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the extreme disparity between the size vented any supply being secured from der its wing for some years and which of the German navy and our own would
overseas, while the early events in the has given fifty thousand dollar prizes encourage this method of continuing or
Russian campaign throughout Galicia to aviators. Those, it says, who have hastening the process of attrition' by has at one stroke cut off the great in- studied the problem of the airship in which Germany hopes to strike a balance.”
of supply-a source Germany are of opinion that, owing to
doubtless deemed amply sufficient for the impossibility of taking correct aim In meeting a raid by Zeppelins all war needs. Hence it is all the more from a great height with shells or whether over her fleet or over her cap- surprising that a better organized ef- other projectiles dropped from Zepital, England will rely in part, says the fort was not made to insure it in the pelins, massed rifle fire from ten thouexpert of the London Times, upon her
case of that nation above all others sand expert riflemen who have pracaeroplanes. The advantage possessed engaged in aerial campaigning, the na ticed night and day firing at these big by the aeroplane over the airship is a
tion which has set most store by the balloons is one of the best means of matter of high climbing To climb
use of the internal combustion engine dealing with them: over your enemy in the air is practically in all its ever widening applications. to escape him in a battle, and, if that Even so, there yet remains to Germany “As to bomb-dropping, much nonsense does not of itself insure safety, the the means of working her motors on
has been written. Unless the Zeppelin higher aeroplane can, by diving, get alcohol, of which she is a big producer.
can come low down to its object it canan enormous speed if escape by speed But for the purposes of aviation and
not accurately drop bombs or other exbe enjoined. By being above the enemy for all the uses to which the internal easily be destroyed by massed rifle fire.
plosives. If it comes low down it can all methods of attack are made avail- combustion engine is put when it is in the recent destruction of the Düsselable and easier. The carbine and the taxed to the utmost, the engineering dorf airship-shed by Lieutenant Marix revolver remain useful and to them are
world in general has not yet found al the inhabitants of the town noticed that added the multiple darts which are
cohol as serviceable outside the labora- he was flying very low, and indeed he is dropped as well as the use of bombs
tory as are those fluids of which the stated to have descended within five hunand grappling lines from a higher aero
basis is petroleum. It is not impos- dred feet of his objective. Not one of plane. By diving into his line of flight sible that Germany has discovered the bombs dropped from German aerothe enemy can be headed off unless he
some new method of working her air- planes that have visited Paris has hit its be prepared to sacrifice himself man
mark, with the exception of the one which craft on alcohol-an interesting posfor man, and at the same time his visit
fell on Notre Dame Cathedral, and the sibility. can be rendered useless by preventing
trifling damage which that did is clearly
The noted expert just named writes shown in a photograph.
the threatened Zeppelin raid upon the we are taking against Zeppelins are as
well known in Germany as they are in "It has also been said that a Zeppelin
this country. (2) Gasbag aircraft can be cannot rise higher than 6,000 feet. Were “These giant rigid aircraft are not pri- destroyed from below by rifle fire and
this believed the steps taken to guard marily intended for service against us in elevated machine guns, and from above against such craft would be totally inade western France, where the Allies have by aeroplanes. (3) The fullest precau
quate. The dissemination of such a no- plenty of dirigible balloons at their dis- tions should be made instantly, and extra tion is playing into the hands of the en posal, as well as fleets of the finest aero vigilance observed on calm nights, not Semy. One important method of aeroplane planes and most skilled aviators. The only in London, but in all great cities, and attack on rigid airships being to rise above Zeppelins are to be used in cooperation at Harwich, Dover, Chatham, Portsmouth, them, and to do this equipped with a with the fleet for occasional raids, more Hull, Rosyth, etc. The writer, who has somewhat heavy apparatus, calculations or less of a surprise character, and chiefly watched many kinds of aircraft at work, Pbased on this fictitious limit to an air over areas known to possess no adequate can vouch that during the approaching ship's abilities to climb would render this means of defense against much modes of stormy weather the steering of Zeppelins form of attack powerless.
attack, and for operations against the Rus to any point of Great Britain with any "Some of our American friends seek- sians, on the German assumption that that chance of safe return is a matter of iming to warn us of what possible dangers nation is at some disadvantage in the mat mense difficulty.” rere ahead, and having gained the im ter of aerial equipment, an assumption that there are 50 rigid airships which must by no means be accepted as
As it is scarcely probable, says Lonvailable to the enemy, have so reported. correct. The significance of the latest don Engineering, that the aerial fightle sho uld probably not mind very much Zeppelin raid by night is that it has again ing machines can be furnished with there
were, but knowing that rigid air- occurred at a time when there is practi- complete bullet-proof protection, at rips are not collapsible we can count the cally no moonlight, just as during the first least such as can be considered effectossible maximum by the number of series of attacks over Antwerp.
Eviheds, without any reference to the secret dently Germany does not like to use her
ive at short range, we may take it ervices, and be assured that a handsome Zeppelins at night except in circumstances
that it is unimportant whether the buloubling or tripling of the actual figures in which she can approach with every
lets used in its destruction be of the as been resorted to by those Germans prospect of effective concealment.
She usual British 215 grains or the 162 vho wished to create a ‘moral effect on has her Zeppelin fleet in readiness, tho grains of the Mannlicher. At present heir hearers.”
they have scarcely been seen by Sir John there are few cases in which the auto
French's force. We may be sure that matic or semi-automatic 1-pounder can A supreme difficulty to Germany in should any appreciable success attend the compete with the machine rifle-caliber he matter of her Zeppelins, insists that present strong reinforcement, notably to
gun as an aeroplane arm. If such a amed expert H. Massac Buist in the General von Kluck's army, such as would
thing existed as an impact-fuse of such -ondon Post, has to do with the supply enable Germany to take the offensive in
sensitiveness that it would explode of oil. It seems established, according preciable progress back again towards a ding-dong war, and begin to make ap
with certainty on encountering balloono him, that at the end of last April Paris, the idea of the long-promised aerial
cloth, the I-pounder would be an exhere were in the German empire only raid over London would not be kept very cellent weapon for the destruction of he normal fuel supplies for airships far in the background.”
the airship or dirigible: every particle ind other uses, representing the aver
of a shell exploding within the envege rate of consumption in times of A far more emphatic statement of lope is effective, and the fragment of cace. The effective blockade to which the case against Germany's Zeppelin a shell leaves wounds in the envelope
and Austria-Hungary have raid upon the English by land or sea and gives rise to loss of gas of a more Subjected by the fleets of the al- appears in the London Mail, a paper serious character than is due to the es since the outbreak of war has pre- which has taken aerial navigation un rifle or machine-gun bullet.
TRIUMPH OF THE CHEMICAL ENGINEER IN THE
BELGIAN CAMPAIGN HEMICAL engineering has at the rate of 150 yards per second, seems from imperfectly exploded material. won such unexampled vic- very slow. Its introduction for fuse pur; Nitric acid has a way of staining the tories in the many Belgian poses has led to the adoption of 'T.N.T.' skin much as tincture of iodine stains battles, we are assured by as an explosive by itself, and judging by it. The power of the shell, however
, the London Telegraph, as to experiments which the writer has con
is gigantic. If its charge were burned ducted with this material, there is no ompel a revision of all modern tactics.
doubt as to its tremendous effectiveness in away quietly it would send some mil. n fact, this stupendous world war this new capacity.
lions of cubic feet of gas into the air. ould not be carried on were it not
"With regard to explosives generally, If it be detonated in a thousandth part or the instruments of destruction de- and 'T.N.T.' in particular, these are built of a second, those millions of cubic ised by the engineer recentiy. Fun upon a nitrate base, and consequently, as feet of gas, with their steel casings, amentally, these all depend upon ex natural nitrates are a diminishing quan- crush everything in their immediate losives. It suffices to recall that some
tity, the production of artificial nitrates vicinity to the finest powder and make f the first warlike acts on the part is becoming a vital matter, and in this
a tremendous noise besides. The milif Belgium were the blowing up of country particularly we could have commenced the present war
tary expert of the London Standard
, ridges, tunnels and viaducts to the ably had it been possible to produce here
who recently investigated this theme, otal value of no less than $300,000,000 in unlimited quantities the nitrates nec
makes these observations: y the use of high explosives. That
essary for the manufacture of our exuch work is possible is a result of the plosives. So far the commercial develop- of high explosives believe that 'dynamite
“Many people who have no experience nventiveness of the chemical engineer, ment of the artificial nitrate industry has
strikes downwards.' Neither dynamite A charge of the explosive must first, been carried out practically entirely on f course, be inserted in or placed in the Continent, in spite of the fact that particular direction. All strike all round.
nor any other explosive strikes in any ctual contact with the construction to
most of the pioneering work was done in If their explosion is quick they expand e demolished. Hence suitable this country.”
themselves in the air, just as much as in angements must be made for the safe
the solid rocks.
Those German shells, propelled from ring of the explosive. In destroying the huge howitzers of which we read so
“The effect that men see is on the rock, brickwork railroad bridge, for ex
not on the air; but when dynamite is much, contain, then, a charge of which carefully exploded inside a sheet of steel mple, charges of ammonal, or of some
the main part is this tri-nitro-toluene. it grinds it up in every direction, and igh explosive not sensitive to shock, It is a bright yellow substance that probably peppers a lot of steel dust on re or concussion, but which can be
looks very much like tropical sugar and anyone standing 100 yards away. eadily detonated, are placed at interis just as harmless when let alone. It
“A hole made by a high explosive shell als about the structure. In each of is not easy to make and not easy to
in an infantry entrenchment is therefore hese charges it has been customary to destroy. Put a light to it and it will
infinitely less destructive than one made lace a detonator, these being laid in
by the same kind of shell in a battleship. flare up but precipitate no violent exosition while the bridge is still in use.
"Our men were taught this in the Boer The preparations of the Germans for with a detonator-just like the cap at plosion. Encase it in a shell of steel
war, when they found out that lyddite he destruction of a city in Belgium the end of a cartridge—and it will make
very seldom killed anyone. It frightened
a hundred, possibly killed two, crushed o not involve any disuse of the struc
a tremendous noise. Moreover, it will many rocks, and stained every organic ures to be demolished. The sidewalks Te simply taken up and replaced over neighborhood. do a lot of damage in its immediate thing—tree, grass, horse, or man—an in
tense yellow. he explosive:
No shell of this kind can ever stop
“Lyddite, like melinite, is a form of pic
ric acid. The only difference between “There is consequently a possibility of steady infantry. We hear stories of men
this and the German shell-charge is that anger even tho every care may be taken turning yellow, when they have been while the English and French is made out prevent any of the detonators becom
near an explosion, but this is probably of carbolic acid the German is made out ng fired prematurely. Fuses, either slow
due to some action of the nitric acid of a light coal oil, known as toluene—not r rapid, are, of course, connected up to ach of the charges, and when everything
ready they are ignited, communicating turn with the detonators, each of which res the explosive with which it is in con-ct. The danger of using several detoators, which generally have to be fixed ome time prior to the actual explosion, in be eliminated by the use of a nd of fuse, which requires only one de-nator however many charges of exploves it may be intended to fire simultaeously. This new fuse is simply a thin ad pipe filled with a coal tar product nown as tri-nitro-toluene. This chemal, tho a high explosive when detonated,
perfectly harmless under all ordinary -nditions of usage, and cannot be fired ecept by the explosion in actual contact ith it of a fulminating detonator, which
placed at the operator's end of the .N.T.' fuse. "This fuse, in addition to its safety, has e advantage of flashing at the extraornary speed of nearly four miles per cond. Compared with this speed the
The great German siege guns are referred to by the British troops as Jack Johnsons because ual type of 'instantaneous' fuse, burning
they occasion such a big smoke.
benzene. The difference may seem subtle, sives shattering one statue seldom hurt arc is obtained by the use of thin arcs but it gives all the difference in the world its next-door neighbor.”
up to twenty feet in length, around in the explosive effect.
which air is circulated in a compara"Whichever high explosive should be
Three leading electrical processes are tively narrow iron tube which constiused, either the shaly flakes of picric acid
in operation for the manufacture of tutes the furnace. In the Pauling apor the yellow grains of tri-nitro-toluene, they must be fused, poured into a shell
artificial nitrates. They differ chiefly, paratus an arc flame is produced by the of steel, and fitted with a suitable deto- indeed almost entirely, in their method use of water-cooled electrodes of the nator. In each case the explosion of a of producing the electrical arc which, "horn" type, and in each case the coolshell makes a terrible noise and causes in- working in an electric furnace, causes ing and absorption of the gases follow tense local destruction.
the atmospheric nitrogen to combine to on very similar lines. The main prod“Against infantry or cavalry widely form the nitrogen product essential for ucts of these processes are four in spread it depends for its effect on the making explosives. In the Birkeland- number—nitric acid, calcium nitrate, nerve-shattering noise. Against a war
Eyde process air, in a firebrick-lined ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate. ship or against a fort it depends on its furnace, is forced around a circular The net result is to render battle-fields grinding power.
"Our men [the British] refuse to have sheet of arc flame by an alternating of this war a series of vast open-air their nerves shattered, but the ruined current of 5,000 volts and in a constant chemical laboratories in which every walls of Rheims Cathedral will testify magnetic field. In the Schönherr fur- demonstration is highly empirical. Its for many years to come that the explo- nace lengthy contact of the air with the scientific importance is obvious.
WHY THE NAPOLEONIC IDEA
NAPOLEONIC IDEA MAY RENDER THE
GREAT WAR A DEADLOCK N THOSE discussions of the war “Napoleon is the creator of modern But there is a deeper, graver reason. Naby the military experts of Europe He first organized the lines of poleon had realized the dream of the prewhich form so conspicuous a
communication and made the line of op- ceding generation, that of offensive war feature of newspapers abroad,
erations the essential element of his doc- vigorously conducted, driving the enemy
trine. He invented the services of ex to battle or to the frontier. . That was there emerges more and more a tendency to dispute regarding the Na- ploration and protection. The system of his masterpiece, and he is identified with
the staff he found ready to his hand, his it. He did not create a second. In 1812 poleonic conception of battle. All the fresh contribution to it being the employ- and 1813 he practised the same kind of authorities agree that as yet the great ment of aides-de-camp to be the bearers operations as in 1796 and 1805. But the struggle has exemplified the Napoleonic of his orders and his thoughts. No com conditions were different; they did not idea. England, France, Germany and mander has ever taken so much pains to lend themselves to prompt and decisive Russia alike profess to be conducting communicate his thought full and entire warfare because the armies were maneutheir respective projects in strictest ac
to the commandants of his army corps. vering in immense spaces with unlimited cordance with those fundamental prin- He gave his marshals all possible initia- lines of retreat." ciples which from the famous Italian tive, far more than Moltke left to the commanders of his armies. It is not
Here we have a hint respecting one campaign to the battle of Waterloo are
consideration which begins to occupy true that he kept his marshals under a exemplified at all stages of the Cor- tutelage which rendered them incapable the military experts occasionally. Is sican's career.
For instance, there are of acting independently. The marshals the war proceeding in too blind a subno councils of war in the accepted of 1812 and 1813, except Ney, were not servience ? Napoleon, in the words of sense. The great general staff at Berlin those of 1805 and 1806, and there had been the greatest student of his strategy and dictates neither the strategy nor the no opportunity to train them.
tactics in France, Lieutenant-Colonel J. tactics, notwithstanding insinuations to
“On the whole and in detail, from Colin, solved one problem which had the contrary. The French troops are
whatever point of view it is regarded, absolutely under the orders of General Napoleon's warfare is profoundly differ: preoccupied a generation or two. He Joffre. The Minister of War in Paris ent from that of all the generals of pre
could go no further. Having created
Military history falls into a system of principles and of procedure gives no orders. In deference to the
two periods, of which the first goes from he was unable to improvize another in Napoleonic idea that one bad general the earliest times to Frederic the Great; the presence of circumstances that reis better than two good ones, Sir John the second begins with Bonaparte's first quired it. Napoleon talks always of French is a subordinate to General campaigns. Bonaparte had the good, for- system in the science of war and of its Joffre. In Germany every army takes tune to rise at the very moment when the guiding principles. In the conduct of its orders from the Emperor. The conprogress accomplished in the art of war
his campaigns he is always guided by ference for the formulation of plans of sampaign has been rigidly suppressed this revolution had only been prepared
by principles. The war unfolding itself To this extent the authorities, whether . he to cre
before our eyes is an exemplification of ate and invent more than any other gen
on land. we turn to the military expert of the
Napoleon's favorite eral.
principles are to have all your forces Paris Figaro, of the London Times or of the Berlin Vossische Zeitung, are
“How is his genius to be reconciled united under a single command, to
with the repeated disasters of 1812, 1813, have only one center of operations alagreed. This does not mean a blind 1814, and 1815? His skill in execution ways covered or protected against raids.
never greater than in these fatal . The faults which he most censures are manders in the field. It signifies sim- years.
His maneuvers were never more
the division of the forces or of the comply that the commander-in-chief carries brilliantly conceived or more perfectly exbut his own ideas of what is best in
ecuted. Where, then, is the cause of his mand, the absence of a fortified center stead of accepting a plan made for him reverses? First of all in the men. Of
of operations and the loss of the line py others. Moreover, his instruments
of operations. In the region of the the Grand Army Napoleon alone was left. nust be of his own choosing. This is
He gives a command neither to Davout moral element he is supreme. He has the essence of the Napoleonic idea. In leading rôles had to be given to supernor to Soult, and Lannes is dead. The analyzed the impressions made on the
hearts of the combatants, especially of
of military expert, Spenser Wilkinson, nor spanies the fatiguers to the man army many of his resolves are based on his
of 400,000 men melts away in two months. knowledge of the human heart. This is
subservience on the part of corps com
which we find in the London Post:
water is always imprisoned between the It was formed in middle Tertiary times,
t he called the divine part of the emy be well collected and the French “From the beginning it is a kind of nce of war and he treated it with army superior, Napoleon advances along beating, which he will resume immediately same logic as all the rest. Logic one side of the theater of war. He seizes after the battle. Before the battle Na method are the essence of his mind. if possible the barrier formed by a river poleon usually keeps the bulk of his forces does nothing without system, noth- upon the enemy's line of retreat, partly to collected in a small space, with one army that is not based on principles :*
cut off that retreat, partly to limit the corps detached by itself, five, seven or
enemy's movements and to have elements fourteen miles away on a wing if the vicn the offensive, Napoleon generally of certitude in his own final calculations. tory is to be determined by a turning ares two centers of operations, forti- Then he attacks without waiting for the movement. In the battle the attack de places, which will permit of a change illusory reports of the hours that imme- livered against the flank of the enemy, e line of operations. To begin with, diately precede the collision. "If the en already occupied by the combat in front -ssembles the army on an extended emy be divided, Napoleon throws himself of him, disorganizes the enemy materially then quickly contracts it into a space between the two parts of the adverse army and morally. This is the moment to conor three marches wide and two to beat them in turn. In either case he quer by reanimating the struggle along the hes deep, and without interrupting the keeps the army extended over a vast whole front and by producing a vigorment begins his advance. If the en space, ready to oppose the enemy's move ous effort at the point judged to be the APOLEON. Par Lt. Col. J. Colin. Paris :
ments in a great part of the theater of op most sensitive by the crushing fire of the slot. erations.
battery—a great battery." CRITICAL FACTORS IN THE SHACKLETON ANTARCTIC
EXPEDITION LIZZARDS, the pack ice and the large deflecting force of the earth's low temperature is reached, and consedifficulties presented by the rotation so near to the Pole, the air can quently sea ice when new and thin is geological formations of the not move from south to north but is
never hard and rigid like fresh-water ice
. Antarctic cause grave concern driven towards the west. There is at
As a result ice even four or more inches among scientists regarding the present reason to infer that the area
thick is for sledging by no means safe, Inies of the latest expedition to the of wind disturbance over the Antarctic would be sufficient to support a regiment
whereas the same thickness of fresh ice h Polar regions. A few days be- is much greater than previous records of soldiers."
his departure to the Antarctic last have established. The route taken by th, Sir Ernest Shackleton, in com Amundsen to the Pole seems at least Grave concern has been inspired in d of the present British exploration partially affected. The critical period Great Britain by the intention of Sir y, observed that from all accounts for the Shackleton expedition, there- Ernest Shackleton to winter in the Ant
is to be a very heavy ice season fore, will be in the blizzard season. arctic under conditions that may make ne farthest south. The impression There is reason to conjecture, as Sir communication with him difficult. He onfirmed by observations of the Ernest himself admitted, that the ice will not be able to send messages northtity of pack ice reported by navi- will be found in an especially difficult ward for some months after severing rs below the South American con
before the great barrier is contact with the outside world. The nt. Shackleton hopes to winter in reached. The first embarrassment may character of the region he invades is seventy-seventh degree south lati- present itself in the form of what is known geologically in a general way,
There is much doubt regarding called pack ice. Sir Ernest Shackleton but its details are believed to be greatly apacity to get his ship through the will push south to examine the pack to modified from year to year with the :
ice and even greater doubt on the ascertain whether it is loose enough progress of one blizzard after another. ect of blizzards. If the reports to go through. In the words of Pro- That the number and distribution of ng their way into London Nature fessor Charles S. Wright:
these blizzards has a real effect upon .ccurate, these reports being based
the climate of Australia and the adjai meteorological conditions in Tas “Pack ice, in distinction to fast ice, cent land surfaces can hardly be ia and New Zealand, the whole is not bound to the shore, but moves doubted and it is therefore evident that arctic continent is undergoing under the influence of local currents and a close study of the subject will give ked disturbance. Blizzards arrive wind. ...
results of the very greatest importance. le Antarctic Ocean with tremendous “The process of freezing is a very in
The matter is to receive adequate atence. Every recent work on Ant
teresting one to watch in cold, calm
tention from the experts accompanying
As the temperature falls the c exploration teems with instances hese tremendous blizzards.*
sea becomes covered with small scalelike the expedition. The geological forma
plate crystals up to one inch across of tion of the region is bound, however, ne cause of these great blizzards
a delicate fernlike structure. They gen- to make the task one of tremendous the reason why they should occur the western half only of that great many are imprisoned in an approximately arate into parties
. Professor Grifich erally float flat upon the surface, but difficulty, especially if the explorers Sep barrier which is such a character- vertical position. After the surface be Taylor has these notes on the local feature of the Antarctic continent,
comes covered, the ice then grows in the conditions: : for the present, observes Profes- ordinary way by accretion from below. G. C. Simpson, of the unfortunate In the initial stages, when the ice is only
"The great earth movements which asan inch in thickness, the feltlike mass on t expedition, remain a mystery. It the surface has little rigidity, and even
fected Australia in middle and late Ter
. ars that the chief factor is the air
tiary times also affected America
. A the barrier itself. This air cools down under the influence of taes well with-west and depressed the east in both elim
up to 3 inches thick moves freely up and readjustment of equilibrium raised the 2 much more than does the air over out losing its coherence in any way. Ross Sea. In consequence there is "Sea ice is quite different in its prop- consisting of ancient rocks which have zion of relatively low pressure over erties from the ice formed on a pond or
been planed down to a uniform level by sea. Into this region the air from lake of fresh water, owing to the fact the normal agents of erosion—by rivers jarrier tends to move, but, owing to that some of the salt in solution in sea
wind, etc.—is an example of a pene-plain. ott's LAST EXPEDITION.
individual crystals in the sea ice. This and bears all the evidence of old age in Mead.
imprisoned salt between the crystals does
By Sir Ernest
not freeze in contact with ice till a fairly now the rivers are cutting it down."
a land surface. It has been elevated and
EART OF THE ANTARCTIC. leton.
AN ENGLISH REVELATION OF GERMANY'S IMPERIAL
the fifth century made the great error. ends, is the startling message of an
be the triumph of German culture, of the They conquered Rome, but, dazzled by English scholar to the British Empire. German world-vision in all the phases and Rome's authority, they adopted the reThe series of addresses in which this departments of human life and energy, in ligion and the culture of the vanquished. phase of “inevitable war” between religion, poetry, science, art, politics, and Germany's own deep religious instinct, England and Germany is brought out social endeavor.
her native genius for religion, manifested by the late Professor J. A. Cramb, of
“The characteristics of this German in her creative success (note the witness Queens College, London, has now
world-vision, the benefits which its pre- of Gothic architecture), was arrested,
dominance is likely to confer upon man stunted, thwarted. been published in a small volume de
But having once clared to be “the book of the hour” by instead of falsehood in the deepest and that faith, and for more than thirty gen.
kind, are, a German would allege, truth adopted the new faith, she strove to live the London Guardian. That church
gravest preoccupations of the human erations she has struggled and wrestled paper also says, “we are inclined to
mind; German sincerity instead of Brit to see with eyes that were not her eyes, think that it will survive the hour on ish hypocrisy; Faust instead of Tartuffe.” to worship a God that was not her God, its own merits.” The Boston Tran
to live with a world-vision that was not script reviewer is of the opinion that Professor Cramb says that whenever her vision, and to strive for a heaven "never has an Englishman before so
he has put to any of the adherents of that was not her heaven. . . entered into the German point of view, this ideal the further questions, “Where
"The seventeenth century fung off never has the German passion for em
Rome; the eighteenth undermined Galiin actual German history do you find
lee itself; Strauss completed the task that pire been so sympathetically and so your guarantee for the character of Eichhorn began; and with the opening of powerfully explained.” Joseph H. this spiritual empire; Is not the true the twentieth century Germany, her long Choate, ex-United States Ambassador rôle of Germany cosmopolitan and travail past
, is reunited to her pristine to Great Britain, declares, in his in- peaceful; Are not Herder and Goethe genius, her creative power in religion and troduction to the American edition, its prophets ?” he has met with one in- thought.” that it is a book every American should variable answer: read because it explains very lucidly
Thus the new movement represents the deep-seated cause of the present “The political history of Germany, from
a wrestle of the German intellect not war, “which is a life and death strug- the accession of Frederick in 1740 to the only against Rome but against Chrisggle between two mighty powers, each present hour, has admittedly no meaning tianism itself. The earnest and pasentitled to the respect and admiration
unless it be regarded as a movement to sionate mind of young Germany asks, of the onlooking world.” Mr. Choate
wards the establishment of a world-em- Must Germany submit to this alien considers it a timely warning to us
pire, with the war against England as the creed derived from an alien clime? against lack of preparedness for war.
necessary preliminary. Similarly the Must she forever confront the ages the
curve which during the last century and borrower of her religion, her The German Religion of Valor Pro
a half Germany has traced in religion and fessor Cramb derives chiefly from the metaphysical thought, from Kant and genius for religion numbed and parawoluminous works of the German his- Hegel to Schopenhauer, Strauss, and lyzed? corian Heinrich von Treitschke (un- Ni sche, has not less visibly been a cranslated for English readers) and movement towards a newer world-reli
"Hence the significance of Nietzsche. other German writers of the same gion, a newer world-faith. That fatal Kant compromizes, timid and old; Hegel
finds the Absolute Religion in Christianschool.
We gather from Professor tendency to cosmopolitanism, to a dreamCramb that General von Bernhardi's world, which Heine derided and Treitschke ity; Schopenhauer turns to the East and ooks show the supreme application of deplores, does, indeed, still remain, but at thirty-one adapts the Upanishads to the how transfigured.”
western mind; David Friedrich Strauss, he religion of valor to the “tran
while denying and rejecting the metacendent” business of imperial war and hat Nietzschean philosophy tends to
What definitely is to be Germany's physic of Christianity, clings to the ethics.
But Nietzsche? Nietzsche clears away ree the German spirit for the titanic Professor Cramb phrases Germany's dred years; he attempts to set the Ger
part in the future of human thought? the accumulated rubbish' of twelve hunTay. Just as the greatness of Germany answer in part as follows: 5 found in the governance of Germany
man imagination back where it was with
Alaric and Theodoric, fortified by the exy Prussia, so the greatness of the -orld is to be found in the predom- thought that creative rôle in religion the darkness unaided, unappalled, trium
“It is reserved for us to resume in perience of twelve centuries to confront mance of German culture, of the Ger- which the whole Teutonic race abandoned phant, great and free. nan mind—in a word, of the German fourteen centuries ago. Judea and Gali “Thus while preparing to found a haracter.
lee cast their dreary spell over Greece world-empire, Germany is also preparing
and Rome when Greece and Rome were to create a world-religion. No cultured “This world-dominion of which Ger- already sinking into decrepitude and the European nation since the French Revomany dreams is not simply a material do- creative power in them was exhausted, lution has made any experiment in creninion. Germany is not blind to the less when weariness and bitterness wakened ative religion. The experiment which