatible ments but its religious values.

as an ancient national institution, is bound with an absolute and steadfast loyalty to “Plain men will not draw the dis

to lose its prestige, and will deserve to the aims and ends for which the Churches tinctions which the Bishop of Ox lose it.”





DISCERNED BY A PHYSICIAN ORK, Play and Love- is the essential of that “more abundant "they all leave us rudderless and unthese are the three re life” which many modern prophets, satisfied without Prayer. They can atmedial agents constantly for example Ellen Key, "extol without tain creative power only in Worship, recommended by social defining":

which—inchoate or full formed—is the experts. To these Dr. “Every human being, man, woman and

source of all originality, because it Richard C. Cabot, assistant professor child, hero and convict, neurasthenic and

sénds us to our origin. The harder we of medicine at Harvard, adds a fourth deep-sea fisherman, needs the blessing of

work and play and the more intensely -Worship, which he describes as su God through these four gifts. With these we devote ourselves to whomever and premely indispensable to the vitality any life is happy despite sorrow and pain, whatever we love, the more pressing and resisting power we most need. In successful despite bitter failure. Without is our need for reorienting, recommita new book entitled, “What Men Live them we lapse into animalism or below ing, refreshing ourselves in an appeal By,” he draws upon his research into the

it. If you want to keep a headstrong, to God.” essential principles of mental healing and falling, these must be the elements fatuous youth from overreaching himself

There is a spiritual fatigue which Work, Play and Love, he says, are his

shows itself in loss of power, in posiof strength. When you try to put courage saints. One finds in them an outlet

tive nausea of existence. Dr. Cabot and aspiration into the gelatinous charfor devotion and gropes toward God. acter of the alcoholic or the street-walker,

emphasizes the value of prayer-pauses But when we assume that all true re you will fail unless you can give respon

and mountain - top prayer - vision, and ligion can be woven into these we fall sibility, recreation, affection, and through follows Professor Hocking in a theory into the same fallacy that certain teach them a glimpse of God. I do not believe of worship-cure: ers fall into who think that English that evolution, revolution, or decadence

“As the growth of a colony of bacteria composition can be taught by weaving have power to change these elemental

is checked by the chemical products of its it into history, science and philosophy. needs, ... In genuine emergencies and Vital religion is not acquired in that harness, material relief (food, rest, air, for those overdriven in their industrial own way of living, as there is something

in the very nature of work that calls way. Worship, prayer, direct comsleep, warmth) may be the first necessity,

(through fatigue) for rest, so there is munion with God, is an essential if we but unless we can give the vital nourish that in all Godless living which tends to are to secure that which we all know ment which I am now advising, all ma

draw us (through the pain and paralysis well enough that we want-food of the terial relief soon becomes a farce or a of spiritual fatigue) back to God. “Worsoul in health or disease. Work, Play, poison, just as medicine is in most chronic ship is the self-conscious part of the naLove and Prayer, says Dr. Cabot, are diseases a farce or a poison.”

tural recovery of value' in life, when it

has grown stale. For worship is the conof all times and all races in whom Work, Love and Play brace and re scious love of the Spirit of the Universe, character is an ideal. Their interplay enforce each other, yet, adds Dr. Cabot, and we need it regularly like food or sleep."





OF THE SOUL AFTER DEATH E MAY scientifically plains their interaction. It “may rea to be destroyed or rendered powerless by count upon indestruc- sonably be inferred to be a normal the decomposition of the material body. tible mentiferous” or specialization of the cosmic ether-ocean

When the earthly end comes to the body, psychic ether, filling the that fills astronomic space and which is

this psychic etheric organism may betake

itself to some inter-atomic spaces of the ultimate source of mundane en

more favorable environ

ment and may again clothe itself with a the brain and human body, as the seat ergy.” By diffusion through the or

new physical body.” of continued life, according to Dr. ganism it puts the soul into relation James Thompson Bixby, writing in with all the material parts. "It relieves Harper's Magazine. In discoveries re the opponent of materialism from sup- lopes of the human embryo are devel

Four prenatal membraneous envegarding electric constituents of atoms; posing a miraculous origin for the soul,

oped, absorbed or disrupted to proin the acknowledged existence of an by a divine creation out of non-reality.”

mote "universal cosmic undulatory ether” Further :

a higher and better organism

within. Dr. Bixby asks: pervading inter-stellar voids and every organic body; as well as in new knowl “Of the cubic contents of a human

“Why should the inclosing organism of edge of telepathic and mental thera- form, ninety-nine parts out of a hundred

the babe be supposed the final one any peutic states, Dr. Bixby (who is an are occupied by etheric or immaterial sub

more than the earlier envelopes? If each S.T.D. not an M.D.) finds that many stance, intermeshed with which are myriad

was provisional to a higher organism withof the chief laws of nature strongly currents and swirls of subtle imponder- in, why may not the present body be so? oppose the view that death ends all. able energies, accompanied at considerable

In humanity, the evolution process turned Dr. Bixby asserts that better evi- intervals by the atomic dots that supply inward, improving and elaborating the

. as dence is wanted than theological as

mind and spirit instead of the animal tric currents give symmetric forms to de- body. Simultaneously with this, may not surances of a future life, and he under

tached iron filings on a disc, or the viewtakes to educe reasons from such laws

the vital formative power have turned its less ether-waves give intelligible shapes and facts as modern science accepts.

course toward preparing within an invisto the loose metal parts in the receivers

ible etheric organism for the next onward That “something more” than matter of wireless messages, so it is the impon- metamorphosis? As it is illogical to inwhich physicists find in every human derable and intangible forces—etheric,

fer from the unconsciousness of sleep the being; which occupies far more space electric, vital and mental—that move and

cessation of the soul over night, so it is than all its corporeal particles; which

arrange so intelligently the disconnected equally illogical to infer from the uncon"forms a continuous substance, impon- atoms which surround or are interspersed sciousness of death that the soul has then

in the immaterial substance of our real derable, invisible, active, and, in its

reached an absolute end." personality. . . chief qualities, quite opposite to mat

"In this psychic ether-organism within ter,” Dr. Bixby identifies as a “menti

Unless there is continued life after the material organism there is present ferous ether,” a spiritual imponderable already during life a soul-body, a non

death for souls, Dr. Bixby declares that “substratum of the soul.” It holds the atomic substance, an active, coherent, con

"the vital evolution upon our globe will states of consciousness together and ex tinuous, and constructive energy not liable have been a senseless fiasco.

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CATASTROPHE UR novelists and dramatists parasite, has in her very little natural themselves feminists is made up of noble still rush in where sociolo- instinct for order. To her, religion has women who, revolting against inconsegists fear to tread. White brought the necessary element of stability quential existences, desire for themselves slavery having been, let us

in her various attitudes toward the duties an object in life fraught with greater rehope, disposed of for the

and responsibilities of life. For ages this sponsibilities. The other, an exceedingly

has been her bulwark, her defense against dangerous element, is made up of those time being, feminism comes to the fore

the world, and her protection from her- who desire not responsibilities but no reand clever novelists among the younger self. The effect of the rising wave of sponsibilities at all, and who seize upon writers are pushed forward as sociolog- agnosticism among women I believe will their newly-acquired liberty in order to ical experts on the subject.

be much further-reaching, therefore, than increase their opportunities for pleasure Mr. Johnson, author of “The Sala- in the case of men.”

and excitement.mander," finds the roots of feminism

To Mr. Johnson nothing is compar

The peril will increase, Owen Johnin religious agnosticism. Women are

son thinks, because this element has losing their faith and losing the dis- able in interest to this present feminist cipline and self-restraint that were the upheaval; it is a genuine revolution of not yet reached its full development. product of that faith. A man may lose ideas, and therein lies its greatest dan- Wild as are the desires of the femihis faith in religion and still retain a

ger. He even draws a parallel be- nists, they still have conservative insense of order and discipline. He gets

tween it and the earlier stages of the stincts; but what about the day when it elsewhere. But the “profoundly agFrench Revolution:

their children “have gone into the

world two generations removed from nostic class” which Mr. Johnson finds the feminists to be “seems to-day to go body of idealists the world has

“The Girondists-probably the greatest their own restraint”? its way without the slightest check, known-saw ideas they had so enia usias- symptoms of city life. He views with

Mr. Johnson specializes in social either from family, tradition, religion, tically launched submerged under the for alarm the new developments such as or much thought for public opinion.” rocity of the brute mobs which they them- the pleasure-seeking young girl who To a New York Times interviewer Mr. selves had set free.

“too often enters into marriage with Johnson explains the matter as fol “So with feminism. lows:

“The great danger to the idealist lies the lightness and calculation with which

with irresponsible fanatics, who can with she plans a week of pleasure”; the little "Woman, due to the fact that for cen difficulty be kept under control.

feminine agnostic who, peeping out of turies she has been almost a benevolent "The great division of those who call her Fifth Avenue motor car, "is in



quest of the adventure that she is com The solution of the problem arising reaction. If this awakening comes late, ing to feel is her right and her privi- from this rushing to extremes, Mr.

the outcome may be a reversion more lege as

violent than any Puritanical revolt the means of escape from the Johnson believes, “will be found in a

world has ever seen. boredom of not having anything to do deep religious revival—a revival along and of not believing in anything”; the

"Whether rightly or wrongly, man has different and broader lines, perhaps, always wanted woman to be better than increasing practice among even the

than any that has occurred in the past,” himself. He realized that in their formmost respectable and modest women of —a kind of compulsory revival:

ative period it is necessary for his chil"displaying themselves in public res

dren to be surrounded with good influtaurants (in God knows what com

“Man, in his self-sufficiency, may say, ences at home. When it is borne upon pany!) on the arms of dancing escorts

'I can do without religion, but when it him that woman has lost the one quality whom they hire by the hour or the

comes to a point where he will say to which enabled her to hold his reverence,

himself, in his awakening to the peril to his respect and his devotion, he himself afternoon, as one formerly might have

his ideals and to the race, 'But woman will impose terms that will result in a employed a detective to watch one's cannot do without faith,' then he himself return to customs which centuries have family jewels at a social festival.” will create the impulse necessary for a made normal.”






OLLEGE men used to be of the church and 502 are teachers in great fundamental truths of religion and obliged to go to chapel. these churches. “It is clearly evident,” for developing a strong leadership. The Now 30 per cent of the says Mr. Hughes, “that the churches liberal intellectual atmosphere of the unistate universities have cut have not kept pace with the growth of versity discourages the growth of narrow chapel exercises altogether; the universities and have, by their own

sectarianism, and there is so much vague 37 per cent of those still held occur neglect, lost much of their rightful many look upon loyalty to a church as

generalization regarding religion that very but once a week; in some state uni- leadership in education.”

evidence of narrowness. This sort of versities daily chapel means merely an The religious census of a big state teaching sends men into the world unassemblage to hear announcements or university-one to six or seven thou attached; it is a breadth of view that an occasional address, not even scrip- sand people—shows what churches have is narrowing in its results. It too often ture reading and prayer. "The percent enough students to call for the em leaves the graduates with only a general ages of chapel observances we figure ployment of a pastor and indicates the interest in religion as a subject for disout from data collected by Richard C. churches that can easily cooperate in a

cussion, but without either motive or plan

for Christian service.” Hughes, secretary of university work union enterprize. The student-body is for the Presbyterian Board of Educa- too large and complex to be dealt with tion. Mr. Hughes has made a “sur- by any one organization or church, “The problem will not be solved," vey” of religious conditions at state continues the report. “The solution of says Mr. Hughes, "until the local universities in which it is also brought this difficult problem must come through churches are developed as effective out that nearly half of the 7,545 faculty a new type of unselfish, active, daily agencies for religious education and the members of 47 state universities do cooperation of all the churches in in- students brought into these churches." not appear to belong to local churches terest in a given university.” A central or congregations. In census of clearing house is needed. “The student

“The universities are showing us the the religious preferences of 104,923 associations, by reason of their history way. They are beginning to deal directly state university students, 8,452 ex and organization, should be best fitted with every interest in the state except repressed none, and 28,550 more to perform this function, but to do this ligion. Through their research laboraaccounted for religiously in the “no will require a reorganization on tories, extension departments, experiment information” column.

democratic basis by which the accred- stations, the short courses for farmers, From Mr. Hughes's survey (pub- ited representatives of the churches housekeepers, and others, they are bringlished in full in The Biblical World) will come into its management. The

ing the results of modern scholarship diissues this indictment: Neglect of re- university pastor should be placed in rectly into the homes, the factories, the

farms, and all the industries of the state. ligion at the state universities is a the same relation to the work of the They are vitalizing the state with the grave defect in state-supported edu- association in the state university as spirit, the method, and the results of cation which it is up to the churches the president maintains in the church scholarship. It is the duty of the church to remedy. college."

to vitalize scholarship with the spirit of A few state institutions offer courses Mr. Hughes warns the churches that Christ. The university sends its experts in religious subjects and in some cases enter this field against emphasis upon

out to all parts of the state to meet the university credit given for courses sectarianism. But “the demand that all people directly, and then it brings the in religion provided by the churches unite in one church at the university This is a new movement and has not yet

people, old and young, into the university. on independent foundations; but it is and that all denominational lines be

reached all the universities, but it is sure pointed out that it is quite possible to obliterated—in short, that there be ac

to spread to all. The churches must folteach the material of religion with- complished at the university within the low the same plan, send their experts into out teaching religion. Chapel service, short period of the student's residence the university and bring the members of where maintained, is not a practicable what all Christendom has failed to ac the university into the churches. substitute for church service.

complish in centuries—cannot be said “The universities more than welcome Estrangement between the churches to meet the needs. Students are like the churches; they recognize the need and the campus increases with the other people, and this demand cannot

and their own limitations. President Van growth of the university. Only a be met.” He adds:

Hise, who has carefully studied the prob

lem and has had unusual opportunity for minority of the faculties take active

watching the methods and results of the part in the church life as officers and

"This demand, however, grows out of work by the churches, says that this work teachers. In 47 universities with 7,545 a feeling that the state university offers must be done by the churches if it is to in the faculties, only 726 are officers a unique opportunity for emphasizing the be done, and that it is better done than




if the university were free to employ in use, according to Mr. Hughes. He the state”; interdenominational cooperchaplains and direct the work itself. Re

enumerates: Preaching and teaching of ation in providing for the religious ligion is the business of the church, as it

a high order in the local church at the needs of students which include, “pubcan never be of the state.”

university center; willingness to take lic worship, instruction in the Bible and

students into the church life in the mis- other religious subjects, counsel in perThis new enterprize of the churches sionary spirit; employment of expertsonal religion and choice of vocation, in which some are succeeding needs Christian workers, “accredited ambas- and training for and practice in Chrisonly wise development of plans already sadors of the church at the court of tian social service.”

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ERMANS are excited over jority in Prussia in 1961, or 36 years in Protestant Germany is so much recent religious statistics later than the calculations of the Volks- greater than in the Roman Catholic showing Catholic increase zcitung. Johannes Kübel, a leading sections, the latter must and will gain in school population over Protestant church statistician, on the former with alarming rapidity."

Protestant, decrease in the cludes in the Chronik of Tübingen that Recent general statistics from allbirth-rate of Protestant compared to there are better grounds for believing Germany confirm the fear that the Catholic children, and relative decline that the Roman Catholic figures are condition is practically the same all of Protestant to Catholic population in correct than for believing in the cor over the country. In 1871 the Protthe land of Luther. On figures from rectness of those of the Protestant estant contingent was 64.89 per cent. Prussia, which constitutes two-thirds Früh. He maintains that by the end of the total population and the Roman of Germany, the Protestant Dr. Früh of the present century Germany will be Catholic was 33.56. There has been a fixes the date of overwhelming Catho- overwhelmingly Catholic.

steady and aggravating decline in the lic preponderance of school population Other scholars, also Protestant writ- former decade by decade, and in the Fatherland as early as 1961. ers, believe that these pessimistic fears equally decided gain in the latter, until

The discussion was begun by the are fully justified by the present birth at the present time the Protestants Kölnische Volkszeitung some months rates of the country. Johannes For- represent only 61.82 per cent. of the ago, which undertook to demonstrate berger has devoted a special pamphlet population, while the Roman Catholics that “if the present figures go on, then to this subject entitled “Decrease of can claim 36.31 per cent. in 1925 the Roman Catholic school Birth-rate and Confession” (Geburts Hermann Mulert, in the Christliche population of Prussia will be greater rückgang und Konfession") in which Welt, in article entitled, “Is than the Protestant.” What this means he shows that while there has been a Prussia Becoming Catholic?" ("Wird can be seen from the fact that for fully decrease in the birth-rates of Catholic Preussen Katholisch?), does not deny a hundred years the Protestant con Germany in recent years as compared the lessons of these statistics, but betingent in Prussia has been about twice with earlier decades, this decrease has lieves there are facts that make them as large as the Catholic. The Volks- been much smaller than among the less alarming. In the first place, he zeitung, which is, next to the Berlin Protestants. Some of the leading sta- shows that in non-Prussian Germany Germania, the leading Roman Catholic tistics in the case are the following: there has been even a retrogression journal of the country, points to Out of 1,000 births in Prussia, not of the Roman Catholic percentage the fact that in

were counting those from Jewish parentage between 1871 and 1910, namely from 1,434,101 more Protestant children in and “mixed marriages,” i. e., marriages 40.25 per cent. to 37.26, while the inthe schools of Prussia than Catholic; between Protestants and Roman Catho crease of Protestantism in these secin 1906 there were only 1,385,036, and lics, in 1875 there were 603 Protestant tions has been from 58.49 per cent. to in 1911 only 1,282,733. Accordingly in and 339 Roman Catholic children; in 61.13. Then he claims that the period : the five years from 1901 the Catholic 1890 the figures were 585 and 345; in covered by the statistics of the Kölcontingent has gained 49,065 on the 1900, 553 and 376; in 1905, 539 and nische Volkszeitung is too short to Protestant and from 1906 to 1911 has 390; in 1910, 523 and 404; in 1911, afford trustworthy conclusions. Furgained 102,303.

514 and 408. In ten years, it is pre- ther, the claim that by 1961 the CathoOfficial government statistics dicted even by Protestant writers, there lic school contingent in Prussia will,

more favorable to the Roman will be more Roman Catholic children be greater than the Protestant is too Catholic claims, as those of the 24th born than Protestant in the home-land hasty, as other factors may arise that of May, 1911, report 3,871,444 Protes- of the Reformation. Kübel says, “these would modify the present tendency. tant pupils and 2,647,417 Roman Catho- figures teach a hard lesson." The Twelve years ago Naumann predicted, lic.

only comfort that Protestants are able that by 1925 Germany would have The same problem has been ap to find is the fact that much eighty million inhabitants; but the presproached from a different standpoint larger percentage of children born from ent decrease in birth-rate shows that but with similar results by Dr. Ewald “mixed marriages” become Protestant these calculations will not prove to be Früh, in the Christliche Freiheit, who than Roman Catholic, and the number true. shows that the Roman Catholics, espe- of "conversions” each year from the In this connection Forberger emphacially of Prussia, are increasing at a Roman Catholic church is much larger sizes the "Slavic danger," on account much more rapid rate than are the than from the Protestant to the Catho- of the phenomenal birth-rate of those Protestants. He goes back to the year lic. Forberger adds: “Not even the nations. In 1871 the Germanic races 1886 and shows that down to 1911 the consolation that Protestant quality will of Europe numbered eighty-four milRoman Catholic school population has outweigh Catholic quantity is left, as lion souls and the Slavic seventy-four increased 53.2 per cent. but the Prot- statistics show that the higher edu- millions; in 1911 there were one hunestant only 26.4, and he reaches the cational institutions are being crowded dred and twenty-seven million Germans conclusion that at the present rate the by the Roman Catholics. But as long and one hundred and forty million Roman Catholics will be in the ma as the present decrease of birth-rate Slavs.

1901 there




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