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* paralyzed one limb of the body politic, others must wither | our tariff, she will repeal her tariff, her corn laws, and 1 and perish with it.

open her ports to our commerce. She will receive our This will not be all. The manufacturing establishments cotton, as she does now at a duty of six per cent.; our of the North are overtbrown by the operations of “the sheep's wool, as she did in 1824, at six peoce sterling a

English system.” Competition in the cotton market of pound; and our wheat, at her lowest rate of duty, sixteen r the South, between European and American purchasers, shillings and eight pence sterling per quarter of eight

does now, as it has been demonstrated, advance the price bushels. Let us, sir, if you please, so believe: and though ; of their whole annual production twenty per cent. If Adam Smith told all the world, ip 1776, that England, on

the ordinary crop sell for twenty-eight millions, it would an average of years, buys but one bushel of corn to every 1, sell without this competition at an amount less, by at least five hundred and seventy-three of her consumption; yet,

four millions and a half. Let the amendment of the to give to the friends of free trade all they can ask, let it E member from South Carolina prevail, overthrow American be admitted that England will purchase from us to the * manufactures, take away this competition for the purchase amount of one third of her whole supply of bread. The

of cotton, and this item alsı) must be added to the invoice annual consumption of that nation is stated at fifteen i of southern loss.

millions of quarters of eight bushels each. One-third, Once more, and I will leave this inventory of ruin in the five millions of quarters, forty millions of bushels, will, in hands of whomsoever it may concern, When our manu. this state of free trade, be received from the United facturing capital and labor are in full and prosperous ope- States. If you please. I admit she will receive our fish, ration, we purchase and spin southern cotton, for which beef, and pork, at thirty per cent., that being the rate we pay to the planters of South Carolina, and other of duty offered by the gentleman from New York, (Mr. growers of that product, about seven millions of dollars CAMBRELENG) in his perpetual basis of free trade between annually. The overthrow of our establishments must the two countries. bring us back to the use of flax, hemp, and wool, and Let us examine the effect of this system of commerce exclude cotton from our consumption. Cotton to that on the interests of these United States. Exports will be amount will not be raised, because it will not be wanted; great; imports, and consumption of English manufactured and the land and labor now employed in producing it, must fabrics, will be abundant. We should, appually, in this be thrown out of use, and become of no value to their state of affairs, probably import cotton cloths to the

Look at the amount southern planters will lose : amount of forty millions, and woollens to the amount of The encouragentent on sugar,

$2,100,000 sixty millions of dollars. Our cotton wool must go to The advance of cotton, advanced by competi

England, as it does now, charged by her with a duty of tion,

4.500,000 six per cent. This augments the cost of the raw material The supply of cotton for American manufacture

exactly to that amount, and every one thousand pounds of and consumption,

7,000,000 cotton is thereby raised in price from one hundred to one The advanced annual value and amount of sales

hundred and six dollars. The cost of raw material is one from the market of slaves,

12,000,000 of the original elements in the cost of the fabric. It goes

into the cloth, and nothing will ever draw it out, until it is The total amount is

$25,600,000 worn out on the back of the consumer. It would be idle

to hope that England will draw back that duty then, which Tell us not that we shall continue to buy and consume she retains in her treasury now. In coarse cotton cloths, your cotton; we shall bave nothing wherewithal to pur, which would constitute nearly all your importation, raw chase the fabric from the English loom, or to obtain the material is one-half of the cost of the fabric. Your whole raw material for household manufacture. Do you ima- cotton consumption of forty millions of dollars would gine that our wives and daughters would lay your cotton come to you in effect charged with a duty of three per to the wheel or to the distaff, where their mothers and cent. On this part of your free trade, you will annually grandmothers placed the wool and the fax raised by the pay into the English treasury one million two bundred labors, and the hands of our fathers! Think not of it. thousand dollars. Neither they nor we shall ever endure the ignominious de Will your woollen trade be less productive to the Eng. pendence. How then can we work up, if we could purchase lish finances? If that nation receive our wool as they reyour cotton ? Our spindles are beaten into ploughslares ; ceived it in 1824, at a duty of six pence sterling, or twelve our waterfalls are desolate; our skilled, our manufacturing cents on a pound, and pay us forty cents for that quantity, labor is gode ; and without money appropriated by Go- the duty will amount to thirty per cent. Our wool will be vernment for their migratiop: these people are on the wrought into woollens, at a cost of thirty, per cent, for the other side of your great river in quest' of a country, benefit of the English treasury. This additional cost will Some of them hupt the buffalo on the prairies beyond come back to us, in the English woollens wrought from Missouri; some trap for lesser game in the Rocky moun- our own wool. In these cloths, also, woul is 'one-balf of tains; and some, pushing their more unwearied and adven- the cost of the fabric; one-half the duty, or fifteen per turous course farther ov towards the Western Ocean, have cent. will, therefore be charged to us. No process of sought and found waterfalls and new seats on the tributary chemistry, or political economy, can extract this from our streams of the Oregon. Here bave they built for them- woolleo consumption. It is a case not provided for by the selves a country, established commercial relations with the learned Dr. Cooper, or by his equally learned disciple, Society, the Sandwich, and Friendly Islands of the Pacific; who has, for so many years, edified this House op great and here New England labor and New England economy questions of national interest. Pay you must, on the whole bave taught them to live and thrive, unmindful of the amount of your English woollen consumption, one-balf the country whose mad and cruel policy drove them into exile. per centage which has been charged on your wool; and Here they may live and flourish, until some slave-driving pay it you must for the benefit of the English treasury. politician and planter of South Carolina finds out their You will import sixty millions of English woollens; fifteen little commonwealth, extends the iron provisions of the per cent. on that annount is nine millions of dollars. This English system to their labor, and again chains them to a forms the second great branch of commercial profit, resultmiserable dependence on South Carolina cotton and British ing from the English system of free trade. looms.

The export corn trade will be great, and may com penThe advocates of the English system may tell me these sate for these minor inequalities of benefit, in our importthings will not, cannot, come to pass. If we are liberal to ation of cloths---forty millions of bushels of wheat, someEngland, England will surely be liberal to us. Repeal what more than one million tong. This will give immense em.

H. OF R.)

The Tariff

[MAY 10, 1830.

ployment to our “mercantile marine,” and realize all the | Poland is to the other nations of Europe. The West will goluen schemes projected by the chairman of the Com- not do this the North will not do this--do it who may, mittee on Commerce. It should, however, be remernber- New England will not. So long as one soldier of "75 lives ed, that business cannot be rendered profitable by doing a on our bills, or one soldier's dust sleeps in a grave ou out great deal, when every part of it is a losing concern. The battle fields; so long as the 4th of July is a day in the chrisEnglish will receive our wheat at their lowest rate of duty, tian calendar, New England will not. By the souls of those sixteen shillings and eight pence sterling on the quarter of men who fell at Lexington, and Bunker Hill, and Benning eight busbels. This will be, on each bushel, about fifty ton, pow beatified by redeeming mercy, New England will cents. This corn, if we make no account of the cost of not chain berself to the wheel of this odious system. conveying it to England, will, by the duty, be raised in Will the South, the generous, the warm-hearted, the price fifty cents & bushel

. The English manufacturers, patriotic South do this i Will they leave us ? Plant their who fabricate cotton and woollen cloths for our consump- fields, that British royalty may reap their toil! Be tribution, must pay fifty cents more for each bushel, than it taries, that a few demagogues may wear stars on the shoul would have cost American manufacturers, had they con- der, or garters at the knee? When such a spirit is abroad sumed it while producing the like fabrics in this country in the land, will they not question it! This additional cost of their bread must be added to tbeir * Be it a spirit of health, or goblin damn'd, wages, or the English manufacturing laborers cannot buy

Bring with it airs from heaven, or blasts from hell,

Be its intents wicked, or charitable; and consume our corn. Wages are one of the elements It comes in such a questionable shape, which go into all the fabrics produced by labor. As surely That they will speak to it." as raw material, at all its cost, is paid for, so surely must South Carolina-of all these States opce most devoted to wages, at their whole cost, be paid for by those who con- this Union--go thou, if thou wilt. Leave this brotberbood sume the products of labor, fed and supported by wages. of republics, this home of equality in the new world, for The duty on American corn is charged to the English ma- aliepage in the old, and secondary rights and bonors with nufacturing laborers who consume that corn. These la- European royalty. Provide for thyself other relations borers charge the amount of duty paid by them to the alliance with England! The union will be Sicyon with MaEnglish master manufacturers, in the enbanced price of cedonia ; Aratus, the republican, with Antigopus, the king. their wages. These master manufacturers must reimburse When his beloved city was filled with foreign soldiers; themselves, by charging a like amount on their cotton and when he bebeld the family of his darling son dishonored, woollep cloths. Here is the end of the course ; and the and felt the poison circulating in bis veins,“ such," said American farmers, who have sold the corn, and who must the dying patriot to his veeping friend,“ such, Cephalon, buy the cottops and woollens, stand in the gap, and must are the fruits of royal friendship.” Alliance with England! shoulder the burden. What is it! The whole amount of No matter by what dame this connexion is known to politiyour exported coru was forty millions of bushels; the duty cians in South Carolina, it will be deemed by all free men on each bushel is fifty cents, and amounts in the whole sum in all other lands, the lion and the lion's provider! to twenty millions of dollars. Let this be the third item in England -and what bas England done for the South! your account of profit and loss in the English system of free English avarice plundered from Africa ber untamed bar trade. I might run this account out into more length- barism, her wild freedom, and, when chained and whipt setting down freight on the outward and home voyage ; in into slavery, imported and spread out the moral pestilence surance against perils of the seas, perils of war, hazards over her whole colonies of the South-not only on you, and of increased duty; competition with foreign growers of on you, and on you, was the scourge of nations inflicted, 'corn ; and all the long inventory of evils resulting from but on all those of “the cane bearing isles" of the Carri this miserable and degraded tributary condition of depend bean sea. Wby, and for wbose benefit? That this vretelence for our pecessary clothing ou a nation at a distance of ed slavery might toil; that you, as overseers, might toil, three thousand miles. Here I will stop, and, after placing to- and plough, and plant, and reap, and deliver to England gether the amount paid to England on these items of ex. the rich harvest. For what ? For the very purpose, under port

, leave it to ench gentleman of the committee to fill up the very system, this day, in this House, so earnestly de the amouut for bimself.

manded by you that her labor may be fed from your fields, You will pay as a duty on cotton in the

and your barvest be taxed to furnish her revenue ; that they cloth brought home for your consump

may be enriched by you, and you be made poor by then tion,

$ 1,200,000 they be lords, you any thing they please. On sheep's wool, in a duty on wool

What more would England do for the South, if more brought back in woollens, for the like

may be done? Would she goad on that State to separate purpose,

9,000,000 from the Union Hear; read; and read all wbich is said, On corn, in duty ircreasing its expense Gereasing

or written, by her birelings in Europe, or by her renegade and thereby increasing the cost of labor

birelings in America. Of all, what is the amount ! Divide fed by it, and finally charged on the fabrics

and conquer, whom, united, she cannot. Conquer the brought home for your consumption, 20,000,000 South by alliance. The North? No, not the North, por

the East, not the West. These they cannot; while there Amounting to $ 30,200,000 is a man, or a woman, or a child left living in those regions, This, sir, will be a part of your annual lossm-your an- they cannot conquer them. Let them, as in other days pual tribute to the treasury of Great Britaip.

they did, pour the barbarism of Europe upon us. Each Sir, is it wonderful that Englishmen, and the friends of valley shall be a Golgotha ; each bill shall be steeped in Englishmep, should write, talk, toil, declaim for the English blood to the very top. Here we have lived free; where system? Is it wonderful that the patriots before the we have lived, as we have lived, we will die; and the winds revolution labored and toiled, and the revolution fougbt of heaven sball, in those regions, blow over pode but free and bled, to save themselves and us from this degraded, men, or the bones or graves of free men. this tributary condition—"this golden chain" of South What other boon is England providing for berself, and Carolina politicians? Is it, can it indeed be wonderful that for her colonies, her allies in the new world ! The pure the survivors of those patriots, the Congress of 1789, laid spirit of humanity, of elevated morals, of genuine religion, the foundation of the American system, with high purpose and of universal emancipation, are abroad in the world. of finishing that glorious achievement

These will be made tributary to her wealth and to ber Sir, let our whole country adopt this policy--this Eng-power. Avarice and ambition will sell her glory and her lish system-and from that time we are to England what god for gold, and for dominion. Already it is said, and

MAY 10, 1830.)

The Tariff

[H. OF R.

it will be enacted by England, that slaves in the West | ly into every chamber, look at every child, put a kiss on · India islands must be free. Can South Carolina be the every forehead, and breathe a father's blessing over every - ally of Great Britain, and not feel the influence of her inuocent and lovely sleeper. What makes your and their

power and policy? When “St. George's banner, broad security? What cools your fevered and anxious apprehenand gay,” floats, as it once did, over the territory of the biops! A thousaud slaves are on your plantations ; but the State, the spirit of English emancipation will walk abroad full fed and slumbering tiger cannot be more quiet. We under the shadow of its ample field; and every chain shall sleep far off in our green valleys; but our fidelity is awake; drop from the neck of every slave. The master and his and the arm of our power is at the very door of your babifree mun shall plough the same field; feed from the same tation. The wbole slavery of the South knows you are table ; sleep in the same dormitory. If so far might be strong in our Union; powerful in our united strength. well

, would such a herd of slaves, at once let loose from From West to East, around the whole horizon of your discipline, from the restraints of masterdom, submit to northern hemisphere, the cloud of our power is ever in their law, and patiently labor even for themselves? Here will eye, and“ bangs lowering on the declivity of our moun. be seen the length, and the breadth, and the depth of tains," ready to burst upon their heads the moment one English humanity and English wisdom. She foresees the arm is raised against your safety. This appalling meteor

time, under the effects of this policy, when the arm of ber can never be hidden from their eyes, until, between you "military power must be extended, to hold under control and us, you shall raise a wall of separation high enough to

the emancipated slavery of the new world. Here will be, cover the terific vision, not only work, but pay, for her surplus population. The Wbat further would the free States in this Union do to United Kingdom can furnish a large supply; for the most relieve those encumbered and burdened by slavery? effective troops will not be thought requisite for the colo- How gladly would they make disbursements for the great pial service. Such as might perform garrison duty, may and glorious purpose of colonization? Do you say this be detailed for officers of platoons, and, to some extent, could not bave been the intention of those who founded for file leaders. The filling up will be made from other this Goveroment? The patriots and philanthropists of this masses of population. Wandering mendacity shall be Union will join to place this power in the constitution. It culled of its sturdy beggars; alms houses assorted for a may require years of patient labor, and wise counsel, and stouter class of paupers; and jails recruited for athletic, un- liberal appropriation to perform this work. The disease transported felons, to fill up the ranks of this servile war. is chronic; but fewer years than formed it, may operate a Such a demand for men may be further satisfied by what perfect cure. Migration first forms colonies; these will exever has strength of arm to handle the firelock, or activity tend into States, and those into United States, y early abof leg equal to movivg the left foot .first; or so much of sorbing a greater and greater pumber of emigrants. These vitality as may be started by beat of drum, or blast of the movements, slow and small at first, grow more rapid and "ear-piercing fife.". When poor-houses and prisons are extensive, by their own progress. swept of their living tepants, Manchester and Sheffield During the last century, a mighty revolution of mind cap recruit them into men, and they will come out of these bas been made in the civilized world. Its effects are graworkshops, brightened in buff and scarlet, shiving with dually disclosing themselves, and gradually improving the caps and cockades, bristled with muskets and bayonets ; condition of the human race. The eyes of all pations are cut up into companies, and regiments, and brigades, they turned on these United States; for bere that great move. are officered by supernumery young lords and long ment was commenced. Africa, like a bereaved mother, swords. Numerous as locusts, such, sir, will be the army holds out her bands to America, and implores you to send bent out by the patronage and liberality of England to back her exiled children. Does not Africa merit much protect the white, and awe, and ivstruct

, and quiet into at the hands of other nations ? Almost four thousand years good citizens the colored population of ber colonies, and ayo, she, from the then rich storehouse of her genius and allied States. Sections of these veterans, quartered, not labor, sent out to them science, and arts, and letters, laws, only on Jamaica and Barbadoes, but on South Carolina, and civilization. Wars and revolutions have exbausted this and such other States as may join her alliance, you will see ancient abundance, aad spread ignorance and barbarism maneuvering on parade, or promenading public places, over her regions ; and the cupidity of other nations has or bowing in ball rooms, and giving a new tone to every multiplied and aggravated these evils. The ways of Pro. complexion of society. Do not expect such and so many vidence cannot always be seen by man. When the Al. benefits, without cost. These military men must earn their mighty comes out of his cloud, ligbt fills the eyes of the rations and their wages, and receive them, too, where they universe. What a mystery, when ibe youthful patriarch, do services, and win their honors.

lost to his father, was sold into slavery! Wbat a display Forgive me if I speak more in the words of mirth than of wisdom and benignity when we are permitted to see sadness. It is not in the heart of man-I cannot I cannot, "all the families of the earth blessed” by that event! even in imagination, look at our country, disunited at Shall we question the great arrangement of divine wishome and allied abroad, upless the darkness of the picture dom, or bold parlance with that power who has made be relieved by some lights pot altogether germain to the whole countries the enduring monuments of his avenging coloriog.

justice? Let these people go. They are citizens of anLand of the South, look at us. Hear the voice of your other country ; send them home. Send them home infriends, the sons of your fathers' friends. Lovely realm structed and civilized, and imbued with the pure princi. of valor and beauty, who protects you now! Your own ples of christianity; so may they instruct and civilize their country-a brotherhood of patriots. Were it not so, what native land, and spread over its wide regions the glad might not be! You are awakened by the cry of fire at tidings of human redemption. Secure to your country, to midnight. The blaze of conflagration illumines your your age, to yourselves, the glory of paying back to Afrien chamber. Insurrection, and massacre, and violation are the mighty arrears of nations. Add another new world in a husband's, a father's fears. You start from your bed, to the civilized regions of the globe. your wife presses her infant closer to her bosom. Do you Do not say your States will be depopulated ; your fields hear the shriek of your daughter flying from brutality! left without culture. In countries equal in fertility, and Your son is cloven down, you find him weltering in his under the same laws, you cannot create a void in populablood on the threshold of his sister's chamber. It is-God tion; as well might you make a vacuum in the atmosphere. be praised-it is but a dream; an agonizing dream. You Better, more efficient labor will come to your aid. Free lie down again; but the fearful vision will not depart from men, observant of the same laws, cherishing the same you, until, with lighted taper in your hand, you step soft-Union, worshipping the same God with you, will place

H. or R.]

The Tariff.

[MAY 10, 1830.

themselves by your side. This change of moral and phy- tion, I beg leave to make some general remarks on the sical condition in our population will follow the removal system itself. I freely admit that, in every country, the of that pernicious cause, now so productive of alarming employments of men should be so diversified as to suit difference in political opinion; jealousies, incident to our their various propensities and capacities; and, so great is present state, shall give place to a glorious emulation of the advantage of this diversity, that labor is often advanpatriotism; and, O my country ! if God so please, thou shalt tageously employed on objects which (on any general be united, and prosperous, and perpetual I

estimate) yield (as it seems) less profit than others to which Mr. BOULDIN said, he could not regard the issue of it might be turned. But the genius and disposition of the this debate in any degree doubtful; yet was the subject people will sufficiently lead them to this diversity of pur under discussion of vital consequence to this Government suit. I grant, too, that, as it regards manufactures, the and to this country. An issue is made up (said Mr. B.] Government of a compact country, including a population between gentlemen of the highest standing and greatest similarly situated, may sometimes act wisely by taxiog the talents, deeply involving the prosperity of the country, and community to foster manufactures; but this happens only the very existence of the Government.

wben, regard being had to the price of labor, the climate, It is alleged, on the one side, that one-third part of the genius of the people

, and every thing which can permapopulation of the Union are, by law, compelled to bear a Dently influence the price of production, it is seen that burden equal to two-thirds of the whole revenue arising the needed skill, experience, and economy, are all that is from imposts. This inequality is denied on the other side, wanting to enable them, in that particular, to meet the accompanied with the admission, that, if it exists, no Go- manufactures of other countries in fair competition. And, vernment sau maintain it, no people will or can bear it. sir, to justify this taxing of the community, there should This, bowever, is followed by the assertion, that the tariff be, at least, a fair probability that, in due season, he who laws have been forced on the North ; that capital has been pays the present price of protection, shall be repaid, and invested under them; and, whatever may be the present with reasonable interest, by the diminished price or juor future views of the South, she will be held to it; and proved quality of the article. A question often arises, whe thus, it seems, the flag is nailed to the mast.

ther it is best to give this extent of justifiable encourage The southern people and their State Governments en- ment, by direct bounties, or by duties laid on the foreign tertain the same opinions with their representatives here.! article. I shall make no effort to solve this question as a Throughout the whole planting country, the opinion that general one. In regard to such a country as I have sup they are unequally taxed, is settled, is fixed. No difference posed, the protecting system, in the one or the other mode, exists among them on the subject, but that which arises inay be adopted, according to circumstances. But, as it from the different degrees of irritation arising from the regards such a country as the United States, direct bousoppression of this system of protecting the labor of others ties would be less unequal and unjust in their operation at their expense.

than protecting duties ; but any mode of protection by this I repeat that this is a question of vital importance. My Government would be liable to the objection that a gene constituents have been represented here by one who could ral tax is applied to a partial benefit : this, however, is cerdo justice to this or any other question. And although I thinly better, or, rather, not so bad, as the operation of the should be the last man in this world to call on them or you, protecting duty system here, which makes him who is very sir, to “ look on that picture, and ou this,” yet I cannot remotely, if at all to be benefited by manufacturing skill

, forbear saying that, to him, we owe the fact that the “ hye- pay double as much to produce it, as he does, who is to da," embargo, (which has been charged with being the pro- reap all the direct, and nine-tenths of the remote, adrangenitor of this tariff,) was a thing, in the creation and contages from it. To place the fact of this inequality in a tinuance whereof my constituents bad no sbare. With plain and simple point of view before the country, was that reach of thought, extent of knowledge, and accuracy and is, my principal object. I bave adverted to these of judgment, in which he bas few equals, no superiors, truisms in political economy, fur the simple purpose of he foresaw the end of these things, pointed them out to showing that so much of sepse as there is in the common us, and we have only to lament that those who ruled the slang of fostering American industry, bas not been passed destinies of tbis land did not also see the nature and charac heedlessly over by me. Should I be charged with taking ter of commercial restrictions, as applied to American po- my principles, in part, from Alexander Hamilton, I should licy. I agree, sir, that the gentlemen who say that the not plead not guilty." The difference between that great tariff

, of which we now complain. grew out of the em- statesman and some “ I have heard others praise." is prebargoes, non-intercourse laws, and war, are right. Yet, cisely that which separates between the physician of should it not be forgotten that the petitions, remonstrau- science, experieuce, and sense, and the bold empirie whose ces, and memorials of those who afterwards opposed the nostrums cure all diseases. When Hamilton proposed embargo most_violently, had no inconsiderable effect in moderate discriminations in the duties, to protect manufaeproducing it. But it matters not how the tariff came; the tures, he examined, critically and accurately, into the exinquiry is, whether it be an evil, and bow to get rid of it. tent of the difficulties to be overcome : proportioned his I shall pot attempt to range over the whole ground occu. means to the end; but with this especial observance," pied by the gentleman from South Caroliva, (Mr. McDuf- that, with bim, the end was never one not worth the means FIX) who opened this debate; and in the partial view which required to produce it. Those who have followed have I shall take, I may not be able to prove the existence of reversed this picture entirely--they do not inquire the cost the inequality stated, by bim to its full extent ; yet am I not of what they desire: if it be good in the abstract, it seems to be understood as admitting that any of the conclusions to suffice them; aod if they regard us as alien enemies, drawn by him were erroneous : it is only the mere simple they need not care how much we pay for what they get. and obvious effects of the tariff system I mean to exbibit; Between Hamilton and those with whom I agree in opinion leaving the able and profound views of political economy, on the original and general questions of American policy, taken by that gentleman, upaided, and not (designedly) there was this differenee, that he deemed it desirable that weakened by me.

this Government should bave more power than the constiI shall attempt to prove that the burden imposed by tution gave it. They thought it had too much. He thought the tariff system on the southern country is so unequal, this Government bad more power under the constitution, that it justifies a peremptory call for relief; that it is such than they thought was conferred ; and thus he acted under

as no Government can maintain-10 people can or will the Government, more as if he had an entire whole under bear.” But, before I enter on the particular course of his inanagement, than those whom (in this respect) I am reasoning by wbich I expect to demoustrate that propor- proud to follow, deemed congistent with the sovereigoty

May 10, 1830.]

The Tariff

(H. OF R.

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and independence designed to be retained by the States. I be proved that the manufacturer will not, ordinarily, sell His was, in a word, the old federal doctrine, denied, re- his goods below the market price. Charity is unknown in probated, but practised by the new republican school, with transactions of this kind. this only difference, that, while they follow the priociples In the case stated, T pays forty per cent. on all the imof Hamilton, they wholly discard bis wisdom and prudence ported goods consumed by her citizens, which goes into in praetice. One of Mr. Hamilton's maxims I have heard the treasury, and precisely the same amount (which is, in cited bere as authority, during this debate : it is, that the effect, a bounty to the manufacturers of N) for home profinal effect of success in any branch of manufactures, is ductions. to reduce the price of the article of this effect, he never It is perfectly manifest that, in the case stated, T pays lost sight in his practice. He deemed it unwise to expend the whole tax, except the little paid by the merchant and money to force the manufacture of any article which could ship owner; for, at the time the citizens of T lay out their not, in the end, be produced here as cheap as it could be money in goods, one-half imported, and paying a duty of imported. Fifteen per cent. duty was regarded by bim as forty per cent., and the other half of home productions, ad ample bounty for the production of any article; and, paying no duty, for the same money, the other half of their whenever that encouragement failed to produce the effect consumption might bave been supplied by duty-paying of success, he deemed it a practical proof that, at the time goods; and the money they thus pay for home productions, of trial, the article could not be advantageously manufac- will pay for the same quantity of imported goods contured here.

sumed in N, being the whole importation, except the ship It is not denied but the acts of foreign Governmenis owner and merchant's freight and profit. migbt defeat this rule; but they can do it in no other way indeed, commonplace matters, and truths so obvious, that, than by bounties on the manufacturing or exporting parti- in the more able views taken of this interesting subject by cular articles. These bounties, I know, must be met by an scientific - political economists, what I have attempted to equivalent bounty or impost, over and above the fifteen prove by argument is referred to simply as a fact about per cent., to give the rule a fair trial. I bave heard a which no doubt exists. Nor could I have been induced to good deal of unmeaning reference to a change of times, present an argument of this sort, but for the round and and full of prices, as circumstances requiring a variation constant assertion, here and elsewhere, that the burden of of Mr. Hamilton's rule. These, sir, are wholly without protecting duties is borpe wholly by the consumers of the meaning. If circumstances have rendered the cost of pro- duty-paying goods, in proportion to the consumption of duction of any article in a foreign country half what it such goods. formerly was, and those circumstances do not apply here, In the case I have stated, it is shown that N, as a body, it is the very reason why we should purchase and not ma- pays no import taxes. I know that individuals in N (ali nufacture the article. If the circumstances do apply, then but the manufacturers) pay this tax; and among them they fifteen per cent. gives the same advantage it before did. do also pay exactly the same sum tbat T pays; the whole But to our modern politicians the failure of fifteen per amount of duties is paid to the treasury, and the same cent. only proves that fifty is required, which is laid on amount is paid to the mapufacturers in N. In their exwith much'indifference by those who receive more of it changes ope with another, this protection is do protection than they pay; and that they do receive more than they at all. The actual protection given to these manufacturers pay, that the minority, consisting of one-third part of the is confined wholly to the productions of their labor, sold to population of this country, are greatly over burdened by the unprotected classes. this protecting system, I shall proceed to prore. To set In the country I have supprised, the manufacturing estathis matter in a clear light, I will suppose a case. N and blishments may also be supposed to be interspersed T are distinct parts of the same country, equal in popula- throughout the country of N; the premium paid to them tion, and separated by the river P. T produces the whole for manufacturing by their unprotected neighbors, the culexporte, and manufactures none. The merchants reside tivators of the earth around them, is in some degree comin N; they buy the exports made in T, and export them. pensated by the market they afford for agricultural producThey import an equivalent; upon which imports a duty of tions, and occasional employment given to the spare labor forty per cent. is laid. In N, every article imported is also of the farm; and when it is considered that the market in manufactured ; but they manufacture exactly half as much T for their goods may be fairly, in this case, said to double of each article as the consumption of the whole country their numbers, and so double the sum of this convenience requires. The inhabitants of T receive the money for to their neighbors, and that, in most cases, a good deal of their exports of the merchants of N; and they turn round dust can be thrown over the question of quality and price; aod lay out one-balf of it for articles manufactured in N, and if to all that be added the fact that the duties were and the other half for goods imported. The inhabitants raised upon a falling market, covering the effect produced of T are, by this duty, burdened with a duty of forty per on the price, a strong case is made for the acquiescence ceot. on the whole amount of their exports; and the in- of these neighboring cultivators in the share they bave to habitants of N, collectively, pay not one cent of this tax, bear in supporting this establishment, which, in this case, except the duty on the imported goods, purchased with is of the same cost with that of their Government. To the freight and exporters' profit; by which amount the the citizens of T this is an unmixed burden, “and an inestatement shows N to be able to pay for and consume more quality which po Government cap maintain, no people will, thau T. The result here stated can by no reasoning be cap, or ought to bear." I am perfectly certain of the effect rendered more clear to men acquainted with the affairs of the case supposed. If it is not demonstrated, it is my and business of the world. To such it is manifest that the fault. It remains for me to show in what degree the differhome made article of the same quality will sell, in the samej ent parts of this country approximate to the ease supposed, market, for the same price with the one imported. To such, and therefrom to conclude whether the present tariff laws

too, it is also plain that the manufactured and imported do operate so unequally that they ought not to be and of goods will be sold at somewhat better prices, provided the cannot be borne. 9 manufacturer can afford to undersell the importer than if The facts are, that one-third of our population produce

he cannot. In the former case, the importer will be com- two-thirds of our exports; that the goods imported are pelled to be circumspect, and import only what the market subject to a duty of at least forty per cent.; and let it be requires ; thus keeping always what is called a sharp de admitted (though not believed) that the imported articles mand. A knowledge on his part that the manufacturer are consumed, throughout the whole country, in proporcan undersell him, will always prevent him from overstock. tion to population. The two-thirds who produce oneing the market; and, I suppose, no one will require it to third of the exports, are largely engaged in manufacturing

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