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THE CLASH OF NATIONS AND THE LONG DEADLOCK
THAT HAS FOLLOWED IT AS THE fateful weeks pass by in Europe, it becomes
exception of the premature and brief incursions by the more and more apparent that the combat is likely French into Alsace-Lorraine and by the Russians into to be protracted to the point of exhaustion of one or East Prussia, all the fighting has been done on other both sides. The aeroplane seems to have eliminated, in than German soil. Her ally has not been so fortunate. large measure, the element of surprise. No movement About 30,000 square miles of Austria-Hungary were, of troops on a large scale can take place without the by the middle of October, held by the Russians, most knowledge of the other side. Flanking operations, tho of it in Galicia, and even Hungary had been invaded tried first by the Germans and then by the Allies on a by the Cossack. "The German war-machine," says the scale never before seen and with a persistence that is Brooklyn Eagle, “has worked. There has never been without precedent, have failed to score any large suc another like it. Not a serious flaw has developed in the cess. By the middle of last month, they had resulted whole stupendous casting. It lias met every test. Men simply in the extension of both battle-lines all the way could not have done more, endured more, attempted from the Jura mountains, that mark the Swiss boun more, or sufferedi more than the forces that have exedary line, to Ostend on the coast of the English Chan cuted the plans of the general staff.” Liege was taken nel-a distance, even in a straight line, of about 320 in ten days after the first real attack in force was made; miles. Neither line can be extended further. In this Namur in less time; Maubeuge in a little more time; gigantic game of football there can be no more "end Antwerp in eleven days. All of these were first-class runs." Advance, if it comes, inust come from "bucking fortresses. Experts said Antwerp could resist any siege the center," and keeping at it until one side is weakened against it for at least sixty days. The hope of France, enough to let the other smash through. “The fighting in it has become evident, lies, as the hope of ancient Sparta Europe," says Herman Ridder, in the N. Y. Staats- lay, not in her walls of stone and iron but in her walls Zeitung, “has assumed the character of a death-grapple. of living flesh. The French army has steadied down to Whatever hopes were held of an carly solution of the its herculean task with a grim determination worthy of difficulty have been utterly blasted. It is becoming each the nation's most glorious military traditions. Dash and day more evident that it is a
war of extermination, daring everyone expected of the French soldier; but the a war of existence, a struggle of national life or national endurance and steadiness he has shown in the long death."
agonizing deadlock of the weeks past have been a sur
The Aeroplane and Subof ,
marine in Action. found itself by the middle of last month in occu THE part the aeroplane and the submarine are playpation of practically all of Belgium with its 11,000 ing in this war would of itself make the war memsquare miles, of a triangle of French territory com orable. The cruise of the German submarine U-9 (as prising about 12,000 square miles, of about 15,000 narrated by its commander on a preceding page), which square miles in Russian Poland 2.d with practically resulted in sinking three British cruisers in the North none of her own territory held by t'ie enemv. With the Sea and then racing safely home, followed by similar
nly less noteworthy exploits by other submarines, has been burned still smoldering, the ground freshly broken by reatly lessened Great Britain's sense of security. The shell and trampled by horses and men, and the memory of eppelins have so far proved rather a negligible factor, the German advance vivid in the minds of the inhabitants. ho predictions of a raid by them in the near future on
I interviewed an average of twenty persons in each of a England are confidently made. But the aeroplane has
dozen towns and found only one instance of a noncom
batant who had been killed without a justifiable provocaeen an immensely important auxiliary on both sides.
tion. In this case the evidence did not clearly prove that The public,” says Captain Washington I. Chambers,
the man had been wantonly murdered.” f the American navy, "does not yet seem to realize that ir scouting along a battle front vastly more extended Neither in Brussels nor in its environs, says the han ever before has been the principal feature in exe same writer, was a single offensive act committed, so uting and in checkmating the strategy of the contend far as he could find out by diligent inquiry, and the ng parties and in increasing the accuracy of artillery same is true of the vicinity of Louvain. "Investigaire.” The quick destruction of Belgian fortresses has tion not only failed to substantiate these rumors," he een due in large part to the direction given to the
says, “but could not even discover anyone in the immeunners by the aviation corps. In the first six weeks diate vicinity who credited them.” He adds earnestly: of the war the airmen accompanying the British troops “I give my most solemn word as to the truth of what I Llone had spent 1400 hours in the air and flown 87,000 have written. We have seen no atrocities. We can get miles. Says A. Maurice Low, writing in the North proof of none." Hinerican Review:
“As a scout the aeroplane has superseded cavalry, and
Running Down the Stories of een able to obtan information no cavalry could secure, as
Barbarity on Both Sides. he cavalry scouts were seldom able to break through the THAT a particular man or number of men did not nemy's screen, and were forced to draw conclusions from see or find proof of atrocities does not, of course, ong-range observations. From the aeroplane trained ob prove that none were committed. But it is valid testiervers can see the whole theater of operations enrolled mony as to the infrequency of them. A round-robin efore them and bring to headquarters not hearsay in for to much the same effect as the above was signed by nation, but facts; the air scouts can ascertain the number John T. McCutcheon, of the Chicago Tribune, Irvin S. nd disposition of the enemy's forces; they can tell a Cobb, of the Saturday Evening Post, Harry Hansen, of ommander where his own line is in danger or his an
the Chicago Neu's, and Roger Lewis, of the Associated agonist is wavering; they can direct artillery fire. ... Press. Mr. McCutcheon, in a special correspondence The importance of the aeroplane is one of the great lessons
printed in the N. Y. World, dated at Aix-la-Chapelle, f the war.”
September 24, casts discredit not only on the stories of
German atrocities but on those by Belgians as well. He Discrediting the Stories of writes:
German Atrocities. FROM the beginning of the present war the most harrowing stories of atrocities have been current.
“The English, French and Belgians accuse the Germans Tost of them have pertained to the fighting in Belgium
of the most shocking cruelties, and the Germans accuse the
English, French and Belgians of equally shocking acts of .nd each side has accused the other of having com
barbarism. nitted them. The Kaiser made a direct appeal to Presi
“In the opinion of an impartial observer, such as I am ent Wilson against the alleged use of the explosive dum
endeavoring to be, I feel that 80 per cent of these accusalum bullets by the French and British, and President tions are untrue, 10 per cent. fearfully exaggerated, and Poincaré and the British Government made hot denials 10 per cent. true. nd counter-charges of the same sort. The Belgian
"I have heard Germans accused of spearing children on ommission made a special trip to Washington to lay
their lances and riding along with the bodies held aloft, efore the President its evidence (since published in
but I have not been able to find anybody who had himself amphlet form) of specific violations of civilized war
seen such a thing. I have heard Belgians accused of cut
ting off the breasts of German nurses, but I cannot find any are by the German troops. Persistent charges have
man who can say that he knows of his own knowledge that een made by the Germans of the mutilation of their
these reports are true. vounded soldiers by the Belgians. President Wilson's "I have heard of Germans whose eyes were gouged out eply, both to the Kaiser and the Belgian commission, while they lay wounded on Belgian battlefields, but in spite hat decision on such questions must necessarily be de of a thoro search for proof here in the Aachen hospital I erred to the close of the war and be made then by cannot find a man whose eyes have been gouged out." the opinion of mankind,” has been generally approved s the correct official position. But a noteworthy num
Human Nature not Hopeer of reports have been coming of late from American
lessly Depraved. orrespondents discrediting the worst of these stories THESE and similar reports from other Americans nd restoring in a measure the world's faith in its own
have had a marked effect on the press. The Chicago umanity. James O'Donnell Bennet, of the Associated Tribune, which has been and still is emphatic in denounc’ress, has sent a long and detailed statement to the ing the Germans for destroying Louvain and other cities, Chicago Tribune of the attempts of himself and four says nevertheless : “The home-loving, child-loving Gerther American correspondents to run down stories of
man did not become a Hun under Attila the moment he trocities said to be committed by Germans in Belgian
went to war. ... It would be infamous if Americans owns. Says Mr. O'Donnell :
were allowed to form the opinion that the Germans had
become Apaches. It would be equally infamous if Ger"I marched for days with the German columns, often man reports were allowed to convince Americans that nly one day behind the fighting, with the houses that had Belgians were 'ferc :ious cannibals.'
Belgians were 'fercious cannibals.' The war would
COMPLETING THE TRUST LEGISLATION
be hopelessly disastrous if it made such hateful additions to the sum total of human prejudice and error."
No American journal has been more unsparing in its blame of Germany for the outbreak of war as well as for the way in which it has been carried on than the N. Y. Tribune. But it refuses to accept the stories of German atrocities. It says:
"There can be no defence of the German invasion or the German crime at Antwerp and Louvain. There can be a defence, and there is, on the evidence thus far presented, likely to be a strong defence, of the German soldier, from the charge of individual atrocities. President Wilson's words are strongly to the point here. The case is one that cannot be decided on one-sided evidence in the heat of battle. It is essentially a charge which must be left to the calmer days of peace for final judgment.
"The ruined walls of Louvain are a silent accusation of German militarism which no words can ever refute. The charges of atrocity against the German rank and file are no more than an indictment which it will be the hope of every fair-minded American maturer evidence will disprove."
American Sympathy Aroused for
the Fate of Belgium.
against the German soldiers are too well authenticated to be wholly discounted; but the Germans, it reminds us, are not demons, and it concludes that the worst of the charges have but "small basis." The Knoxville Sentinel does not find the report of the Belgian Commission altogether convincing, tho it, in common with most American papers, condemns the burning of towns as a punishment for acts of individuals such as "sniping." Our soldiers in Vera Cruz, it points out,
Darreres also had "snipers" to deal with, but they did not burn
FEEDING THE FLAMES down the city. The N. Y. Sun goes a step farther in
-Donahey in Cleveland Plain-Dealer the way of analogy. The Belgian “snipers," it finds, were singularly like the embattled farmers at Lexington not impossible that all over Europe, even in Germany, and Concord who chased the red-coats down the lane. several generations of men will curse that attack upon "Beside their offence," it remarks, "under German prac Belgium.” The Brooklyn Eagle sees, as the net retice, the sin of the citizens of Louvain was trivial, the sult of the remarkable display of military prowess by crime for which the world paid in the loss of a city of Germany, simply "a Belgium desolate, a free people treasures was minor." The fate of Belgium, indeed, is with their homes and their cities ground to the dust," the feature of the war which most affects the sym and it adds: “This war of wars cannot go to any length pathies of the American press. No foreign office, the that will obliterate the sufferings of the Belgian people N. Y. World thinks, with even the faintest conception since it began. . . . It should sober even the warring of the inevitable results of the invasion of Belgium nations, as it has saddened the world. Its contemplation would ever have advocated it, and it quotes approvingly deadens hope, and the irony of it sickens the conscience the statement of the Italian historian, Ferrero: "It is of humanity."
The Petrograd War Office is busily victorious, day by day; equally so is Berlin. It's hard to see how anybody can be defeated in this war when there are always victories enough to go around.-N. Y. Evening Sun.
“What has Russia done?” sneers an anti-Muscovite exchange. The answer is, “Austria-Hungary.”—Charleston News and Courier.
Belgium is the door-mat of Europe.—Albany Press.
COMPLETING PRESIDENT WILSON'S
TRUST PROGRAM WHAT HAT an amazing old kaleidoscope of a world this see Russian Jew-baiters falling on the necks of Jews
generation of the sons of men has on its hands! and kissing their sacred writings. We see China strugWe see the British and Russian Empires fighting to gling to become a republic. We see Roman Catholics gether as allies. We see the Boer government of South petitioning President Wilson to recognize no governAfrica voluntarily taking up arms in behalf of the ment in Mexico that does not stand for full and comBritons and against the Germans. We see the Social plete religious liberty. And we see the Democratic ists of Germany standing in apparently compact array party developing the centralized powers of the federal in defense of the Kaiser and his military program. We government in a way that would have made the most
authors could think of and the new trade commission is depended on to find out the others from time to time. Its powers are enumerated under fourteen heads and one of the fourteen is the sweeping general power "to prevent unfair methods of competition.” Most of the other powers are those of investigation. It can require corporations to submit any desired regular or special reports, and can publish whatever information so obtained (except trade secrets and the names of customers) it deems it expedient to publish. It can compel testimony and the submission of documents. When the courts issue decrees it can investigate to find whether those decrees are carried out. It can investigate general trade conditions abroad as well as at home and compile and publish the. information secured. Among the practices now made unlawful are: pricediscriminations the effect of which is to create monopoly or lessen competition; interlocking of directorates, except in small non-competing concerns; "tying contracts" which contain a condition forbidding the purchaser from
handling competing lines of goods; "holding companies" THE ATTACK ON THE UNITED STATES
which lessen competition. The watchword of the whole - Minor in N. Y. Evening World body of legislation enacted under the Wilson adminis
tration is competition-regulated and protected compeaudacious Republican gasp ten years ago. The federal
Is the New Trust Legislation centralizing measure, but once since the Civil War,
the End or the Beginning? that is to say, by the trust legislation completed last month.
the proof of legislation is in the way it works out.
There are, needless to say, widely different views as Three Federal Commissions in
to how this new anti-trust legislation is going to work Control of Business,
out. Y A vote of 244 yeas to 54 nays, the last of the anti
A writer in the N. Y. Commercial and Financial trust bills—the Clayton "omnibus” bill—was finally
Chronicle-Robert R. Reed—sees in it the grant of adopted last month in the lower House, 22 Republicans
unlimited control of private business. He says: and 5 Progressives joining with the solid Democratic
“It presents an unlimited executive control of private majority to send it to the President. The other two business which would not have been thought possible six bills of the series—the interstate trade commission bill months ago, and which would not be possible now if the and the bill to prevent overissues of securities became matter could be fairly presented and discussed by Conlaw some time ago. The last-named bill applies to rail gress or by the press. ... The President has in effect roads and other common carriers, extending the pow
commanded Congress to delegate to his nominees all or ers of the interstate commerce commission. The trade
more than all of its powers over commerce. This Congress commission bill constitutes a new commission to exer
seems only too willing to do, violating every canon of
Democracy and Republican government, both in the legiscize over interstate business in general much the same
lation adopted and in the methods by which its adoption is sort of authority now exercized over railroads by the
secured.” interstate commerce commission. These three federal bodies—the trade commission, the interstate commerce That is one view. We get a very different view from commission with its enlarged powers, and the federal
the Springfield Republican. It says to Mr. Reed and reserve board—will put the banks, the railways and all
others, in effect: Cheer up; the worst is yet to come; the corporations doing an interstate business under the this is but a beginning. Here are its words: immediate regulation of federal officials appointed by
“The real significance of the Trade Commission bill is the President of the United States. The Sherman anti
that it establishes a federal machinery capable later on of trust law has not been amended. It stands as inter
a development that would make government regulation and preted by the courts. But there is in the Clayton bill control of great industrial corporations as complete as is an ostensible construction of that law in its application government regulation and control of railroads to-day. ... to labor unions and farmers' organizations that may or What will ultimately happen is now clear. With the Fedmay not prove to be a real and important change. It
eral Trade Commission established, the country will doubtwill take the Supreme Court to tell us which.
less see from time to time the powers of that commission so enlarged that it may regulate and control any great
industrial corporation that cannot be restrained in its moNew Don'ts for the American Business Man.
nopolistic practices by the anti-trust law. Assuming the THE central purpose of the Clayton bill, as well as of policy to be carried out in the future, the country, now the other bills, can be quickly stated. It is to elimi
a nate unfair competition. To specify all the methods by nopoly, with such changes of particular industries from which competition can be unfairly stifled is evidently experience may require in the public interest."
the régime of competition to the régime of regulation as beyond the powers of even the most gifted muck-raker. The Clayton bill specifies and forbids all those its The N. Y. Sun dolorously notes that Senator Reed
WILSOV ADUIIVISTRATIO.V' AND THE CONGRESSIONAL ELECTIONS
has already started out at the head of a Senatorial group to secure the immediate addition of more drastic provisions to the law. "If the Clayton bill were the end of it," it says, "business might draw a sigh of relief.
Labor Unions in the New
Trust Legislation. BUT all other controversial features in this trust leg
islation are likely to prove subordinate, from a political standpoint, to those that deal with labor and agricultural unions. “Labor has won some great victories in this country," says the N. Y. Ilorld, "but none since the Emancipation Proclamation of more importance than that recorded in the supplementary antitrust bill.” This seems to be the view of Mr. Gompers. One of the labor Congressmen-Webb-declared
COMPLIMENTS OF A ZEPPELIN that “laboring men everywhere”—meaning the labor The hole in which the boy stands was dug by a bomb dropped upon unions—“will dance a jubilee in celebration of the pas
Ostend by a German airship. One can measure its effect had it dropped
on a building instead of a vacant lot. sage of the bill." Yet one of the attorneys of that foe of the labor unions, the anti-Boycott Association
organizations from lawfully carrying out the legitimate namely, Daniel Davenport-asserts that few changes in
objects thereof." The insertion of the word lawfully existing law are made by the bill and that these are "of
in the above clause has made, according to the N. Y. slight practical importance." The sharp difference of
Evening Post, "an enormous difference," since it leaves opinion on this feature of the bill is strikingly illus
the whole question of boycott, for instance, just where trated in the views of two newspapers under the same
the court decisions heretofore made have left it. A ownership, that of the Pulitzer estate. The N. Y.
similar change appears in the clause pertaining to inWorld regards the bill as not only a victory for labor junctions. No restraining order, so runs the bill as but also "for the American people," and the St. Louis
finally passed, "shall prohibit any person or persons, Post-Dispatch speaks of the bill as "vicious, un-Ameri
whether singly or in concert, from terminating any can class legislation," favoring in one part the capi
relation of employment, or from ceasing to perform talists and in another the organized laborers “against persuading others by peaceful means so to do; or from
any work or labor, or from recommending, advising, or the great middle class of society."
attending at any place where any such person or perLabor No Longer a “Commodity"
sons may lawfully be, for the purpose of peacefully in American Industry.
obtaining or communicating information, or from peaceONE reason for the wide variety of views of the fully persuading any person to work or to abstain from
legal character of the Clayton bill lies in the modi- working; or from ceasing to patronize or to employ fications to which the bill has been subjected in the six any party to such dispute, or from recommending, months during which it has been under discussion. For advising, or persuading others by peaceful and lawful instance, Section 6 declares that "the labor of a human means so to do,” etc. The insertion of the words “may being is not a commodity or article of commerce,” lawfully be” and the words “and lawful still leave it therefore the anti-trust laws shall not be construed to to the courts to decide what are lawful acts under laws "forbid the existence and operation” of labor unions, already existing and Supreme Court decisions already nor "to forbid or restrain individual members of such made.
THE WILSON ADMINISTRATION IN ITS FIRST
TRIAL AT THE POLLS HE one question of national importance that is to be own. “There has not been a busier Congress,” says the
decided at the polls this month is whether President Detroit Neaus, "since the era of the civil war." And Wilson is to have a Democratic Congress to support him yet, as the Springfield Republican notes, "one is imfor the rest of his term. Even in the midst of a Euro- pressed by the low ebb to which party feeling among pean war that question would seem to be of enough the mass of the people has sunk and by the slight popumoment to arouse general public interest on the eve of lar interest in the nominations, candidacies and caman election. It has not done so. The most contro paigns of the year." Yet not only a lower house of versial subjects in American history, with the single ex Congress is to be elected on the third of this month but ception of slavery, have been taken up during the last one-third of the Senate as well. What should add to two years.
A new tariff schedule has been put into the interest, all Senators are now elected by popular force that has made vital changes in our industrial sys vote.
A new banking system has been constructed that involves equally vital changes in our financial system.
President Wilson's Control In the trust legislation that has been enacted some of
of Congress. LL
two has in many respects been reversed. An income tax has approval. Only twice has he exercized his power of been imposed in time of peace and it has been followed veto, once upon a special act of minor importance (reby "war taxes,” tho we are not in sight of a war of our instating an army officer) and once upon a bill amend
the very thorniest questions in politics have been taken ALL the legislation enacted by Congress in the last