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in any case what is most important for in action. The cinematograph can not

done by the cinema. Much of the clumsiTom may be thrown away

on Dick.

only show the figure in action, but can ness and ugliness of our habits is simple Probably at present the best work the arrest the action at any instant, and ignorance; we have never seen anything cinema does is the exhibition to masses thereby not only surprise here and there better, and are even ashamed of pleasing of poor children of the habits, dress, a moment at which the figure is graceful our natural taste for something better, bemanners and surroundings of people who and expressive, but-what is more im cause it would make us look peculiar. can afford to live decently.

portant-prove that ninety-nine times out The cinematograph, by familiarizing us “An obvious application of the cinema of a hundred the arrested action is ar with elegance, grace, beauty, and the rest to education is the reform of the Art tistically impossible, and that when the of those immoral virtues which are so School, with its 'life class' studying an really successful draftsman or sculptor much more important than the moral ones, absurdly unlifelike naked human being in presents a figure in action he combines could easily make our ugliness look ridica condition of painful and hideous simu- several successive moments in his repre ulous. The moral virtues can take care lated petrification and paralysis. Our art sentation, and thus arrives at an outline of themselves only too well; it is our destudents slave for years at this abomina no model can possibly give him.

ficiency in the immoral ones that is keeption, and finally deprive themselves of all “In all athletic exercizes, and in danc- ing us back in the march of civilizapower of drawing or even seeing a figure ing, what is called “showing form' can be tion.”

THE “MIRACLE”-REINHARDT'S LATEST GIGANTIC

SPECTACLE

M

AX REINHARDT, who "The first law of the new theater is into light, and to leave the unimportant in
dreams of the Theater of the utmost simplicity. Apart from the con the shadow.
Five Thousand, and whose sideration that there is no time for com "Thus the effects are simplified and
development has gradually plicated changes, the vast space demands heightened according to the need of monu-
led him toward the vast

the simplest of forms, and strong, big, mentality. Under the influence of these

severe lines. All accessories are super- mighty spaces, these big, severe lines, all pageant-like spectacle, expresses

his

fluous; they cannot possibly be noticed, or, that is small and petty disappears, and it ideal of the theater of the future in

if they are, they are a source of distrac becomes a matter of course to appeal to the gigantic spectacle “The Miracle.” tion. At the most, scenic decoration can the hearts of great audiences with the "The Miracle” is the culmination of only be frame, not function. The elabo strongest and deepest elements. The petty Reinhardt's art as a producer. It is ration of details, the emphasizing of nu and unimportant-elements that are not an imaginative reconstruction of the ances disappear; the actor and the actor's eternal in us—cease to have effect. This Gothic Cathedral, like Victor Hugo's

voice are truly essential, while lighting be theater can only express the great eternal "Notre Dame de Paris,” but in a dif

comes the real source of decoration, its elemental passions and the problems of ferent medium. In his search for a

single aim being to bring the important humanity. In it the spectators cease to synthetic unity and harmony, Max Reinhardt seems to have found his inspiration in Gothic art itself. He aims for a lofty, well-balanced unity made up of the most diverse elements, each subordinated to a single great spiritual emotion.

"The Miracle” is to be presented to Americans the latter part of this year, and, if we accept Huntley Carter as an authority, we shall find in it the highest and most perfect expression of the art of “one of the greatest masters of modern stagecraft.” Mr. Carter's book, “The Theater of Max Reinhardt,” is shortly to be published by Mitchell Kennerley (New York). In it we find

SPIELMANN AND THE KNIGHT Arthur Kahane's interpretation of the

In the scenario for Reinhardt's spectacle “The Miracle,” Dr. Karl Vollmueller has written

a story which leads us to accept an easy credence in the miraculous and the superhuman Reinhardt ideal:

as tho we actually were of the medieval populace.

Photo by Lieser, Berlin

be mere

spectators; they become the people; their emotions are simple and primitive, but great and powerful, as becomes the eternal human race. ... The chorus arises and moves in the midst of the audiences; the characters meet each other among the spectators; from all sides the hearer is being impressed, so that gradually he becomes part of the whole, and is rapidly absorbed in the action, a member of the chorus, so to speak. This close contact (intimacy) is the chief feature of the new form of the stage. It makes the spectator a part of the action, secures his entire interest, and intensifies the effect upon him.

“Big spaces compel the unfolding of personality. It is in these that men develop their best and final power. Tho separated by great distances, men still face each other, and inevitably the conflict

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REINHARDT'S GREATEST PRODUCTION

107

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Copyrighted by Erfuth, Dresden.

THE SPIRIT OF THE MIDDLE AGES
Max Reinhardt endeavors to resurrect or reconstruct the spirit of the Gothic Cathedral and the life of the Middle Ages that clustered about it.
Light, color, sound, and the massing and composing of crowds are among the media of his art. Here we look upon the Madonna taking the place
of the recreant nun Megildis administering to the poor during the absence of Megildis in the world.

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ing feeling arises as to who is the searchlights. These lights were thrown Carter, greatly added to the emotional stronger personality. Here strength and

down upon the players. Powerful arc color of the play. “By its aid alone, passion become the predominating quali- lights working from various points of generally speaking, one was enabled to ties, the quintessence of tragedy, the con

the auditorium were focussed on the follow the dramatic action.” flict of personalities, the two dramatic elements contained in and transmitted by stage. Hundreds of other lights were

used to illuminate the Gothic windows, space. It is thus possible to rediscover a

“The wonderful rhythm of the Hunfeeling which has been lost to us, but their rays pouring down from all garian dance, and the quaint rhythm of without losing that process of greater in- points, north, east, south and west. the grotesque old German dance in the timacy which seems to r..e the most use Not only were the lofty roof and the banqueting scene, the bedroom love-music, ful result of the late naturalistic move galleries and loft of the cathedral the opening of the grim inquisition scene, ment in the theater. For through the “wired” to their fullest extent, but the announced by a fanfare, and the martial

close contact with the spectator, who, "crypt” was also turned into a bewil- roll of drums, such outstanding features metaphorically speaking, can feel the warm dering maze of elaborate electric mech

of music at sought to run and dance breath of dramatic art, the actor will be

with the drama, made a deep impression. anism. compelled to drav from the well of his

Another noticeable thing was that the deepest experience.”

In solving the difficult problems con

composer had introduced a number of old fronting him, Reinhardt's ingenuity English carols and other foreign material.

amounted almost to genius, says Hunt In the concluding scene, for instance, the "The Miracle,” we learn, is Rein- ley Carter. The nave of the cathedral notes of supplication, with touches of love, hardt's greatest undertaking. It is

was meant to serve not only as an in- followed by anguish as the Nun's child meant to be the mark of an epoch. In terior scene but as an exterior as well. dies, were succeeded by the Sicilian Mariit, Mr. Carter tells us, Max Reinhardt

ner's hymn as the Virgin takes the dead has sought to break away altogether “Thus when the Church had finished child, and the music scene is brought to from the picture stage, in order to de- with it, the World entered by a very

a close with a well-known carol as the velop the idea of drama produced in simple contrivance. The vast Gothic doors crowd enters and bears off the Madonna an auditorium instead of within one end were opened, and a huge in triumph.” picture-frame. “Doors, windows, walls,

mound crested with trees was wheeled in. roof, columns, properties, all are real; By means of this and another contrivance

Plans for the initial American prothe lighting system is the completest the actors were enabled to step from actu

duction of "The Miracle” in Madison ality to actuality. The second contrivance that can be employed, every advan

Square Garden late this was a huge sinking stage placed in the

will

year tage being taken of the latest advances center of the arena. The platform was

necessitate the conversion of the huge made in electrical engineering.” The made to sink, so that each time it rose building into a semblance of the nave Gothic motive was sustained in every it could bring an entire change of en

of a Gothic cathedral. The production architectural detail. The decorations vironment. By this means the action was calls for the employment of no less and lighting effects were entrusted to carried uninterruptedly from banqueting than two thousand players.

An orErnst Stern, Reinhardt's art director. hall to bedchamber, to inquisition cham- chestra of two hundred players will be More than ten miles of lighting cable ber, and so forth. This sinking platform used, and an invisible choir of five was laid down for the special elec

was indeed an example of Reinhardt's in- hundred singers will be utilized in the trical installation for the spectacle. genuity, and appeared uncommonly like an up-to-date variation of the Shake- The gigantic spectacle will later be

rendering of Humperdinck's music. Just beneath the roof of the "nave”

spearean principle of alternate staging." a bridge was constructed, having three

presented at the Panama-Pacific Expoislands of lights, each containing forty The music by Humperdinck, says Mr. sition in San Francisco.

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FINLAND'S VOICE IN THE SYMPHONIES OF

JEAN SIBELIUS LMOST unheralded and “The Swan of Tuonela.” Other com- Finland-strong, virile, somber—that

noticed by the public at large, positions which have given him his has in him become articulate. In it Jean Sibelius, Finland's great- reputation as the greatest Finnish com one senses the immensity and power of est composer, visited the poser are “Finlandia," "Valse roman the Northern seas and winds. Mr.

United States recently to at- tique,” “Valse triste,” “En Saga,” and Krehbiel's interpretation follows: tend the Norfolk Music Festival. His the “Karelia” overture, as well as a

“The works of Sibelius are the first name has been a familiar one on New number of songs. His characteristic

strong voice which Finnish music , has York concert programs since 1902, note, Mr. Krehbiel believes, is his na found. It reaches our ears in a time of when his symphonic poem or “Legend tionalism. Sibelius' is the voice of ferment and stands, as has been intimated, for Orchestra” was played at a

not always with the símple eloquence cert of the Philharmonic Society.

which might be desired. But the comMaud Powell has carried his violin

poser is now in the prime of his strength.

From the music written for 'King Chrisconcerto to the chief musical centers

tian II.' to the best of that heard lastof the country, we are informed by

week there is a wide step. The 'Kalevala? H. E. Krehbiel in the New York

music is all deeper and more virile than Tribune. Perhaps nothing can better

most of that which preceded it, and the indicate the quality and the virility of

new composition (which also bears the the Sibelius compositions than Philip

title 'Rondo of the Waves') is fresh and Hale's rhapsodic reaction to this violin

vital, full of imagination and strong in concerto. When he first heard Maud

climax.

"Extremists will probably deplore the Powell play this concerto, says Mr.

fact that the composer is still a respecter Krehbiel, the music stirred the Boston

of form, still a devotee of beauty, still a critic into something nearer a rhapsody

believer in the potency of melody; but “than we can recall coming from his

this is rather a matter for congratulation discriminating pen."

than regret. It is only individual expresSibelius was born in 1865 in Ta

sion which remains within the boundaries vastehus, Finland. In his boyhood he

set by esthetic beauty which is admirable. took up the study of the violin. He

There is no excellent lawlessness in any matriculated at the university, with

art. Mr. Sibelius is a fine musical conthe intention of becoming a lawyer. In

structionist, an eloquent harmonist and a

fine colorist despite his fondness for dark 1889 and 1890 he studied under Albert

tints. He has done much but not all of Becker in Berlin, and later in Vienna.

which he is capable and which his vigor It is said that later, aided by a stipend

promises. He is an eloquent minstrel of from the Russian Government, he

his native land, but he may yet become made his home in Helsingfors, where

more eloquent. Who knows but he may he has labored industriously both as

yet chant lays which shall embody the conductor and composer. Sibelius has

spirit of his people with a power like

NOT A PEEVISH PESSIMIST found his chief inspiration in the tre

unto that attributed to the old epical The somberness of Sibelius is not an affec

tation.

The mendous sagas of the North.

heroes of his race? There is a thrill in It is broad and deep and elemental.

“There is something titanic about it," wrote his ‘Finlandia,' which invites delightful Finnish national epic, "Kalevala,” fur- Philip Hale, who added: “Look at the face of

speculation as to the power of his song nished the poetic material for his two

this composer.

Mark the determination of the expression. Would you expect genteel phrases,

when it shall reach its fulness of uttersymphonic poems “Lemminkäinen” and sugared sensuousness, from such a man?”

ance."

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T

THE DIONYSIAN SPIRIT WHICH VITALIZES THE

MUSIC OF

OF IGOR STRAVINSKY HERE are only two types of The compositions of Igor Stravinsky, ance by the Russian dancers. In commusic, declares M. D. Calvo- Leigh Henry declares in the London posing dance music he has succeeded, coressi in Comædia, living Egoist, are of a necessity a revolt

says Mr. Henry, “in raising the ballet music and mechanical music. against the dominion of the obvious. to a state truly chorographic which it

If a Mozart symphony, he “Confinement of creeds, religions or has never before occupied.” explains, charms us by its spontaneity, esthetics,” says Mr. Henry, "creates nothing charms us less than a sym- certain inactivities, and from inactivphony written a hundred years later ity springs incapacity, resulting in dis “In 'The Bird of Fire' Stravinsky preby a composer who is preoccupied only ease. Hence it is continually neces

sented a marvelous conception of movein modeling his material or develop- sary to stir the world and awaken a

ment and color, with a striking symbol in ing it precisely after the manner of thirst for movement and strenuous ex

the attempts to snare the elusive BirdMozart. The essential quality of the ercise, physical and mental, to avoid

Woman. But while creating a sumptuous music of Igor Stravinsky is that it is decrepitude. It was the realization of design of sounds, colors and rhythms, alive, declares the same critic in eulo- this that gave birth to the Greek alle- magnificence, the work fails to reach the

which transcend even 'Scheherazade' in gizing the work of the young Russian gory of Apollo and Dionysos, from

level attained in his later compositions, who while still in his twenties, has whence Nietzsche later evolved his

by reason of its over-sensuous appeal and in the sensational “Consecration of conception of the vital beings whom the limitations of its depictive theme. Spring,” “Petrouchka,” “The Fire he believed would precede the super- The dance-poem 'Petrouchka' transcends Bird,” and most recently in his ballet- man."

it both in internal quality, in dynamism opera “The Nightingale,” introduced a Stravinsky's most important compo- and significance. Here we have a work Dionysian spirit into European music. sitions have been ballets for perform- directly in touch with life, the vibrant and

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once

we

rhythmic life of a primitive mass, the scene in 'The Nightingale. I praise my- of Stravinsky's work, and, by reason collective life of an impetuous portion of self much not to be like that critic who, of its ironic literary basis and dynamic humanity, a work both expressive and already tired of an art that he had musical force, constitutes a striking penetrative. Music, movement and theme never understood, informed us that this demonstration of the vital and expanare here combined in a homogeneous event is beneath criticism, that 'nothing sive spirit underlying modern art crescheme, which is incomparable with any wears out more quickly than audacities

ation. It is based on one of Hans dance work preceding it, a truly vital that are repeated without being renewed,' conception which only misses the height and that after the “Consecration," M. Christian Andersen's fairy-tales. Mr. of creative achievement by reason of an Stravinsky's poetry in "The Nightingale" Henry interprets the theme in this over-reliance upon external forms. But appears not yet reactionary, but already fashion: the latest and greatest of Stravinsky's stationary,'—statements which must stupidance-creations, the tremendous dance fy all musicians.

“The fairy-tale by Andersen is in tragedy, 'Consecration of Spring,' sur “As a matter of fact, the thing that itself whimsically satirical and withal so passes even his own earlier work and struck musicians was precisely the new simple and penetrative that it at gives us the first perfect and unified daring of Stravinsky, the musical con pillories and pities the thoughtless and conception of syn

conventional world thetic chorography.

which it satirizes. Here we have the

The music of Straveritable essence of

vinsky enhances the Dionysian ecstasy,

theme and shows up the sensitivism and

in strong relief the nervous power pres

limitations of tradient in the new con

tionalism and also sciousness of the

evokes in the symworld expressed

bol of the nightinwith a perfect mas

gale, the spirit of tery which tran

freedom and joy. scends almost every

One has only to thing which

read the fairy-tale have hitherto under

to realize what a stood by the term

wonderful scope for 'dramatic. In all

subtle satire and these works of Stra

delicate symbolism vinsky is apparent

exists in it, and a strong consistency

what a unique opof motive, an ever

portunity it affords growing revulsion

for a musician of against sentimental

Stravinsky's caliber ism and formalism,

even when adapted an ever - increasing

for the requirements consciousness of the

of the theater. Take, vital capacity of

for instance,

the art."

search for the liv

ing nightingale. When the

‘Then the frogs beyoung Russian's

gan to croak in the latest

marsh. “Beautiful,” work, the ballet

said the Chinese opera "The Night

chaplain, “it is just ingale," was pro

like the tinkling of duced two months

church bells.” ago in Paris, the

“Or again take Stravinsky extrem

the wonderfully saists evinced consid

tirical moment (eserable disappoint

pecially for thought

ful musicians) when ment, relates Le

the two nightingales, Monde Musical, beDEATH AND THE NIGHTINGALE

artificial and natcause the new comIn the new opera-drama of the young Russian Igor Stravinsky, Death is impersonated by

ural, sing together. position

the charming singer Elisabeth Petrenko. Following the fairy-tale of Hans Christian Andersen,
the dying oriental potentate is saved from death by the wonderful singing of the nightingale,

*They did not get imazingly reticent who, by the way, sings in the orchestra-pit and not on the stage.

very well, for

the real nightinpared to the savagery, mystification, ception, of which you can discover only gale sang in its own way and the artihysteria and “anti-musicality” of the the embryo in his preceding work. I ficial one could only sing waltzes. “There horrendous “Consecration of Spring.” refer to that absolute contrapuntic liberty, is no fault in that,” said the music master, As a matter of fact, explains the com

that audacious independence of themes, “it is perfectly in time and correct in poser Maurice Ravel in the Paris harmonies, rhythms, the combination of every way.”

which, thanks to rarest musical sense, “Also the wonderful irony of the folComædia, “The Nightingale' does not offers such a seductive ensemble. This lowing passage : — 'The music

master nake a great deal of noise; and we

new conception of Stravinsky is related praised the bird tremendously and inknow that for a great part of the public especially to the new manner of Arnoldsisted that it was much better than the ind for the majority of critics, noise Schoenberg."

real nightingale, not only as regarded the ind a few proven formulas are necesary for greatness."

In “The Nightingale,” Leigh Henry outside with all the diamonds, but the in

side too. writes, Stravinsky's rebellion against

"«"Because, you see, my ladies and “Without doubt you cannot be touched inadequate and sterile conventions as

gentlemen, and the Emperor before all, in y the accents of a language that you sumes a symbolic aspect which is at

the real nightingale you never know just o not understand, and what you cannot once fantastic and intensely human

what you will hear, but in the artificial eel can only be superficial. I could at once subtly tender and ironic. It is

one everything is decided beforehand. So ite few theatrical efforts which offer distinguished by the delicate sense of it is and so it must remain; it can't be 10re moving passages than the very last values which is characteristic of all otherwise."

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SCIENCE AND DISCOVERY

PIEEEIBE

AN ATTEMPT TO VINDICATE THE NEW ART BY

THE LAWS OF VISION

L

was

ANDSCAPES by Lorrain and Con- which on close inspection are a mosaic necessary to produce complete fusion; and

stable are full of charm but of pure colors but appear at a distance so in pointilistic painting, when the pic-
they lack the atmosphere and
to be tinted grays.

ture is viewed beyond the distance at force of the so-called impres The impressionists, Monet, Segan

which fusion occurs the impression is sionist paintings of Monet, tini and the rest, appear to have laid as

practically that of the older painting. It Pissaro and the rest. In accounting a basis of their picture a gray at the

must be viewed at a distance just short

of that which is necessary to produce comfor this by an application of the physi- brightness or value which

they desired plete synthesis. The post-impressionists ology of color vision to modern art, each portion to assume.

On these sur such as Cezanne, Matisse, etc., realizing Doctor Henry G. Keller, of the Cleve- faces they then applied color more or this limitation in pointilism, have been land School of Art, and Professor J. less pointilistically. The neo-impres- searching after a method by which the J. R. Macleod, of Western Reserve sionists, such as Seurat and Segniac,

color scheme maintains its effect on us at Medical School, agree that in the older have gone a step further. They lay

whatever distance the picture is viewed. landscapes an attempt was made to on their pigments strictly in dots on a

The physiological principle upon which copy everything that could be seen by surface which

this depends is that known as contrast."

as nearly pure prolonged study. The canvas was cov white as possible. Among the ad

Simultaneous contrast, we are told, ered with details to its very edges. In vantages of the pointilistic method are impressionism it is merely the flash, the the sense of atmosphere, the vibrating, is illustrated by regarding a strip of

gray against a colored field, when the fleeting effect of the landscape, which scintillating quality of the color areas

gray becomes tinted with the compleis reproduced. There may, indeed, be and the very satisfactory transitions at considerable detail in certain portions the edges between them, all of which

mentary hue. A gray wall viewed

against a sun-lit background of green of the picture, but the greater part is are qualities that can be rendered in merely a color pattern. Yet after all no way so satisfactorily as by point

is no gray, but becomes tinted of a such an impressionistic picture can oc ilism.

purplish hue.

The phenomenon of successive concupy our attention for a moment only. There can be little doubt that a great

trast is elicited by steadily regarding We do indeed receive an impression part of the peculiar impression pro

a patch of a certain color for some time more or less like that which the artist duced by pointilism depends upon the

and then either closing the eyes, or, received on viewing his object; but slight movements which the eyeballs

better still, directing the gaze to a closer study of the picture does not are constantly undergoing, even during

neutral surface, such as a grayuncarry us further. There is something our most intent fixation. This produces absent with which nature abounds, a certain amount of overlapping of the of the same shape as that of the colored

tinted wall. A vivid color impression something that compels us, as when colors on the retina. In the same way viewing a landscape, to keep shifting vibrations of the eyelids by moving the patch previously looked at will be seen

in both cases, but exhibiting a hue our gaze from point to point, a rest- eyelashes across the palpebral cleft as

which is complementary to that of the lessness, a constant source of interest sist the synthesis, this being made eviand fascination. In post-impression- dent by half closing the eyes, a method patch. If we cause this to be projected ism the attempt is being made to sup- often used in studying pictures. To against a background which itself pos

sesses a certain hue, the two hues (the ply this want, to compel us to regard quote further from The Popular Scimore than the fleeting impression. The ence Monthly:

complementary and that of the re

garded surface) will become blended. closer we study such a picture, if it be

“The success with which the desired im Something must be said, too, regardsuccessful, the more comes out of it. It is kinetic not static art.

pression can be created in a pointilistic ing the relative refractability of differIn pointilism the application of the picture often depends upon the purity of ent colors. The rays of slow vibration,

In pointilism the application of the the colored dots, its vibrating quality being as at the red end of the spectrum, are physiology of color vision to art is most

at the same time. much enhanced by leav- less readily focussed than thoke which conspicuous. In this method the pig- ing a narrow margin of white around each vibrate quickly, as at the violet end. ments are laid down in minute areas

dot. When this is successfully done there or spots or lines so that when the pic- comes into play another physiological

Consequently, when red rays are in ture is viewed from a certain distance process known as flicker, which can be focus, violet rays are over-focussed and the different hues act on the same experimentally produced by rotating discs vice versa. The application of these

with black and white sectors at a speed principles in art depends on the fact nerve endings of the retina and therefore produce the same effect as if they which is just insufficient to cause a uni- that our judgment of distance is partly

form gray. The resulting flicker possesses associated with the amount of effort had been superimposed. Thus, if a

a glittering quality which makes it appear which we must make in order to acwhite surface be dotted over with red, of distinctly greater brightness than the commodate our vision. . green and violet, or any other primary gray which results from complete syncolors, or with red and greenish blue, thesis. The same thing may be seen by "Now it takes more effort to focus red or any other complementary colors, the observing the spokes of a wheel revolving than green or blue rays so that we always surface at a certain distance will ap at different velocities. Instead of black tend to locate a red object as being nearer pear grayish white. If, in any of the and white the sectors may be composed of than one that is blue or green. These

different hues. combinations, one hue be in preponder

facts can be very beautifully demon

"In the Aicker experiments the gray re strated by looking at red and green lamps ance of the others, the gray will become mains of the same degree of saturation at placed side by side; the green light apcorrespondingly tinted, so that a com

whatever rate the disc is revolving, pro pears to be behind the red. And in picplete picture may be built up of areas vided it is revolving more quickly than is ture painting the same principle's can be

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