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Europe in accordance with physiological principles, so as to illustrate the orderly progress of civilization, or collected the facts furnished by other branches of science with a view of en. abling us to recognize clearly the conditions under which that progress takes place. This philosophical deficiency I have endeavoured in the following pages to supply.

Seen thus through the medium of physiology, history presents a new aspect to us. We gain a more just and thorough appreciation of the thoughts and motives of men in successive ages of the world.

In the Preface to the second edition of my 'Physiology,' published in 1858, it was mentioned that this Work was at that time written. The changes that have been since made in it have been chiefly with a view of condensing it. The discussion of several scientific questions, such as that of the origin of species, which have recently attracted public attention so strongly, has, however, remained untouched, the principles offered being the same as presented in the former work in 1856.

CONTENTS.

ON THE GOVERNMENT OF NATURE BY LAWS.

Page

The Subject of this Work proposed.-Its Difficulty.
-Gradual Acquisition of the Idea of Natural Government by Law. It is

eventually sustained by Astronomical, Meteorological, and Physiological
Discoveries.— Illustrations from Kepler's Laws, the Trade-winds, Migra-
tions of Birds, Balancing of Vegetable and Animal Life, Variation of

Species and their Permanence.
Individual Man is an Emblem of Communities, Nations, and Universa

Humanity.—They exhibit Epochs of Life like his, and like him are
under the Control of Physical Conditions, and therefore of Law.
Plan of this work.—The Intellectual History of Greece.—Its Five Charac-

teristic Ages.-European Intellectual History.
Grandeur of the Doctrine that the World is governed by Law

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IONIAN PHILOSOPHY, commencing from Egyptian Ideas, identifies in

Water, or Air, or Fire, the first Principle.-- Emerging from the Stage of
Sorcery, it founds Psychology, Biology, Cosmogony, Astronomy, and

ends in doubting whether there is any Criterion of Truth.
ITALIAN PHILOSOPHY depends on Numbers and Harmonies.-It repro-

duces the Egyptian and Hindu Doctrine of Transmigration.
ELEATIC PHILOSOPHY presents a great Advance, indicating a rapid Ap-

proach to Oriental Ideas.-It assumes a Pantheistic Aspect.
RISE OF PAILOSOPHY IN EUROPEAN GREECE.- Relations and Influence

of the Mediterranean Commercial and Colonial System.-Athens attains
to Commercial Supremacy.—Her vast Progress in Intelligence and Art.
-Her Demoralization.-She becomes the Intellectual Centre of the Me-

diterranean.
Commencement of the Athenian higher Analysis. It is conducted by the

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