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ing it until the arrival of reinforce- Altham analyses carefully, the Japanese ages were due to the fact that both
whatever why every aeroplane should not Lieutenant Porte is instructive in this went careering about the field by itself carry a device of one kind or other, com connection. On one occasion he lost his until it came to grief.” pressed air or auxiliary magneto, to en way and landed in a field. Spectators able the engine to be started from the
Here, then, is one obvious improvesoon appeared upon the scene, and one pilot's seat. Swinging the propeller is by after another attempted to swing the pro
ment ready to hand. The second bears no means devoid of danger, for a slight peller, but without success. Finally, Lieu- upon the same point. Some years ago slip may entail death or serious injury. tenant Porte himself undertook the task,
a simple little catch was introduced, Besides, in the case of an enforced land- and, telling the spectators to hold back attached to a wire. By its means the ing, the services of some bystander have the aeroplane until he had regained his aeroplane can be tethered to a peg generally to be requisitioned for. the pur- seat, duly started the engine, but before driven into the ground, and the pilot pose—obviously an unsatisfactory pro he could climb back into the machine the can start his engine, regain his seat, ceeding. An experience which once befell assistants released the aeroplane, which and run his motor all by himself. A BRITISH MILITARY EXPERT ON THE FACTORS
OF SUCCESS IN WAR LL laymen have heard of those one is familiar with smokeless powder ible extension of the fronts. At Grave
three arms of the service, the and with quick-firing guns, as well as lotte 180,000 Germans attacked on a infantry, the artillery and the with the great increases of range which front of eleven miles. At Diamond cavalry, but respecting the lat- have taken place. The real revolution in Hill 16,000 British attacked a front ter the greatest confusion still artillery seems to consist, first in the
of twenty miles. At Mukden 310,000 exists among those unfamiliar with the power of the gunners to fire at objects which they can not see from positions in
men were deployed for attack on a practical application of the principles which they themselves cannot be seen, semi-circle having a circumference of of war. The functions of cavalry, notes and secondly in the power which im- eighty miles. It would be a mistake to that renowned British military expert, proved means of communication have suppose that great extensions like these Spenser Wilkinson, in the London Post, given to an artillery commander to con are normal. Their causes have been are to help the commander-in-chief and centrate upon a single target the fire of admirably analyzed by Mr. Bürde in his the infantry. Cavalry helps the general a number of batteries dispersed at differ- too little known “Tactical Principles.” by finding out what the enemy is doing, ent points.
He showed that in South Africa the it protects the infantry from surprise, there have been two phases since 1870. Boers had no intention of fighting de
"In the development of infantry tactics
wide frontages were used because the and it pursues the enemy when dle
In the first the attempt was made to feated. It can no longer, in the opin- regulate more or less mechanically the cisive battles and meant merely to deion of the General Staff, play a domi
arrangements for a frontal attack, that is, lay the British advance, while the nant part in the main battle. “The
for the advance across the fire-swept British, as General Altham well points great decisive cavalry charge on the zone up to the moment of the assault; in out, were content with demonstration main battlefield is a thing of the past.” the second it was seen that the arrange- against the Boer front, trusting to enBut the adoption of the rifle (in the ments for attack must be left to the judg- velopment to cause the enemy to reAmerican Civil War) conferred upon
ment of the officers on the spot and
treat and not aiming at his destruction. cavalry the power of anticipating the enemy in a vital position and of hold- them, in particular to the enemys pro ing that in Manchuria the wide front
ments. The cavalry experience in mod- and Russian modes of attack and de- armies were tied down to a single line ern wars is from time to time crystal- fence by infantry* He shows the diffi- of railway. In the discussion of movelized into summaries. Thus in 1870 culties of the attack and the consequent ments by land and sea General Altham “of thirteen attempts to use cavalry on strength of the defence. Yet he leaves, rightly insists that “possession of sea the battlefield against infantry two only perhaps for his next volume, the solution command is an essential which must achieved any real measure of tactical of a paradox. Even when the flank of be possessed before the Expeditionary success; one was partially successful
, the enemy's army is selected for decisive Force can safely use the highways of the remainder were all failures." The
the ocean.” experience of the Russo-Turkish War. merely contained, but attacked with de
termination and relentlessly pressed.' in 1877, led its best historian to con
This seems to apply the cordon system to “A soldierly spirit is in truth the keyclude that the shock action of cavalry the attack, and to be inconsistent with note, the foundation-stone of all training. on the battlefield was at an end. The the principle of concentration of effort Without it we build but on sand. With South African War revealed the pos- and of a decisive point. It implies on it an army can achieve all. It was that sibility of mounted men riding rapidly the part of the assailant an overwhelm- spirit which rendered the stubborn thin across fire-swept zones. The Burghers ing superiority of force. The real ad- red line invincible in the Peninsula and made no less than sixteen charges on vantage of the offensive is the initiative, at Waterloo and won its recognition as
the best infantry in Europe. It was that this principle, from which some have which may enable its possessor to surdrawn the inference that cavalry can
round an enemy with a ring of defensive spirit which enabled the British regidispense with the arme blanche. But ably be broken through were it not for positions, any of which might conceiv- ments despatched by a careless nation to
a distant theater of war without transGeneral Altham and the General Staff the decisive attack at some one point. port, supplies, clothing, hospital, or trained hold the proper inference to be that which will prevent the defender's con staff, to endure through that terrible these charges would have been still centrating at any other point a force winter in the Crimea and attain final vicmore effective if the Burghers had sufficient for the purpose.”
tory. That spirit conquered India in the been able to use the sabre or the lance.
dark days of the Mutiny. It inspired Sir In the Russo-Japanese War there was
R. Buller's troops to disregard all their
Very remarkable are the modern only one instance of cavalry shock means of intercommunication between possible the relief of Ladysmith. It en
checks and disappointments, and made action, the charge of two Cossack the parts of an army. They are ren abled the weary and war-worn British insquadrons at Telissu. dered necessary by the almost incred- fantry to do that dullest of all work,
blockhouse duty, cheerily and uncom* THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR HISTORICALLY ILLUS"The artillery perhaps gives the most By Major-General E. A. Altham, C.B., plainingly throughout the long-draggedstriking revelation of the development of C.M.G. With an Introduction by General Sir
out months of the last phase of the South tactics during the last forty years. EveryHorace L. Smith-Dorrien, G.C.B., Þ.S.O., A.D.C..
DIETING THE FORCES 17 THE FRONT
HOW EUROPEAN WAR DEPARTMENTS SOLVE THE FOOD
PROBLEMS OF ARMIES IN THE FIELD
UCH has appeared in the de- amount of which that can be me- rely entirely on this source of supply spatches from the European tabolized is strictly limited by the ca the open market being also utilized theater of war respecting pacity of the digestive organs to supply The
army factories manufacture two the famished condition of the necessary ferments.
kinds of preserved meat-beef in bou men on the inarch. Now the “All rations, whether normal or special,
illon, and Gulasch, a sort of stew o ration of the soldier on field service, must rely for the greater part of the
beef or mutton, with bacon, vegetables explains that high authority, Colonel energy which they supply on a basis of
etc. Beef must be of the first quality Charles H. Melville, of the Royal Army meat, fresh or preserved, and bread or only, from animals four to seven year medical corps, is always and inevitably biscuit. As regards fresh meat, our issue old, and of these only the fore-quarter a compromise between the amount that is greater than that of any other Euro
are used. he needs and that which the supply pean army.
This difference is, in my In both the French and Germai authorities can see their way to pro- opinion, entirely in favor. One
armies the meat is well cooked before viding * The latter, again, is always pound of fresh meat (1/4 pounds in
tinning, and the bouillon is added to a compromise between the amount that cluding bone) is not in any way an excessive allowance for an actively em
the meat in the tin, the whole being can be furnished from local resources ployed young man. From the physio
seasoned; in the latter case vegetable and that which the transport can pro- logical point of view the processes of
are included. In the French ration the vide carriage for. These three factors metabolism should be kept at a high level, meat is pressed into the tins and thi make a graduated scale in which the
to enable the individual to face the mental bouillon concentrated. The French us soldier's needs stand at the top and the and physical stress of active service. pork as well as beef for the preparation capabilities of the transport at the bot “Whatever may be the theoretical ad of a ration of this kind. In these tom. The actual ration, therefore, that vantages of a low protein diet in the case
armies the aim seems to be to procura the man in the ranks receives lies some of the sedentary man, I am absolutely
a complete ration, as opposed to the where between the two extremes just certain that for the fighting man, exposed to the incessant physical and mental strain
meat portion of a ration only. Unde: stated, and more often below than
the strict rules that can be enforce of war, the only suitable ration is that above the mean of the two. All counwhich contains a large amount of pro
in a Government factory this is no tries lay down scales of rations for field tein, and, further, I am certain that that
doubt feasible, but dealing in the opei service, graduated, in some cases, ac protein should be furnished, as far as market the purchaser is often apt to cording to the amount of work that the possible, in the form of fresh meat. Un be defrauded in the matter of thi soldier will be called on to perform; fortunately, the conditions under which class of preparation. The Germans in but it is not to be supposed that any the British Army campaigns are not such
Southwest Africa found that a tin re commander would recognize this scale as to facilitate the issue of fresh ineat,
puted to hold 400 grammes of mixer as absolutely binding upon him should while, when this is possible, the meat
preserves sometimes contained only 100 the local resources enable him to in- supplied is often coarse and tough in
liber, and tasteless. The chief defect is, grammes meat, with a few vegetable crease, or other exigencies compel him
however, in the direction of fat. The floating in 300 grammes of fluid. to diminish, the actual amounts pre- German report on the campaign in South
The relation of bread to biscuit i: scribed by the Regulations. These west Africa allows only I per cent. of much the same as that of fresh meat to scales must be looked on as being fat in the fresh meat supplied, or about preserved meat. The younger men can merely guides to the average amounts half that given by Atwater for ‘very lcan'
as a rule, consume all their biscui that have to be calculated for, prin- side of beef. This defect can be met by
ration; but older men and officers find cipally with a view to transport, not
a special issue of fat, either as such—. g.,
considerable difficulty in doing so. The by any means as Procrustean rules to bacon or cheese. The issue of mincing
present ration biscuit, weighing two which the appetites of the army are
machines will do much to overcome the ounces, is an excellent specimen of it compelled to conform.
toughness and coarseness of the liber.” kind, but presents the natural difficulty It may often occur that at the very
of being hard, and taking tinie to mas time when the troops are being called The German lar Department has its ticate. The French army makes use on for extreme exertions the difficulties
own preserved-meat factories, situated of a pain biscuité, which is simply of transport and supply may be so great at Mainz and Spandau; but it does not bread desiccated by prolonged heating that the ration may have perforce to be reduced to a level insufficient to meet the physiological demand. striking instance of this occurred in the German campaign in Southwest Africa (1904-1906), where it was frequently found impossible to supply the movable columns with even a reduced (two-thirds) ration. The condition of affairs in such cases is aggravated by the fact that the difficulty of transport does not apply equally to all constituents of a ration. Fresh meat can be driven “on the hoof,” and preserved meat is peculiarly portable; but the carbohydrate foodstuffs do not possess the former advantage, and are, besides, extremely bulky. Under such circumstances the men may be reduced to a ration consisting largely of meat, the
HOW THIE BRITISII SOLDIER GETS BITE
Here we see the famous Tommy Atkins or rather a detachment of the royal engineers -MILITARY HYGIENE Sanitation. Ву in camp in England. The ration served these troops is held by experts to be the best in Charl'es' H. Melville. London: Edward Arnold. all Europe from the standpoint of nourishment.
The loaves sent to
Reserve rations are carried either by the soldier on his own person or packed in the regimental transport. They are intended to be used only by superior order, and when the connection with the normal chain of supply is broken. The conditions under which such rations will be needed are likely to be much more frequent in the wars of the future than in those of the past. Forty or fifty years ago the exigencies which demanded the issue of the reserve ration were chiefly due to difficulties of transport and rapid movement of the troops. Such occasions will also undoubtedly occur in the future, tho the introduction of mechanical transport may be expected to render them less frequent. The increased range of modern armaments and the prolonged nature of modern battles will, however, give rise frequently to situations in
which the men at the front may have SHIPPING BREAD TO TIIE FRONT Here we have a typical scene during the last war in the Balkans.
to depend for all their food during a e men in the field are not invariably the sort of hard biscuit about which we read in period of two or three days on the e tales of battle which circulate among those who stay at home.
supplies which they carry on their own
persons. There is no doubt that the ich a bread has, doubtless, many ad- variety is introduced as regards this par- provision of a good reserve ration intages over biscuit, but possesses one ticular food principle. The importance
would facilitate the solution of many arked disadvantage, and that is its of variety, especially in the case of pro
strategical and tactical problems. iability. A biscuit can be carried in teins, has already been mentioned. e haversack, and small pieces broken "Sugar is given in all rations, but,
The first point to be considered is the ¥ at intervals and chewed. Dried except in the case of our army, in abso- amount of energy that will be de-ead in the haversack rapidly gets re
manded of the man and the amount lutely insufficient quantity. Jam seems uced to the condition of powdered
not to be allowed by any foreign nation, that can be supplied in the ration.
a remarkable omission, since, in addition The latter will depend, to a certain umbs, and is then of no further use to the sugar present, some of the more
extent, on the weight which the man anybody. The portability of biscuit acid jams have a marked antiscorbutic its great recommendation.
can afford to carry, the length of time action. In Southwest Africa the Ger- that the ration is expected to last
man troops found the augmented ration "Potatoes dried in chips are extremely of 40 grammes of sugar too small. There in other words, the number of rations eful. They keep well and can be easily is not the slightest doubt that in this re
that must be carried. ied or mashed, and make thus an ex spect our ration is far superior to any
The amount of energy required from llent addition to the meat ration. Great other. The advantage of sugar lies in the the man will probably be, for reasons re must be taken in allowing the men fact it can be absorbed with the least already stated, somewhere about 4,500
eat uncooked fresh vegetables. The possible alteration. There is no necessity to 5,000 calories per diem. Since, by ethods of intensive cultivation in vogue for prolonged process of metabolism. . the terms of the problem, the ration
certain countries in respect of these “Coffee is a less convenient article from is required to meet a brief emergency, odstuffs are such that disease is almost the supply point of view than tea, since rtain to result if they are eaten raw. the ration is twice the weight of the tea
some assistance may be expected from he consumption of salads or of thin- ration. In addition, the preparation of the tissue reserves of the body, and it inned fruits such as strawberries should coffee is a more difficult process. If the will be unnecessary, therefore, to reforbidden, and the rule as far as pos- berry is issued unground, then coffee- place completely all the day's expendible enforced. mills must be supplied."
ture by means of the ration. "Some special form of fat ration is the neral rule. In the French army this kes the form of lard or suet; in the erman, of kidney fat; in the Austrian, marrow fat or lard. Some such issue most certainly necessary, since the meat ually procurable on service, whether esh or tinned, does not furnish nearly ough of this important source of engy. It must be remembered that the mmon foodstuffs, milk and butter, nïch in peace-time supply so large an jount of the fat consumed, are rarely ocurable in the field, owing to their lack
portability. The best form which the t issue can take is that of bacon or eesę. These articles have the advantage at the former can be eaten with relish ld, which is hardly the case with lard suet, whilst the latter, cheese, is also
At the same time they prole a certain amount of protein. In the je of cheese this protein is different
THE FRENCH RESERVIST IN HIS DINING-ROOM im that of flesh meats, so that with the
The miraculous facility with which the troops of the republic can improvise a meal in
the most unpromising circumstances has often inspired wonder among the officers from other ue of this substance an important armies who travel in maneuver time with the French forces.
RELIGION AND SOCIAL ETHICS
WAR AS A SIGN OF FAILURE OF CHRISTIAN
kind, and making them subserve the in- ration of the New York Christian Ad interrupted by the war and
terests of good fellowship and right deal- vocate (Methodist Episcopal) : "We d reassembled in part at Lon- ing. To this day, advocates of Chris
not doubt that out of the fearful con tianity, members in high standing in their don, the secretary of the Church Peace organizations, speak of armament as a
tention good will come to the worló Union declares in The Christian Work, prelude to peace and whenever it comes
Thus God makes the wrath of man ti "I believe that this catastrophic collapse to a decision, they stand shoulder to praise Him. But that there is any in of the nations will at last convince the shoulder with the cohorts of force. Read herent righteousness in this colossa church that Jesus Christ has no part Mr. Roosevelt's latest utterance on prep- quarrel, we confess our inability to with a civilization that can bring arations for peace, in the Outlook. discover.” In similar vein, Zion's Her forth nothing better than Hell for all
"It is not only that they are willing to ald of Boston (Methodis Episcopal Europe.” At the same time we find
force rights upon unwilling peoples, but recalls boastings of all the moderi the Baptist Standard using the phrase stitutes a
they extend the conception of what con“Through Hell to Peace" to point the
cause of war to include all products of "our Christian civilization sorts of wrongs to the ideal of peace as
in a neighborhood of nations, and in way of hope for a peace that shall be expounded by the Hebrew teachers.
sists that “Christianity has not gon war-proof:
“The Jews have fought no battles but bankrupt, because, forsooth, one man
those in defence of their existence. They a group of men, has plunged al “No, Alfred Nobel could not do it; nor
have sacrificed everything but their right Europe into an iniquitous war, in plain Andrew Carnegie, nor Edward Ginn, nor
to worship God. They have not prated of contradiction of every principle o Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, nor the
their ideals, but the history of the Jewish sound ethics and religion. On thi late Baroness von Suttner, nor all the people froves the invincible adherence of point let us be reassured. “The foun other noble advocates of the modern peace movement. The world has not been ready by its ancient teachers, and made part of a persecuted people to the ideals set forth
dation of God standeth sure.'” for their high idealism. It has been too
Whatever the result of the war ma the newer religion, where it has become a wedded to feudalistic patriotism, the tin
mere word-rote with no meaning when it be it can settle absolutely none of the sel of courts, the glamor of reigning
comes a collision of interests and kind of things that purport to be a houses. But all these will be swept away ideals.”
issue, in the opinion of The Living in the storm of fire which is now sweep
Church (Protestant Episcopal). Bu ing from the Urals to the Atlantic. It is
Of course the idea of a Hebrew only after such a baptism of fire that the
the next chapter in world history, a nations of Europe will get a new vision. tribal God is no more of a refuge that paper sees it, begins in blank There is no other way to peace except than any other, from the point of ness and darkness which none can fore through hell.”
view of the freethinker, who takes cast (Democracy? Socialism? An
the present opportunity to insist as archy? Reign of Terror and Guillo Even among religious journals which
The Truth-Seeker (New York) does, tine?), wherein “the one conservativ have never assumed that peace is the
that if the church "was impotent to force that will remain is the Christian synonym or the essence of Christianity, hold back the great "Christian nations' religion": there appears to be no disposition to from this crime of crimes, she is worthcall this great war anything but an
not deceive ourselves. Th less as a moral agency." unchristian war, and the first outburst
Christian religion is powerless except to
On the other hand the liberal Unity, the extent that men will use it. Emperor from the chorus of commentators was
of Chicago, Jenkin Lloyd Jones, edi are not practising the Christian religio a general cry of despair for Christian
tor, discerns some items for the credit when they ask God to bless their wars civilization. The note sounded in several Jewish pa
side of this war such as “the discov- and when they require their people to pers is that "the only good Christians, ery of the present imbecility, not to fight. To call upon the God of Russia to
bless and prosper Russian armies, an as has been said, have been the Jews.” tianity that invokes the blessing of the say hypocrisy, of our boasted Chris
upon the God of Austria to bless an Writing of “The Failure of Chris- Prince of Peace on these devilish ex
prosper Austrian armies, if there b tianity” the American Hebrew says:
nothing beyond that, is but to practise th ploitations of the instruments of de- Semitic tribal religions of pre-Christian “The Church has failed. It has taught struction.”
ages. It is not real Christianity. It i the lesson of peace, but there has been
not the best preparation for the use o no peace, and few have been inoculated "If we did not believe that 'He maketh the Christian religion as a restraining with the germ of the Hebraic ideal. the wrath of man to praise him' our faith force at the opening of the next chapter Throughout the centuries, Christianity in God, our belief in an ultimate theism Men in misery, men in starvation, men i has spoken of peace, but nowhere in would vanish. Our hope in this war lies despair, through causes brought about b Christian teachings have there been found in its badness. It is such a manifestation war, may forget their religion. Only to effective examples of the peace spirit of unreason that reason will be reen the extent that the people of these land since the death of its great founder. As forced. The forces of violence will prove have grown to be real Christians wil an institution, it has been the right hand themselves so inefficient that the conquer- Christianity be an active force in wha of war, ministering words af comfort to ing forces of peace and love will be un
next. Christians are fighting the dying soldier, but never standing masked and be discovered. In this war with Christians; Christian nations wit firmly for the ideals of peace in moments Aristocracy and Monarchy are to be ex Christian nations. Yet all of them know of crisis. posed."
that war is not the Christian way by
vhich disputes may be settled. The spirit will cease. And then? The judg- ambition, not of peoples, but of small · Christianity among these warring na ment."
cliques and princes. . . . No nation is free ions must be so seriously weakened that
from the guilt of acceding to the alluring t cannot be a strong force when the war
The Churchman (Protestant Episco- attractiveness of the specious arguments And the pity of it, the Chris- pal) finds judgment now at hand for made in behalf of constantly increasing ians have led non-Christian Japan into the Phariseeism behind the acute form and perfected armaments. . . . But the in unchristian war, when we have been of militarism developed by all
the economic side of militarism has proved rying to make her a Christian nation!” nations to support territorial ambitions:
to be not its chief nor most oppressive
evil. Phariseeism is a detestable element, The influence of war upon the lives “The Christian sees millions of other be it exemplified either in the life of the nd characters of the peoples is de- Christians banded together to practise individual or the nation. For many years olored by The Congregationalist: fruits open violation of the very foundations of this constant increase of armies and naof the labor of a generation obliterated, Christianity, to let loose murder, theft, vies under what must be called a system he basest passions of men made to ap
lust and all the baser possibilities of hu- of 'forced draught has been closely asso
man nature upon people with whom they ciated with rhetorical professions of a ear the most exalted of virtues, those
have no possible cause of personal quar devotion to the cause of international vho prove themselves the greatest rel. At the same time kings and empe peace. National character cannot be concriminals becoming the nation's heroes. rors—Christian princes, be it noted, all structed out of 'purple patches.' The How such a war handicaps the cause of them—are urging their people on to world has indulged in a period of moral of missions is thus portrayed:
commit these wanton acts in the name of inflation, The terrible disaster now the God whom they worship.
brought upon Christian civilization means “Surely the heathen will laugh and the “This war is a crime both against Chris that the penalty for ethical dishonesty on Mohammedans mock with derision as tianity and against civilization, and but an international scale must be paid in hey witness the great exalted nations of one thing is responsible for it-territorial full.” Europe, nations whose name and fame ave gone to the ends of the earth for heir education, their progress in science, n the arts, in civilization and in Chrisianity, now slashing at each other's hroats. No wonder that Count Okuma, -rime minister of Japan, declares that he end of European civilization is at and ! What answer can the Christian Church of Europe give to the inquiry of hc non-Christian world? How will the nissionaries reply to the man of the East who seeks further evidence that beief in Christ is more humanizing, more ivilizing than Islam, or Hinduism or Buddhism? By what arguments can they -rove that the so-called Christian nation 5 more certain to keep a sacred impact, olemnly entered into, than a so-called -agan nation?
“This war is putting a burden upon the Christian missionaries throughout the world harder to bear than all the fanatcal opposition and persecution, all the onflict with riotous disease, all the hatred ngendered of innate sin. It strikes a -low at the heart of missions and adds - financial and inoral burden that can be arried by the Christian Church only hrough agonizing intercession, protracted asting and unprecedented sacrifice."
The lesson of the war oracularly Irawn by the Roman Catholic America 5 that Mammon, not Christ, is the revalent national ideal:
“Maminon must be served once again, dored by the sacrifice of thousands of uman lives, propitiated by the wails of vomen and the tears of children. The onquering nation will emerge from the var all dripping with blood. It will wash tself clean and pile the gold leavennigh. Throughout the world preachers vill point a singer of one hand at the littering mass coined from man's life -lood, and lifting their voices will shout: Behold what the unadulterated Bible, the ure Gospel, has done for this nation.' A inger of the other hand will be directed o the conquered, despoiled nation, and nen will be warned against a religion which has left its adherents in such misry. God awaits His day. The cannon vill not roar forever, the drum will not ound for long. The mocking of Christ's