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tocracy of the nation, that the glorious occasion might powers of the world, declares the expert of the London be celebrated in a fitting manner, but the death of the Post. Her statesmen, led by Count Okuma, counted Empress Dowager postponed the coronation and left the cost carefully before they sent an ultimatum to Gerthe Peers free to leave the question of a new Cabinet many. A comparison of the feet that faced Russia, we wholly in the hands of the Genro; and the latter were read too, with the present naval strength of Japan will fated to submit to the demand of the public for a ir:dicate to what extent the naval programs have been Cabinet favoring popular government. To quote this executed as well as the nation's position as a naval authority further :

power in the Pacific. Japan met Russia with 6 battle

ships, 8 armored cruisers, 44 minor cruisers, as well as “The choice of Count Okuma, the sage of Waseda, for other war craft, including 80 torpedo boats and 19 dePremier is the most pleasant surprise that Japan has ex

stroyers, representing 157 ships with a total tonnage of perienced for many a year. For more than a quarter of 283,743. To-day the Japanese Empire commands a a century he has been the leading champion of popular mighty fleet of 15 battleships, 3 of which are of “Dreadrights, reform of all kinds, extension of education, modern methods, as well as a leader in the peace movement. Con

nought” strength, 13 first-class armored cruisers, 7 sistently waging unremitting warfare against the bureau

second-class cruisers, and 13 third-class cruisers, reprecracy, he was ostracised by them, and for years held no

senting an aggregate tonnage of no less than 453,115, public office.

Raised to the Premiership once before, in to say nothing of 60 destroyers, 59 torpedo boats, and 1898, he struck terror in the hearts of the opponents of 13 submarines, and an efficient aerial corps. A comLiberalism, and lost one of his legs by a bomb thrown at parison of her principal fighting units with those of him. But he has never wavered from his course, and now Western Powers gives the following result: that he finds himself once again in power the nation is

Britain. U.S.A. Germany. France. Japan. anticipating great things. No sooner was his name an

Battleships nounced as the head of the new Cabinet than prices on the Stock Exchange took a tremendous leap upwards, and “The fifth expansion programme of 1911-12 would satisfaction was everywhere apparent. A still more strik greatly enhance her naval strength; but this programme ing feature is that the vernacular Press is almost unanimous is, as yet, only on paper. It involves, however, an outlay in its approval. This universal acclaim is doubtless due to of some 90,000,000 yen, much of which is to be devoted to the fact that the masses are expecting Count Okuma to heavy fighting units. The most deadly weapons of the carry out all the reforms that he has been advocating for Japanese fleet are not her "Dreadnoughts," so-called, but the last fifteen years."

her magnificent array of fast armored cruisers, with a

speed of over 26 knots and heavy fighting equipment. In Japan as a Naval Power the conflict with Russia Japan learned the importance of To-day.

having plenty of fast and powerful cruisers. Had she

possessed inore of these hardly a single Russian ship would into a war with Germany too readily are not con have escaped. Consequently she is now devoting much firmed by those dailies which have studied the naval attention to ships of the battle-cruiser type, like the Kongo factors involved. Japan is one of the great naval and the Hiyei."

Armored Cruisers.

67 43

32
15

33
12

19
15

15 13

Belgian government can hardly complain of cruelties, after blowing up breweries as the Germans advanced.—Wall Street Journal.

Will the future give us statues of military heroes seated in automobiles?-Toledo Blade.

VATICAN POLICY AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF

A NEW PONTIFICATE
ROME, in the light of the month's despatches the stanch friend of the French republic

, the foe of anticipates an inauguration of the reign of Bene

in dict XV. by an episode dramatic in character, an despite hints that in promoting peace the aim of Beneepisode signalizing a departure from the methods of dict XV. will be to remain everybody's friend. the late Pope. What the step is to be remains a theme of conjecture, based mainly upon words attributed, on

Attitude of the New Pope no very high authority, to the new sovereign pontiff

to Socialism. before his election. Benedict XV.: surmises the Lon: BENEDICT XV. seems likely to modify the attitude ,

to , the Vatican, but in the light of Italian comment he of reports from Rome in some of the newspapers would incline at least in the beginning to the traditional abroad. This would likewise involve a return to the attitude of Leo XIII. Certain it is to the London Post elasticity of Church policy when Leo XIII. was reignthat the Vatican must now become a political force in ing. Few things inspired more chagrin at the Vatican, a more definite way than the late Pius X. ever per according to the comment of the Paris Matin on the mitted. A Church that has followers in all lands, to eve of the European War, than the dexterity of the quote the London paper, must of necessity take an great Socialists of the world in identifying themselves interest in the public affairs of the world. Benedict with the cause of universal peace. Cardinal Rampolla, XV. is supposed to cling with tenacity to the claim during his long service under a former Pope, had won to the temporal dominion snatched from the papacy for the sovereign pontiff a special place both as chamby Cavour. He incarnates that feature of Vatican pion of the cause of peace on earth and as a spokesman policy which, as the French dailies incline to infer, for the working classes. The Leonine pontificate was tends away from the German powers and in favor of bold enough to cooperate on one occasion with a the Latin ones. The emergence of a Pope trained by Socialist group in a Latin country, and even to attack

THE OLD DIPLOMACY AND THE NEW POPE

237

capitalists for certain failings in an encyclical. The happens to be the greatest diplomatist in the sacred modernists were let alone for the most part. It is college and he turns out to be the adviser of the new hinted that the methods of the older time are to be Pope in all that relates to international affairs. The revived, a fact made plain even before the new Pope eclipse of Cardinal Merry del Val is thus complete. was chosen. That explains the haste of the conclave, The significance of the conspicuous position assumed which was very noticeably a Latin affair. A pontiff by Cardinal Ferrata in the new pontificate is due to was chosen before cardinals in the western hemisphere his championship of the French republic always and could arrive in Rome at all.

everywhere. He has had a long and brilliant career as nuncio in different European capitals and he served

the Vatican in Paris as its diplomatic representative First Evidence of a New before that separation of Church and State which he Vatican Policy.

did so much to avoid. Ferrata is accused by Berlin OBSERVERS of the situation at the Vatican insist

organs of enmity to Germany, on what authority it is that the appointments of Benedict XV., few as

difficult to ascertain. they have been, indicate a complete departure from the policy of the last pontificate. Cardinal Ferrata, for instance, has long been referred to in the Indépendance

Diplomacy to be the Aim Belge of Brussels as a foe of the policies for which

of the Vatican. Cardinal Merry del Val stood so valiantly. Cardinal A POLICY of conciliation with the modern world is

clearly to be the note of the new pontificate. The Ferrata did not approve of the campaign against

He deemed the war modernism.

on Socialism an

newspapers in Europe which might be presumed to

understand the matter best agree as to that. It is not attack upon an empty fort. He thought the Roman

at all likely inat there will be a compromise on the Catholic powers had been needlessly alienated. He

subject of the temporal power, however tactfully the claim may be put forth. Efforts will be made to restore the nunciatures in those Roman Catholic capitals which have ceased to tolerate them, like Paris and Lisbon. This may be the work of time, but the feat is not beyond the resources of a Benedict XV. advised by a Cardinal Ferrata, opines the London Post. Yet there is to be no bickering with any power, least of all with Germany, to which land the outcome of the conclave is plainly disconcerting. The destinies of the Roman Catholic Center party seem about to be affected very greatly. It is practically certain that a reconciliation with Russia, a land neglected by the late Pope, will ise in the program of the immediate future at the Vati

More important than all is the attitude of the Pope to his imprisonment within the Vatican walls, a point on which the remarks of the London daily, made prior to the death of the late Pope, remain valid :

[graphic]

can.

“The presence of Pope and King side by side in Rome would probably be more embarrassing to both parties were the Pontiff to issue forth from the Vatican than is the existing arrangement, where there is no conflict of jurisdiction or influence. But we have seen from the late illness of Pius X. that the 'incarceration' of a man of active habits in a not overhealthy palace year out year in is detrimental, nay more, may be fatal, to the unhappy victim. Many a mediæval Pope died of the wintry cold of the Lateran; modern Pontiffs, unless they have the frame of a Leo XIII., may succumb to the summer heat of the Vatican, with their eyes longingly fixed on that cool and breezy Papal villa in the Alban Hills, which is ‘so near and yet so far.' Nor is this imprisonment in the Vatican detrimental to health alone; it has exercised an adverse effect upon the policy, and especially the foreign policy, of the Holy See. A Pope who cannot travel, who cannot have free intercourse outside with all sorts and conditions of men, is naturally cut off from valuable means of information, and becomes inevitably inclined to take the views of his environment. Under existing conditions the head of an universal Church has all the disadvantages of a Sovereign, who cannot, like Haroun-al-Raschid, go about and hear and see for himself. Fresh air is wanted at the Vatican, alike for reasons of health and for reasons of statesmanship; but tradition dies hard there, and sufficient time has not yet elapsed for a new Pope to arise who knew not the days of the temporal power."

THE NEW SECRETARY OF STATE AT THE VATICAN

Cardinal Ferrata, who succeeds Cardinal Merry del Val, is famed as a diplomatist, trained in the traditional school which produced such great ecclesiastical statesmen as Cardinal Rampolla and Cardinal Antonelli.

PERSONS IN THE FOREGROUND

B

GENERAL JOFFRE: COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE

FRENCH ARMIES IN THE FIELD ARELY a year has come and him powerful enemies, explaining, in- above suspicion that his version of the gone since first the name of deed, the cruel slowness of his rise to episode withstood all criticism. No Joseph Joffre, chief of the position and renown. He was sixty be- matter how sincere a soldier's repubgeneral staff in Paris, became fore the world heard much about him, licanism, he told the deputies who

familiar to Europe. This man yet he was in his teens an officer sought him out, it must not atone for had toiled in a long obscurity from the throughout the war against the Prus- his inefficiency. Joffre is somewhat rank of second lieutenant at eighteen sians, commanding a battery of artil- excitable and the incident led to one to the post of commander-in-chief at lery during the siege of Paris then. of his rare explosions, but he carried sixty without impressing his personal- Now and again his name emerges in his point owing to the confidence he ity upon the republic that neglected official despatches, as when he led the has always inspired. him. In October last he suddenly re force that occupied Timbuctoo for his Joffre, as the expert of the Manmoved five generals. They were taken country after Colonel Bonnier's column chester Guardian points out, is somefrom high command swiftly, cruelly, on had been massacred there a fortnight thing more than a soldier of high prothe ground of rank incompetence. The earlier. He was at the head of affairs fessional integrity. He is also a firstsensation in Paris was tremendous. A in Madagascar when that island had class military scientist, worthily susman of less iron will than Joffre, one still a Queen. Later he fought in Indo- taining the great traditions of the not so sure of the technicalities of his China. Thus has he gone from one French engineering corps. His orcalling or less capable of imparting French colonial possession to another, ganizing genius places Joffre, we are their significance to an astounded Min- organizing native troops, administering assured, on a level with men like Vauister of War, must have collapsed in an tropical provinces, testing artillery, ban and Lazare, Carnot, nay, Napoofficial sense then and there. Joffre equipping fortresses with ammunition, leon himself so far as scientific attainwon his point. It was a triumph of buried in detail yet never the slave of ments are concerned. Nevertheless, will, explains the London Mail. The it.

The it. Thus he rose slowly through the the monarchical element in French manner of General Joffre, it says, is grades, diligent, judicious, explosive, society detests Joffre and was chakind, quiet, unaffected. His will is burly and unknown. At last he donned, grined when he was placed in supreme comparable to those tempered blades when his turn came, the black uniform command over General Pau, the fawhich bend exquisitely at the swords- coat with the three bronze stars on the vorite of the reactionaries. Along man's thrust only to resume a rigidity sleeve and the cross on the breast—a and sullen feud is behind the political worthy of the steel which symbolizes military magnate of the very highest intrigue that kept Joffre from becomJoffre's essential characteristic. And rank. Off he dashed to the maneuvers ing a captain until 1885 and withheld who is General Joffre? The question only to find five generals, as he af- irom him the badge of the Legion of was first asked by the Paris Figaro firmed, so gnorant of the art of war Honor until he had gone through a over two years ago when the Monis as to be unable to give the proper or- Tonking campaign. Indeed, it took cabinet fell for having failed to appoint ders to their troops. It was too char- Joffre afterwards nine years of hard a commander-in-chief and M. Messimy acteristic of Joffre to send them home service in the French Sudan and in presented its present generalissimo to at once.

the campaign which ended in the capthe republic. Long and arduous as The uproar that ensued was all the ture of the tribal capital to attain the Joffre's career had been he was a stran more prodigious from circum- rank of lieutenant-colonel, and it was ger to his country then.

stance to which Joffre had paid no at- only in 1905, when General André, the All personal descriptions of General tention. The five fallen commanders extremely republican minister of war, Joffre make much of the very deep blue were all republicans-opposed, that is put an end to clericalist patronage in eyes, the pugnacity of the chin, the to say, to the monarchist clique which the army, that Joffre obtained the bushiness of the whitened brows and for so long a time held sway in the epaulettes of a brigadier-general. His the heaviness of the ear. The counte- French army. Joffre himself, in fact, appointment to the staff found him in nance is typical of the south of France had suffered from this same clique, his command of the second army corps at to the Débats, which has never really own promotion coming very slowly, as Amiens. liked General Joffre because of his we have seen, because he would make Enemies of Joffre - perhaps one fanatical republicanism, his dislike of no terms with the enemies of his co should say his critics, seeing that so the old nobility, his disregard of tradi- try's institutions. His dismissal of the genial a nature can make no enemies tional military etiquet. He has the incompetent generals, despite their firm -insist that his temperament unfits temperament of the Pyrenees, whence republicanism, aroused radicals and him for supreme command in operahe comes, a fury of mood prone to as socialists in the Chamber of Deputies. tions so essentially defensive as a war sert itself beneath the correctness of They feared, as the Paris Lanterne with Germany entails. General Joffre, his manner. The nostril quivers readily said, a revival of the policy of clerical as the Figaro has said more than once, and betrays the quick temper of this ism within the army, a policy initiated is the most determined supporter in soldier, a temper seemingly under per- under M. Millerand with the reinstate- France of the policy of attack. “The fect control yet too impetuous to con ment of the notorious Colonel Paty du only tactics,” he styles the offensive. ceal the fact of its existence from the Clam and the reintroduction of mar- Unfortunately for Joffre, as the Débats student of human nature. He has bursts tial parades through the streets of laments, or rather as it lamented beof epigrammatic frankness which win Paris. So completely did Joffre stand fore this war began, he has misunder

one

THE FRENCH GENERAL WHO LED THE FIGHT AGAINST GERMANY

239

Until the peace of Europe came to its swift end, General Joffre dwelt in a large airy house on a beautiful street near the Parisian suburbs, his household comprising the wife and daughters who are now at work in the hospitals. The private life of Joffre differed little from that of the average stout, heavily built Parisian with

a social position to maintain in the world's gayest capital. Like the soldier born, he rose early, as the Matin notes with satisfaction, being served at breakfast by an orderly while he read the morning's despatches. Off he went then through the Bois on horseback, sometimes as early as six o'clock in the morning. On one day of each week he walked ten miles to keep in condition. Joffre prided himself upon .such things as the cleaning of his own sword and the saddling of his own horse, nor would he touch, while with the troops on maneuvers, any food except the army ration served in the field. It is related of him, too, that he can

not sleep comfortably in a feather bed, so rigidly has he adhered to the rude conditions prescribed for the French soldier on active duty. His one source of misery is the size of his figure, which he deems altogether too burly för a man who moves about.

Much good-humored banter has been THE SOLDIER WIO COMMANDS ALL THE IRMIES OF FRANCE General Joseph Joffre has emerged somewhat suddenly into a world-wide renown as the hero

indulged in at the General's expense of his country's defense against the invader, but his propensity to attack instead of to stand on on this account, for he remains a the defensive is held responsible for that rush into Alsace which cost the French so dear last month.

heavy man indeed for one who leads

so active an existence. stood, through pedantic interpreta One must not imagine a restless, Much controversy has filled the press tions, the fundamental principle of Na- energetic Joffre, pacing hurriedly to of Paris on the subject of Joffre's poleonic tactics.

At the commence and fro in his headquarters. He sug- genius. What France needs in her ment of a campaign, according to the gests repose to the correspondent of supreme commander, argues a writer Corsican, thought should be expended the London Vail who saw him in Paris in the Gaulois, is genius, inspiration, as to whether an advance should be not long before the outbreak of hos a heavenly capacity to improvise the inade or not, but when once the offen- tilities. Joffre, we read, has a full, right stroke at the destined hour. Has sive has been assumed it should be healthy face, a fresh, vigorous voice, Joffre this mysterious and divine enmaintained to the last extremity. But the teeth showing slightly when he dowment? His gift for strategy has Joffre is too French in the southern talks, the mustache moving up and never been tested really. There are sense to be able to give the tactical down, the chin quivering. There is no critics who hold him responsibe for a problem the requisite consideration. suggestion of self-importance. Subor- spectacular dash upon the lost provHe must be up and at the foe because clinates come and go with little cere inces at the very outset of the struggle he understands the French to be war mony. How the calm, slow manner when a steady "containing” of the foe riors by nature and by instinct. They flashes into energy as Joffre refuses a was the one thing needful. His chamwill rush on the foe in the fury of a suggestion ! “He seems literally to pions in the press of Paris insist that fray when all sound tactics command wipe it out of existence witi

his mind is that of the strategist—he a retreat, and in his propensity to yield niovement of the hand.” Yet the face can choose by instinct the true line of to a like impulse Joffre is himself a true lights up with a delighted, almost in- operations that determines the destiny child of the south of France, ardent, fantile smile when an idea finds wel- of a campaign. His foes deem him a impulsive, dashing, unconquerable. come in the quick brain. There is an mere tactician, a man who can handle

There flows in the veins of Joffre cager handshake, a slap on the back other men on a battlefield and fight Gallic blood from such diverse streams and a word of praise for him who can fiercely without, however, any capacity that, as the Matin remarks, he is al- suggest the right thing at the right to think out the greater problem of his together French in the versatility of

moment. Voticeable, too, is the facil- campaign as a whole. In Joffre, achis moods. From a grandmother he ity with which Joffre can handle a cording to a German critic writing in gets Gascon qualities—the fire in his dozen subordinates in as many min- the Kreus-Zeitung, France has a sort eye, the swiftness of his gesture, the lites, listening to each affably, grasp- of Ney, brave, generous, prone to atstamp of his foot. A great-grand- ing the question in a trice, meeting tack rashly if irresistibly at times, but father was from Picardy, where the the situation with a quiet word. There without the imagination, the grasp of handsomest men in France are reared. is no hint of hurry. Here, obviously, principle which makes the supreme As no one was ever more French than is a general to whom supreme com soldier. “A good head for a watchJoffre, no native of France could ex mand is a matter of transacting busi- dog," to quote one judgment in the emplify her characteristics in such ness and not a thing of etiquet and London Mail finally, "calm, but ever variety. ceremony.

ready to bite.”

[graphic]

one

THE NEW POPE

P

he was

over

ERSONAL magnetism, an Ital- century, Monsignor Della Chiesa came ascended the throne of Peter has long

ian intellect and a spirit of in for denunciation by such dailies as been associated by certain continental self-effacement masking an the ministerial Rome Tribuna. He European dailies with those Vatican undaunted tenacity of pur- belonged to the old aristocracy for one influences opposing Teutonic aspira

pose—these are the charac- thing. His family had identified itself tions in favor of Latin ones. Benedict teristics upon which European dailies with the opposition to the Roman XV. is thus no such unknown and undwell in their studies of Benedict XV. municipal policy that followed the loss familiar figure as this western world Unknown, even obscure, as the new of the temporal power. The Della has been led of late to infer. Pope is made to appear in the light of Chiesa house, originally from Genoa, :. The somewhat unexpected elevation British comment upon his elevation to had sustained severe financial losses of Monsignor Della Chiesa to the see the throne, there is scarcely a leading like many another patrician clan when of Bologna seven years ago daily in Spain, in Italy and in France the Porta Pia was breached. Their vegetating still in the Vatican chanto whom the career and the personality fidelity to the Church made matters cellery where he exploited a very pure of Monsignor Giacomo Della Chiesa worse for them. The rise to distinc- and elegant Latin style—seems to have has not been familiar from a time tion in the diplomacy of the Vatican been due to the suggestion of the late even prior to his appearance in Bologna of so conspicuous a figure socially as Cardinal Rampolla. Rampolla did not as archbishop of that austere and ar- Monsignor Giacomo Della Chiesa did forfeit all his tremendous influence caded seat of learning.

not commend him, either, to such ion when Leo XIII. passed from the scene. The intimate association of the new archical sheets as the Paris Gaulois, Pius X. consulted the Sicilian from pontiff with the late Cardinal Ram- devoted tho it professed to be to the time to time, but a suspicion that Della polla, one of the ablest ecclesiastical holy see. The Monsignor had rallied Chiesa had been sent to them at the statesmen of his time—the man who with the great Rampolla to the republic instigation of Rampolla alienated the formed the purpose and inspired the at Paris. One of the very first de- patriotic Bolognese at first, affirms a policy of him who until so recently spatches put into official phraseology writer in the Italian organ already seemed an exile from the Vatican to by Monsignor Della Chiesa at the bid- named. -The new archbishop, despite Bologna--filled the anticlerical press ding of his illustrious preceptor pointed a marked reserve of manner, triumphed of the Latin nations with suspicion of out that the restitution of Rome to the the opposition.

His personal Monsignor Della Chiesa. He was in sovereign pontiff was the condition of magnetism proved irresistible. He has those great days of Leo XIII., accord- the recognition of United Italy by the suffered all his life, our contemporary ing to the somewhat unfriendly Indé- Papacy. That put the aristocratic ec- adds, from what is known familiarly pendance Belge (Brussels), speaking at clesiastic on the black list of the Tri as stage-fright. The mere prospect of a time when the Perugian yet lived, a buna at once and he was accused of addressing an audience fills him with pale, mute, mysterious instrument of lacking'the strongly Italian sentiments terror, a detail that accounts, it is Vatican policy, writing despatches at which characterized Pius IX. He was hinted, for the failure to advance him the dictation of the all-powerful pontif- likewise accused on one occasion of when he was forty—the prelatical age. ical secretary of state and imbibing the going very far in opposition to German In one respect only did he commend diplomacy and the outlook upon life aspirations in the East at the time of himself particularly to the late Pope, of the cardinal who was to miss the Emperor William's visit to Palestine. who regarded the diplomatic service of pontifical sovereignty itself by a very In brief, the prelate who has just the Vatican with slight favor-he was narrow margin.

assiduous in saying mass, in hearing There is much in the history as well

confessions, in visiting the hospitals, as in the traits of the new Pope, if we

in organizing sodalities among the may follow our contemporary on this

faithful and in the general routine of point, to suggest the great churchman

mere parish work. Pius X., to whom who trained him. Both spring from

Rome was but a large parish in a that ancient Italian aristocracy which

neglected state, attached the utmost has made history since the republics of

importance to the religious work of the Middle Ages came into being.

a humble priest, and he made bishops Each passed through the severe dis

of priests rather than of redactors cipline of the Capranica College, at

of elegant compositions in the Latin which the scholastic philosophy im

tongue or even of negotiators of conpresses itself indelibly upon the mind

cordats with great powers. The stageof the divinity student. Both passed

fright of the Monsignor was disposed on to that Academy of Noble Eccle

of by a reflection put into the mouth siastics which gives princes and

of the late Rampolla himself by the diplomatists to the Church. Each

Tribuna those who are afraid to served brilliantly in the nunciature at

preach deliver the best sermons. Madrid, altho not in the same capaci

It was easy to foresee, observed the ties, and both held posts in the secre

Giornale d'Italia not so long before tariate of state, one as the official head

the last conclave, that Archbishop or supreme moderator of the whole

Della Chiesa would win all hearts at office, the other as a member of the

Bologna, altho the aristocracy of staff in one of the sections. The dif

Genoa, to which he belongs, has never ference in their ages as well as in their

been famous for its urbanity. The rank made Rampolla the preceptor,

Genoese are bluff, plain-spoken, sugwhile Della Chiesa, completely under

gesting 'the English type of country the spell of his brilliant chief, absorbed

gentleman. The father of the new the teachings of his senior eagerly.

HIS HOLINESS

Pope wanted his sons to be sailors. As one instrument of the policy of The new Pope does not look his age in his Benedict XV. owes his personality and hostility to the monarchy in Italy in picture and here is a view of his features some

his temperament to his mother. She what less familiar than the one showing him in those spacious Leonine days of the last

we read, a Marchesa Giovanna

[graphic]

lis robes.

was.

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