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TURKEY'S MYSTIFYING ADVENTURE AS A

BELLIGERENT AS

S A result of a family council held in Yildiz Kiosk All that happens now in Constantinople is carefully

a few weeks ago, the Sultan of Turkey, desirous watched from Rome, observes the Tribuna, for the of ending the dictatorship of Enver Pasha, his master action of Italy is to a great extent dependent upon ful Minister of War, proclaimed the heir to the throne, what Turkey attempts. Turkey, for her part, seems Prince Yussuf Izzedin, commander of the Ottoman to find in Germany her best friend for the time being, forces on land and sea. Enver Pasha declined to be and no faction at Constantinople repudiates her altosuperseded so summarily. The outcome was a series gether. There are elements in the Sultan's court of palace revolutions during which a fresh face was which would come to some arrangement with Engput upon the Ottoman Empire nearly every day. When land, as the Tanin itself admits. This paper makes one faction gains the ascendant, Turkey seems to have out a case which it bases upon British admissions. gone to war with Russia. The triumph of the other Little more than a year ago the four Christian states faction results in pacific declarations of Turkish neu of the Balkans entered into a compact for the spoliatrality, with vague apologies for whatever battles have tion of Turkey and in pursuance of that aim forced a been fought the day before. Thus is the kaleidoscope war for which there was not even a nominal justificain Constantinople explained by French dailies, which tion. None of the allies had any grievance for which assure us that the Sultan, a prisoner in his palace, can they claimed redress, nor did they take the trouble not rid himself of the Germans. At least that is what to allege any. Europe, having tried in vain to hold he says, according to the Paris Temps, when the British back the belligerents, declared that at any rate they complain of German officers aboard Turkish warships. should get nothing for their pains, that no territorial The statement that Mahmoud V. cannot rid himself of changes would be permitted and that the integrity of his German friends is plausible to the Manchester Turkey, guaranteed by the treaty of Berlin, to which Guardian. The Sultan has fallen so low that the Ecu all the great powers were parties, would be maintained. menical Patriarch of Constantinople remains in town The Balkan governments treated this declaration with despite the appeals of Mahmoud V. that he leave. The scorn. They seized all the territory to which they government of Turkey amounts to nothing more than could gain access. Why should Turkey alone—Turkey the military clique that can seize the palace and hold it whose integrity has been solemnly guaranteed by the for the time being.

concert of Europe—show a scrupulous respect for pub

lic law and international morality?
Turkey Evolves a Strong Man.
E
NVER PASHA is the statesman and soldier in

Enver Pasha as the Turkish whose hands the fate of Turkey as a belligerent is

Napoleon. presumed to rest. ago, since which time the extremist section of the press in Constantinople, the Ikdam, the Tasviri-Eftiar and of the clique to which they belong, a prestige sadly dimothers of a Pan-Islamite tendency, would seem to have med by the failure of their military enterprizes last committed themselves to a holy war. Now, they hint, year. They are playing a dangerous game, declares the hour for Islam has struck. Those who have fol the London Post. They think differently. The treaty lowed the utterances of the Turkish press of late have of London seemed last year to have settled once and seen therein evidence that the secret camarilla which for all the relations between Turkey and her neighbors. operates in connection with the Young Turks was ready She was confirmed in possession of Constantinople and for a stroke. The masses of the Moslems are for the the territory enclosed within the Enos-Midia line. It most part too ignorant, says the Paris Débats, to have was assumed that in future her government would turn any considered political or military ideas of their own all its attention to the consolidation and development of regarding the European situation ; but they can be relied the considerable empire left to her on the continent of upon to fall in with the views of Enver Pasha. The Turkish organs just named summon the faithful to remember the lost provinces in the Balkans now that the infidel is divided. They utter warnings regarding the designs of a great power upon Constantinople. If the present inactivity of Turkey be not ended soon, the Sultan may be driven out of Europe.

. Enver Pasha holds all these opinions.

He became Minister of War months ENVER PASHA and his associates feel at last that

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Turkey Sees Her Chance in the

European War.
TURKEY might be a formidable

factor in the European crisis were she not distracted by the internecine feud. Altho this view is put forward by the newspaper organs of the allies, it finds support in Italian comment.

GOING TO “POT”!

We're doing THE AUSTRO-GERMAN EAGLES (in the soup): “Come in with us, old chap!

splendidly !"

-John Bull (London).

altho just what she has been doing with her army in the past six weeks is not known in western Europe. When the extremists gain the ascendant in the palace of Mahmoud V. there is a sort of advance by the army and a kind of raid by the navy. News of a defeat sustained by the Kaiser in Russia brings the moderates to the front in Constantinople and the Sultan professes ignorance of what has been done by the Young Turks in the way of bombardments and battles. The Ottoman government has been accustomed so long to the discord among the great powers of Europe and it has played one of them against another so long and so successfully, notes our French contemporary, that the comedy proves fairly successful. The allies profess to feel that the end of Turkey in Europe has come-a prophecy or a statement of fact according to the sympathies of the newspaper making it.

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HERE GOES

What Will Happen to

Constantinople?
FOR purposes of general convenience, Constanti-

nople, the city desired by so many nations, was left in the hands of its Ottoman rulers, remarks the London Telegraph, with just sufficient territory to permit its adequate defense. Turkey was to be confirmed

and safeguarded in her Asiatic possessions with an -De Marr in Philadelphia Record

implicit guarantee that the powers would help her to s is the aspiration of the elderly Sultan and

consolidate her authority on the eastern side of the sea = trusts. The followers of Enver Pasha have

of Marmora. Now, if Enver Pasha and his followers Ore sublime. They established themselves in upset this arrangement, they must be prepared to take a time when the tide of Turkish defeat could

the consequences. If they persist in rushing upon their mmed. They were forced by hard necessity

own destruction, they will have Germany to thank for o the cession of Adrianople and the greater

their fate. Europe will have no alternative but to

leave the Turk to the wrath of offended Russia. TurThe outbreak of hostilities among the irace. wers who had been such close allies so shortly key still possesses a few statesmen capable of long ve the Young Turks their first opportunity.

views, but the triumph of the extremists has rendered dvantage of the withdrawal of Bulgarian

them impotent. Turkey must be reduced to fragments m the conquered territory, the Turkish army

and even her hold upon Arabia must be relinquished. rianople. The new situation may enable them

The one great concern of Turkey in Arabia is to retain much more.

control of the holy cities in order to preserve her pres

tige, says the London Times. The Turkish claim to Turkey Wants to Know Which

dominate Arabia has always been imperfectly vindiSide Will Win.

cated: e past six weeks Constantinople has been d with German versions of the progress of

"For centuries Arabia has been to a great extent left observes the Paris Figaro. For a few days

isolated, an unknown land round which the main currents ms thought the Kaiser's troops were in War

of human history have swept without penetration. . ., ell as in Paris. The British fleet had been

When more than a century ago the Wahabi schismatics

arose and carried fire and sword far and wide, sacked Turkey would have the satisfaction of re

Mecca and Kerbela, and even menaced Damascus, it was vithout the firing of a shot a portion if not not the Turks who broke the Wahabi movement. The t she had so recently lost. Prior to the out work was done for them by MEHEMET Ali, Pasha of Egypt, he great war, the Grand Vizier in a note to and his sons; and since the great Egyptian invasion the s indicated very plainly that the Turkish gov Crescent flag has won few glories in Arabia. Even the ad no intention of contenting itself with the Hedjaz route has only been kept comparatively safe by fined in the treaty of peace signed at London. heavy bribes to the Beduin, and the new railway to Medina declared, was obliged to advance beyond the

is often threatened. There has been one protracted revolt ixed for her in order to save the Moham

in the province of Asir, south of Mecca, and another and a pulation from extermination. She was, fur

greater rebellion in Yemen. Both are still unsubdued, and

against_both the Turks have wasted their strength in red by regard for the safety of Constanti

vain. Their position in Arabia grows weaker and the secure a more suitable frontier. She was spectacle of their beaten soldiery scrambling aboard a aths ago to advance her forces beyond the British steamer in the Persian Gulf is but one of many boundaries. She has lost no time since, significant symptoms."

booming around both Sinai and Ararat. It is an eld till full of trouble.—Springfield Tribune.

war, if the Allies win, the question they will ask will be: “What part of the Turkey do you prefer?” Courier Journal.

The Ottoman is beginning to look more like a doormat.- Boston Transcript.

Turkey, it is said, has proclaimed the annexation of Egypt, but our guess is that Turkey has been misinformed.—Houston Post.

Now watch Russia play the role of a Turkey gobbler. Florida Times Union.

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EFFECTS OF THE JAPANESE TRIUMPH

IN THE EAST APAN . alliance

country in China. This campaign was based upon an tau, despite German insinuations to the contrary. alliance between Peking and Washington for the conThe capture of this fortified city of Kiao-chow is but quest of the far East generally. American government a prelude to its restoration to the Chinese. These state officials in China and Japan pronounced many of these ments are on the highest official authority in Tokyo. reports too absurd to be taken seriously. President The only possible reason Japan could have for retain Wilson, for example, had made up his mind to limit ing Tsing-tau, as the Asahi Shimbun declared prior to by force the extension of Japan in China and was the fall of the place, would be to make of it a naval negotiating a treaty in Peking with that end in view. base. In that capacity it was invaluable to Germany. These stories made a serious impression in Japan, as It was her only military and naval base in east Asia. recent comment in the Hochi and the Nihon will show. Tsing-tau has no such importance to Japan for the rea The instigators of this deception, says the well-informed son that she possesses much better bases in Port Arthur correspondent of the London News, seek only to stir and in Korea. Hence its retention by the Tokyo gov the populace in the Japanese capital into mob demonernment would be a tactless act. “It would be espe strations against Count Okuma on the ground of his cially tactless at a time when China is cut off from loan friendliness to Washington, which is seeking to destroy sources in Europe,” says the London Post. “China will Tokyo. The Germans have spent thousands of dollars soon have no money with which to pay her soldiers, in a press campaign in China, insists the Manchester thus rendering revolt likely. This would react unfa Guardian, and there is reason to suspect that German vorably upon Japan, involving the interference of other press agents continue busy in Japan as well. Comment nations.” One of these might be the United States, a in American newspapers on the subject of Japanese power with which Japan insists she is cultivating espe- activity in the far East appears in garbled versions in cially good relations just now. Tokyo, London and Tokyo dailies made by inspired correspondents aiming Washington are in active and harmonious correspond to create discord. Japanese officials are quoted in ence on far eastern affairs, says the British organ. British papers as convinced of the German origin of

the anti-American campaign. They no longer, says the An Anti-American Campaign London Times, take it seriously.

in Tokyo. SOM

OME weeks ago there developed in Tokyo and in

other important Japanese cities so systematic an effort to inspire anti-American feeling in the press that European attention was directed to it. Publications in Japanese, to which European dailies called attention, made it appear that the Washington government was preparing for active intervention in China. These hints cropped out in provincial Japanese dailies under the control of popular politicians. They dwelt on an alleged anti-Japanese feeling throughout the United States and were reinforced by interviews with persons described as prominent Americans. The topic was taken up by popular papers like the Tokyo Chuwo and finally spread into more important organs. The Jiji Shimpo at last grew suspicious of somebody's good faith. It transpired that inflammatory statements had been given to Tokyo dailies by persons representing themselves as American notables. They warned Japanese that the United States is sending out a great fleet over the Pacific and fortifying its coasts. War was inevitable. These intimations were fathered by an alleged paymaster in the American navy and an admiral distinguished in New York. These individuals turned out to be creations of the imagination. When these points were established the Tokyo newspapers explained that the interview and the photographs accompanying it had been handed in as authentic by an American. He never could be found by the police and we have more than one English daily, notably the Manchester Guardian, asserting that the incident is part of a German campaign to sow discord between Tokyo and Washington.

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Japanese Papers Become

Friendly to America.

EVANS

unreliable, important Tokyo dailies peered suspiciously into the obscurity of a campaign against their

TAKING'HIS CHANCE IN THE JACK-POT

-Evans in Baltimore American

that England made the yellow peril serious as the progress and operations of the Anglo-Japanese alliance prove.

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EUROPE

JAPAN

GERMANY

KIAOCHOW

THE HONORABLE ALLY:

Japan to “Get Even" with

Germany.
WITH

ITH all classes of the Japanese population the war

with Germany has been tremendously successful in a political sense, writes the well-informed Tokyo correspondent of the London Post. Comment in such representative Tokyo organs as the Nichi Nichi, organ of a select class, the Yorodzu, strikingly like a Hearst paper in tone, and the highly respectable Kokumin Shimbun, suggest that the Japanese people are united against a nation which has robbed them and played the part of oppressor in the Asiatic world. Nevertheless there exists among the intellectual classes of Japan, as the London Post generously concedes, a feeling of gratitude to Germany for the immense services she has rendered in the way of training for such vocations as law, medicine, biology, education and war. Japanese vernacular papers hold Emperor William responsible for the "yellow peril” issue. They add that Germany is inciting a new anti-Japanese crusade in the United States. On Germany, finally, is now laid responsibility for the war with Russia. Germany was at the bottom of the scheme to force Japan's evacuation of Port Arthur after the war with China, France and Russia playing but a minor part. This is proved by the memoirs of Count Hayashi, the distinguished Japanese

diplomatist who died lately. Official Tokyo prohibited I will look after your honorable interests over the publication of these memoirs, but they got into the here -Cesar in N. Y. Sun. European dailies notwithstanding. In the memoirs

Hayashi states that when the three ministers came to
German Opinion of the Situation him with the demand to evacuate Port Arthur, the

in Japan.
VERY effort will be made in Europe and the United

French and Russian were content to make the request
States, observes the Berlin Kreuz-Zeitung, to in-

that the place be handed back to China. The German

minister acted differently, threatening war and assurterpret the progress of the war in the far East as a death-blow to German prestige. This was said prior to

ing Hayashi that Japan could never face Russia, France

and Germany combined. "Herein was an insult the
the fall of Tsing-tau, which has been foreseen and dis-
counted in Berlin dailies. It had been hoped by the

Japanese have never forgotten."
Japanese that the Germans, in the face of such hopeless

Japanese Expansion on the odds, would make an easy capitulation. The annoyance

Asiatic Continent. of the Tokyo government is therefore extreme. The

WHA

HAT inspires Japanese policy now that Europe is siege went on, notes the Vossische Zeitung, to the tune involved in war? The prospect of territorial exof "atrocity," the most popular in Europe. The ver pansion on the continent of Asia. Question and answer nacular press of Japan. it observes, was supplied with are from the Frankfurter Zeitung. Not so long ago, it manufactured evidence from Belgium that made the reminds us, London diplomatists were alarmed at the Germans appear a scourge of God. Nothing was said presence of Japanese agitators in Inner Mongolia. The in Japan about Russia, the foe of a few years back, imperialists of Tokyo have longed to annex the region, who is burning, outraging and pillaging in the eastern which adjoins southern Manchuria. The Japanese have theater of the European war. Japan will soon teach poured rifles into that region, arming there an element America and Europe her lesson of militarism, observes upon which they rely. The Japanese pursue in inner the Hamburger Fremdenblatt. American strategists of Mongolia a policy similar to that carried out by Russia note, including the late Homer Lea, warned their coun elsewhere. They keep Peking quiet by cajolery when trymen against the power rising against them in the that will serve. They openely threaten Yuan Shi Kai far East. Such warnings are vain. In due time the if he becomes too independent. Japan expects the peril against which the German Emperor warned the British to emerge supreme from this European crisis world will appear in its true light. In that hour of and for that reason she has extracted pledges from the anxiety England will insist that Germany created the London government that may fill the world with inyellow peril! The truth is, insists the Hamburg organ, dignation when they become known.

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And then after peace is declared the army of chartographers will have to bring up all the reserves and hurl itself at the map of Europe.-Indianapolis News.

San Francisco is bravely certain that the war will not mar its exposition. Only the brave deserve the fair.Christian Science Monitor.

Oh! If Kaiser Wilhelm had only learned to drink grape juice. -Washington Herald.

The Austrians haven't beaten anything so far except a retreatPhiladelphia North American.

“Russians capture Kaiser's pedigreed cattle.” But his goat still evades them.—Boston Herald.

PERSONS IN THE FOREGROUND

P

seen

SIR JOHN JELLICOE: THE SEA KING OF

GREAT BRITAIN ERSONAL descriptions of the of his rank, which makes him a species rooms after the fashion of the elegant silent sailor in whom Great of deity afloat. It is highly character- Rodney. He has neither the bigness Britain chooses for the mo istic of him that he sees personally to nor the beauty of Duncan. He is desment to incarnate her Sov the distribution of the mufflers, stock- titute of the amazing magnetism of

ereignty of the sea lay stressings and shoes that come aboard for the Nelson. For a type like Jellicoe one upon the simplicity of Sir John Jelli- men in the fleet. One anecdote makes must go back, it seems, to Howe, who coe. He has no complexities of nature, him say, in response to a respectful in was never cheerful, boasted no charm nothing vivid in his personality. He sinuation from below regarding the of manner and was painfully shy. makes no phrases. He never emerges monotony of the diet: "Corn beef and Howe was tall, to be sure, and Jellicoe as the central figure in episodes pic- cabbage ! I have dined on nothing is short; but both had a heart of gold turesque or romantic. He stands be- else for a fortnight.” To one of his concealed beneath a grim manner. fore the world as the ideal of cool, commanders who wanted leave to go Jellicoe is beloved in the fleet because technical efficiency, and this explains ashore for socks, Jellicoe made no reply he never plays the martinet and because why his country has given him more in words. He merely pulled up the leg there are times when he comes into power over her squadrons than any of his trousers. He wore no socks. most intimate contact with his men. man has wielded since Nelson. Upon Jellicoe, as one authority in the Lon- When, for instance, a reconnaissance nim alone falls the responsibility for don News makes him out, has few per- by submarine proved unsatisfactory, hat bottling up of German fleets and sonal traits in common with those sea the admiral in command went with it German commerce which gives the key kings of Great Britain who so glorify himself into the depths. o England's naval policy in this war. her naval annals. He lacks the merry The incident explains the new aspects He has orders to seek out the fleet of laugh, the ingratiating manner, of under which a British sea king must he enemy and destroy it.

Keppel. He never passes with grace- present himself nowadays. The old At the age of fifty-five he emerges in ful ease through ndon drawing- days of the wooden walls of England 11 accounts of him, whether in the

have departed. Even the impressive riendly London News or the critical

flagship Hood, dating back to Jellicoe's London Post, as an insignificant-look

youth, has been scrapped, and he has ng little man with shoulders that droop

the Dreadnought outclass and und an aquiline nose. The somewhat

scrap all the battleships afloat. He witcant hair is plastered down to the

nessed the arrival of the Orion with a kull, while the dimpled chin is blue

broadside fire practically double that of with shaving twice daily. The nose is

the Dreadnought, so that the latter beefinitely aquiline and perhaps unduly

came as helpless against ships of the rominent. The eye looks straight

Orion class as was even the splendid head, impersonally, fixedly, almost un

and formidable Majestic when the asily. The expression is characteris

Dreadnoughts came. Characteristic of ic of the British naval officer, result

Jellicoe's attitude was the readiness' ng from an inveterate scanning of the

with which he welcomed these innoorizon through powerful glasses.

vations. He hailed the submarine at Jellicoe lately lost his father, also a

a time when its mere suggestion was eteran of the sea, who lived past his

fantastic. He has served in all these inetieth year. He has a brother in

types and he has gone to sea with the he church. The family is quite an old

biggest guns for target practice. Jelline but poor, and the resemblance be

coe thus possesses a wider first-hand ween its members is said to be strik

practical experience with warships ng as regards character. The Jelli

afloat than any other living sailor; but Des are all reserved and cool but prone

thc price he paid bereft him of personexplosions of feeling, as if the ac

ality and left him a glorified machinist. imulated emotions of a long period of

He reeks of the engine room. elf-suppression must find vent. Thus

His environment, explains our Lonne admiral relieves the monotony of

don contemporary, explains the reis long silences by an occasional burst

moteness of the man, the barbarian speech and then holds his tongue for

shyness that makes him so hard to get x months by way of penance.

acquainted with. He does not know nbosoms himself at such times with

how to mingle with landsmen, his very reat freedom. At all others he might

voice being throaty with fog and mist e a statue of taciturnity as, with a

and his visage blue and briny. There and thrust through the back of his

are different kinds of aquiline noses, elt, he remains motionless his THE SUCCESSOR OF NELSON IN ENG

explains a writer in London Truth,

LAND'S FLEET Fidge for hours or sits forever in the

Sir John Jellicoe has orders to seek out the

Those with the very high bridge deart room noticing nobody. He dines German battleship squadron and destroy it, for note despotic character and insensibilboard all by himself in the grandeur the North Sea. which reason he maintains an unceasing vigil in

ity. The one that allows the forehead

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He

on

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