Imágenes de páginas

SEN. AND H. of REPS.) Documents accompanying the President's Message. [21st Cong. 1st Sess.

to whom delivered for use ; receiving, examining, and filing these are duties which every public agent should be de| all returns, showing the various issues, the quantities left sirous of rendering.

op hand, surveys, &c.; to file all offers for supplies, and Disbursing agents, out of the United States, should be scale them for decision; keep all the papers connected required to take quadruple vouchers for their expendiwith such supplies; the state of each and every station, as tures, 90 as to enable them to send two in each case, by as to supplies; all the shipments made, &c. &c.; and to do all many different vessels, and retain two in case of accidents. such other business as may be required of him.

They should then be required to forward one set of their A copying clerk, to keep the letter books, and do such accounts by the first opportunity, and another set by the other copying as may be required of him.

next earliest; we should thus, much earlier than at preOther officers would also be required to act, under the sent, possess a knowledge of the foreigo accounts of the immediate direction of the Chief of this branch : for in- Department. stance, officers to inspect provisions and slop clothing ; to With regard to the principle upon wbich Navy approhold surveys upon them; to attend particularly to all ship- priations are made by Congress, and the forms and rules ments, and guard against all impositions in the quality and observed in their

, administration, by the Department, it is condition of articles delivered under contracts, &c. hoped that a reference to the communication which the

It will be seen that this arrangement proposes, that mo- Commissioners had the bonor of submitting on the 31st pey requisitions shall pass the special examination of the March last, will repay for the trouble of making it. There branch under which they are to be expended: the reason are numerous facts exhibited in that communication, which is obvious: that branch will possess precise knowledge will assist us in forming satisfactory conclusions. But it upon the subject, and will be enabled to decide promptly may be sufficient, on this occasion, to select from among and correctly whether the requisition should be approved them, the following, viz: or not; for instance, sbould money be required under the The returns of one of the disbursing agents, head of “ Repairs,” the requisition would be sent to the exhibited Balances on hand,

$69,761 58 officer baving charge of the building, repairing, and Overpayments; that is, expenditures exequipping department,” who would cause it to be exam ceeding the sums remitted, under certain ined mivutely, and, if found correct, he would approve it, specific heads of appropriation,

69,230 13 and submit it in that state to the Secretary of the Navy, who would cause a warrant for the amount to be issued, Actual balance of money in his hands, - $531 45 and placed in the bands of the disbursing agent, to be ap plied by him in conformity with bis instructions ; thus, in The returns of another disbursing agent, its incipiency, using every precaution to ensure its faithful showed Balances on hand,

$103,248 33 application and expenditure.


92,259 41 But, with these precautions, which would, unquestion. ably, greatly improve the existing practice, we should • Actual balance of moneys in his hands, $10,988 92 still be uncertain as to the application of money, according to instructions : nove but the officer giving the in One of the agents, baving upwards of thirty thousand structions can decide, to a certainty, whether the moneys dollars in his hands, belonging to, and remitted to bim are expended according to those instructions; and this he out of the appropriation for "Gradual Increase," apascertains by comparing the one with the other on his re- plied the amount to the payment of accounts arising under cords. It is, moreover, to be presumed, that his profes- five other distinct heads of appropriation, viz: Sloops of siopal knowledge, which enables him to judge correctly War, Navy Yards, Five Schooners, Contingent prior to as to the kind, quality, quantity, and prices of the articles 1824, and Contingent for 1826. required in the department of the service specially com The principle which confines the application of Navy mitted to him, would be of particular value in the exami- appropriations to the particular objects for wbich they nation of all accounts originating in oxpenditures directed are made. or which, in other phrase, declares that “ the by himself. This admitted, it results, that every account sums apppropriated by law for each brauch of expendiof expenditure should be examined and approved by the ture, shall be solely applied to the objects for which they officer having the superintendency of the branch which are respectively appropriated, and no other," hus thus, in approved the movey requisitious, and from which the in- numerous instances, been violated in practice. The instructions for its expenditure were issued. Accounts, quiries of the Commissioners lead them to believe that this thos examined and certified, might be sent to the Fourth has been done sometimes intentionally, as the least of Audifor of the Treasury, and there undergo such further two evils ; at other times, unintentionally, arising from examination, as to their calculations, as would ensure their misapprehension on the part of disbursiog agents and correctness. Such an arrangement would impose audito- others, as to the proper head of appropriation to wbich rial duties upon each branch of the Department, and, in disbursements should be charged. that case, additional clerks would be required, viz. : two The cases particularly cited are, principally, it is befor the first mentioned branch, and one for each of the lieved, of the former class. The agents were instructed, others.

it is understood, to apply moneys in their bands, under Under such an arrangement, disbursing agents, resid- certain heads, to the payment of accounts arising and due ing in the United States, might be required to forward under other heads. Such accounts were, it is said, of their accounts weekly; that is, to send, at the termination such a nature, that payment of them could not be postponed of every week, their vouchers for disbursements during without violating the public faith, to preserve which, it bethat week. Upon being received, they would be imme- came necessary to violate the law. diately examined, and, if found correct, the amount would Of the latter class cases are cited in our communicabe passed to their credit, and they would be so informed; tion of the 31st March last, to which we beg leave to refer if incorrect, the error would be corrected, while all the you. circumstances are fresh in the memory of all parties. This The Commissioners not having been charged with the course would be attended with advantages both to the duty of adjusting and settling Navy accounts, can give no Government and to the individuals coucerned, to whom precise information respecting them; but the deep interthe prompt settlement of accounts should always be de- est they take upon all subjects affecting the service in sirable ; and it is not perceived that it would occasiou which they have the honor of holding commissions, bas much, if any, additional trouble to either party. It would induced them, from time to time, to make inquiries, from require the constant and vigilant attention of both ; and I which they are fully satisfied, that the intention of the

21st Cong. 1st Sess.) Documents accompanying the President's Message. [SEN. AND H. OF REPS. law of 1809, in its provisions as to the application of the If a single dollar be taken, intentionally or otherwise, specific appropriations, has never been carried into full from one appropriation, and applied to another, it is a effect, in any one year since its enactment. The theory violation of law. Suppose a ship is about to be equipped of specific appropriations would seem to embrace exact for important service, and there should be large balances and precise accountability; and this consideration, no under all the appropriations excepting that for Ordnance, doubt, had some weight in producing its adoption. But which is exhausted; under the law, however urgent the the test which has been applied, in the expenditure of necessity, not a cent could be drawo from either of the miilions of dollars, during the last twenty years, has cer- redundant appropriations for the purchase of arms. It was tainly not confirmed the anticipations of its advocates. surely never the intention of Congress, that a vessel of

The Commissioners will not say that it is utterly imprac- war should be sent to sea without being, in all respects, ticable to carry this system literally into effect. If Con- thoroughly prepared to defend the bonor of her flag ; yet, gress were to make the appropriations sufficiently large in the case supposed, she could not be properly preparto guard against every possible contingency, and to ensure ed, without violating the law of appropriations. Similar an adequate amount under each hend, to meet every pos- embarrassments would arise from a defiency in either of sible expense arising under that bead; and if all the the appropriations from or to which transfers are forbidagents were so thoroughly acquainted with their duties, den Thus, the law, in gaining an object of diminutive vaas to be able at all times to decide correctly, as to the lue, when contrasted with its main design, (the employment specific heads of appropriation to which each and all of of ships of war,) would, if literally observed, defeat the the numerous articles required, should be charged; then, intentions of Congress. if the Department would take care to keep in the hands Towards the close of every year some of the specific of all the disbureing agents a balance under euch and appropriations are found to be deficient. The ships, proevery head of appropriation, so as to enable them prompt- bably, whose expenditures occasioned this deficiency, are ly, and in good faith, to redeem all the public engage- abroad in distant seas. Bills are drawn upon the Goments at their respective agencies, a literal execution of vernment for their support, and under this very bead of the law might be expected. But would Congress make appropriation whose deficiency bas just been discovered. excessive appropriations ! No enlightened friend the These bills cannot be protested ; they must be paid ; and, Navy would make such a proposition. And experience under such circumstances, the Secretary of the Navy fully'shows, that disbursing agents, even those most ac. has generally directed them to be paid out of some of the customed to Navy business, will occasionally misappre redundant appropriations. Demands are made from other bend instructions, and unintentionally pay accounts out parts of the world, and by disbursing agents in the U. of the wroog appropriation. And we would observe, States, upon the same deficient appropriation, and mothat the absolute necessity of keeping balances in the neys are remitted under other beads to enable them to hands of the agents under each appropriation, would meet pressing engagements. When the accounts of dismake the aggregate of balances so large as to form a se bursing agents are received for settlement, if all the aprious objection. In no case would it be expedient-in propriations under which their disbursements have been some cases it might be unsafe-to entrust such balauces made, should then be sufficient to enable the Auditor to even to bonded agents ; for they would generally far ex- settle them, it is done by warrants of payment and repayceed the amount of their boods.

ment ; the former purporting to be warrants authoriz. The estimates, upon which the appropriations are found ing the payment, to the disbursing officer, of specific ed, are prepared with all the care and accuracy of which sums, corresponding, in their respective amounts, to his the fullible judgment of man will admit. Yet, after all, overpayments ; tbe latter purporting to be drafts upon they are but estimates ; and until it shall be given to us, bim, requiring him to pay into the Treasury certain vnexto foresee the events of futurity, the fluctuations in the peoded balances in his bands, under those heads of apmarkets of the world, and the casualties of the ocean, we propriation where bis expenditures were short of the reshall never arrive at precise accuracy in our calculations, initiances made to him. 'By these warrants not a cent is as to the expense of a Navy employed in every knowo sea, taken out of the Treasury or paid into it ; the disbursing and experiencing the vicissitudes of every koowo climate. officer, in whose favor, or upon whom, tthey are drawn, is A degree of accuracy, sufficient for practical purposes, wholly ignorant of them. They result from a Treasury may be gained ; and this is all that can be reasonably arrangement, and are said to be indispensably necessary expected. Yet, even in this case, it will be found that some in adjusting the account of the appropriation. If, how items in the estimate are too low, others too bigh; but ever, any of the appropriations should be insufficient, so take the whole together, and they may prove sufficient. that these warrants of fictitious payment could not be The item of “ Pay of the Navy," the expense of which drawn upon them, without showing that the expenditures may be approximated nearer than that of any other item under them bad exceeded the sum total of the appropriaof Naval expenditure, is liable to be affected in its amount tion, then the accounts of the disbursing agents must by unforeseen contingencies. For instance, seamen's remain unsettled. It is believed that there are numerous wages may rise, and it may become necessary to give accounts precisely in this situation, at this time, that bave them a bounty to induce them to enter into the public been so for some years past, and that such accounts can service. A few more seamen, or a few less, than the never be setiled without the interposition of Congress. number estimated for, would produce a variation between These complex, fictitious operations, in the settlement the expenditures and the estimates.

of Navy accounts, were unknowo till the year 1809, and, Besides, it has not always been the pleasure of Congress until then, accounts could always be settled by the plain to appropriate the whole amount of the estimates, which and simple rule of charging individuals with the amount bas frequently occasioned embarrassment; for instance, of moneys placed in itheir hands for disbursement, and, the estiuiate for “ Repairs of vessels,” for the year 1829, crediting them with the amount of their disbursements, was curtailed in the appropriation $75,000, and that for when properly vouched. The law of 1809, requiring “ Navy Yards," was reduced $225,000. The reductions that accounts shall be kept so as to be charged to the apoccasioned the suspension of important ineasures, contem: propriations, renders these operations necessary in their plated when the estimates were made; the postponement ad ent, while it has greatly multiplied the forms, and of which must ultimately create additional expense. increased the labor, without any advantage that the Com.

But nearer views of the existing system of Naval appro- niissioners can perceive. priations may be required for its thorough comprehension. That all disbursing agents should be required to acLet us see it in practice.

count, satisfactorily and promptly, for all the moneys plae

SEN. AND H. OF Reps.]

Annual Treasury Report.

[21st Cong. 1st Sess.

year 1828,

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med in their bands; that the forms of keeping, rendering, | The expenditures for the same year, inand settling their accounts, should be so plain and intel cluding public debt, were,

22,656,764 04 ligible as to be clearly understood, not by able accountants only, but by every member of the community (for every The balance in the Treasury, on the let of member has an interest in them) are propositions which January, 1828, was

6,668,286 10 no one, it is presumed, will attempt to controvert. It has, The receipts from all sources, during the we hope, been satisfactorily showo, that the act of 1809. year 1&28, were

24,789,463 61 bas not produced these effects; and a modification of that

Viz: law, and of the act of the 1st May, 1820, heretofore re- Customs

23,205,623 64 cited, appear to be necessary in the accomplishment of re- Lands (stàtement D) 1,018,308 75 sults so desirable.

Dividends on Bank Stock 465,000 The Commissioners would recommend, that the accounts Incidental Receipts (E) 110,631 22

be kept so as to show the cost of building ships, of repaireing them, their apdual cost_in the service, and the cost of Making an aggregate of

31,457,749 71 Hi every authorized object of improvement; that the esti- The expenditures of the mates be made so specific as to be distinctly understood, were (F)

26,486,213 90 80 that every appropriation shall be made with a thorough

Viz: i understanding as to the amount required for each object; Civil, Diplomatic, and Misthat the power of transferring them from one appropria cellaneous

3,676,052 64 tion to another, as the exigencies of the service may rend- Military service, including er necessary, be committed to the President; that, at the fortifications, ordnance, Incommencement of every sessiou of Congress, reports be dian affairs, pensions, and made, showing the expenditures of the year, and the vari arming the militia 5,719,956 06 ous objects to which the moneys appropriated sball have Naval service, including the been applied.

gradual increase and imIf these suggestions, and those heretofore presented in provement of the Navy · 8,925,867 13 this communication, relatively to the organization of the Public Debt

12,163,438 07 different branches of the Department, and the duties ap: propriate to each branch, be approved, the Board would Leaving a balance in the Treasury, on the further respectfully recommend that the appropriations 1st of January, 1829, of

6,972,436 81 for the Navy be, hereafter, made under the following ge. The receipts into the Treasury, during the Deral heads, viz:

three first quarters of the present year, For Pay and Subsistence of the Navy.

are estimated to have amounted to 19,437,280 98 For building, repairing, and equipping vessels, including

Viz: their wear and tear at sea, and ordnance, and ordoance Customs

17,770,744 69 stores.

Lands (G)

972,059 83 For Navy Yards, Docke, Wharves, and all improve- Bank Dividends

490,000 00 ments therein.

Miscellaneous (H)

204,427 06 For Provisions, Medicines, and Hospital Stores. The receipts for the fourth

For Contingent Expenses, such as transportation, travel. quarter are estimated at 5,165,000 00 ling expenses, the purchase of Books, Maps, Charts, Chronometers, Nautical Instruments, and other articles necessary Making the total estimated receipts of the for the service, and not specifically provided for.


24,602,280 98 This arrangement would leave the first item, viz: Pay And, with the balance on the 1st of Januand Subsistence of the Navy, under the immediate direc ary, 1829, forming an aggregate of 80,674,666 79 tion of the Secretary of the Navy; the second, third, and The expenditures for the three first quar. fourth items, would come under the immediate direction ters of the present year have amounted, of the respective branches beretofore proposed; and the by estimate, to (I)

18,919,114 05 last item, viz: "Contingent Expenses," to be drawn

Viz: upon by each, as such expenses should arise in each Civil, Diplomatic, and Misbranch, until experience should inform us as to the cellaneous

2,482,416 50 probable amount required under each branoh, when Military service, including the appropriation might be divided into specific sums for fortifications, ordnance, lo. each.

dian affairs, pensions, arm. I bave the honor to be, with great respect, sir,

ing the militia, and internal Your most obedient serv't. improvements

5,155,256 44 JOHN RODGERS. Naval service, including the Honorable JOHN BRANCH,

gradual improvement of the Secretary of the Navy.


2,565,979 24 Public Debt

8,716,462 87

The expenditures for the

fourth quarter, including

3,689,542 98, on account of
In obedience to the directions of the “ Act supplemen-

the publio debt, are estimat-
ed at

7,245,481 05
tary to the Act to establish the Treasury Department."
the Secretary of the Treasury respectfully submits the Making the total estimated expenditures of
following Report:


86,164,695 10 1. Of the Public Revenue nd Expenditures. The Receipts into the Treasury, from all

Leaving in the Treasury, ap the first of Ja. sources of revenue, during the year 1827,

nuary, 1880, an estimated balance of 4,410,071 69 22,966,363 96 On this balance, which includes the funds heretofore

reported by this Department as 'not effective, there have VOL. VI.-E

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21st Cong. 1st Sess.]

Annual Treasury Report.


been reserved, under the 4th section of the Sinking Fund up to the 1st of January, 1830; and $2,355,375 30 have Act of 1817, $2,000,000, and the residue has been held to been derived under the 4th section of the act, from the meet existing appropriations.

surplus moneys in the Treasury. But, of those appropriations, it is estimated, on data The payments of the present year being applied exclurecently furnished by the proper Departments

sively to the redemption of the six per cent. stocks, there 1st. That there will be required, to complete the ser- will remain the following stocks, redeemable according to vice of the year 1829, and of previous years, $2,457,173 the respective contracts : 16, which sum will be expended in the year 1830. In 1830—six per cents,

6,440,556 17 2d. That the sum of $862,251 84, will not be required

five per cents, 18,901 59 for the service of those years, and may, therefore, be ap

four and a balf per plied, without being re-appropriated, in aid of the service of


1,539,336 16 the year 1830; as will be more fully stated when the esti On the 1st of January, mates of the appropriations for that year are presented. 1831, and subject to

3d. That the sum of $115,962 03 will be carried to the the last payment of surplus fund, at the close of the present year, either be 1830

18,901 69 cause the objects for which it was appropriated are completed, or because those moneys will not be required for, Total redeemable in 1830

8,017,695 51 or will no longer be applicable to them.

Io 1831-(viz : on the 1st

Jan. 1832)— 11. Of the Public Debt.

five per cents, 1,018,900 72 The total amount of the public debt of the

four and a half per cts. 6,000,000 United States, was, on the 1st of January, 1829, 68,406,418 05 Total amount in 1831

6,018,900 72 Viz:

In 1832—-four and half per Funded debt 58,362,135 78


6,000,000 Consisting of

On the 1st of Jan. 1833, Six per cent.

four and a balf per * stocks, 16,279,822 02


2,227,363 97 Five. per cent. stocks, in

Total redeemable in 1832

7,227,863 97 cluding $7,

In 1833—(viz: on the 1st JAD. 1834) 000,000 sub

four and a half per cents,

2,227,363 98 scribed to the

In 1834-(viz: op the 1st Jan. 1835) Bapk of the

five per cents

4,736,296 30 U. States, 12,792,000 20 Four and a half

Making together

28,226,620 48 pr ct. stocks, 16,994,064 11

Redeemable at the pleasure of the GovThree per cent.


20,296,249 45 stock, 13,296,249 45

Viz: Unfunded debt,

44,282 27

Five per cents, subscribed to Consisting of

the Bank of the United Registe'd debt, i


7,000,000 being claims

Three per cents,

13,296,249 45 registr'd prior to the year

Making a total of

48,522,869 93 1798, for ser

From the above statement it is apparent that the vices and sup

Sipking Fund, as bereafter estimated at $11,500,000, plies during

for the year 1830, and subsequently at an average of the revolu

$12,000,000, can only be applied to the reimbursement of tionary war, 28,965 91

those stocks wbich are not redeemable at pleasure, as Treasury notes,

follows: outstanding 9,261 27

In 1830—to the paymeut of Mississippi stock,


8,017.695 51 outstanding, 6,055 09


1,951,437 05 The payments made, and to be made, on account of the

9,969,182 56 public debt, for the year

In 1831-to the payment of 1829, amount to 12,405,005 80

principal 6,018,900 72 Of this sum, there will have

Interest, say

1,687,060 08 been paid for interest, 2,563,994 25 And on account of principal, 9,841,011 55

7,705,960 80

In 1832—to the payment of Leaving the total debt, on the 1st of Janu


7,227,363 97 ary, 1830,

48,565,406 60
Interest, say

1,186,115 04 Viz:

8,413,479 01 Funded debt, as per state

In 1833—to the payment of ment K, 48,522,869 93


2,227,363 98 Unfunded debt, as per state

Interest, say

1,086,883 66 ment L, 42,536 67

3,313,247 64 of the sum applied to the payment of the public debt, 1o 1834—to the payment of in the year 1829, $10,049,630 60 bave accrued under

principal 4,735,296 30 the second section of the Sinking Fund Act of 1817;

Interest, say

985,652 29 which completes the whole amount of that appropriation

5,720,948 59


Annual Treasury Report.

[21st Cong. 1st Sess.

The inconvenience to which tbe Treasury will be ex- | Incidental receipts, including posed by this cause, may be averted by redeeming the arrears of internal duties di. stock subscribed to the Bank of the United States, and rect tax, and cabal tolla

160,000 authorizing the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund to pur- To which is to be added the chase the three per cents, when, in their opinion, the terms balance estimated to be in on which such purchase can be made, will reader it as fa. the Treasury on the 1st of vorable to the United States as the payment of other Jaduary, 1830

4,410,071 69 stocks, then redeemable. This stuck is now quoted in the market at about 877. An unlimited authority to redeem Making an aggregate of

28,250,071 69 it, would, no doubt, somewhat enhance the price: but | The expenditures for 1830 are estimated at 23,765,526 67 this effect would, in a great degree be counteracted by

Viz: the option to redeem other stocks. If, however, the reve. Civil, Diplomatio, and Miscelpues, can, in the opinion of Congress, be more advantage. laneous

2,473,225 62 ously reduced, or otherwise disposed of, when the other Military service, including forstocks shall be redeemed, the payment of the three per tifications, ordvance, Indian cents may be postponed ; subject to the operation of a affairs, pensions, arining the small sinking Fund, to be applied conditionally, viz: militia, and internal improvewhen the stock can be bought at a reasonable price, to be ments

5,526,189.95 fixed by law. In such casejit will be necessary to the full Naval service, including the employment of the present Sinking Fund to give the gradual improvement of the Commissioners power to purchase the five and four and a Navy

4,257,111 10 balf per cents at their market price.

Public Debt

11,500,000 00 III. Of the Estimates of the Public Revenue and Expen. Which will leave an estimated balance in ditures for the year 1830.

the Treasury, on the 1st of January, The amount of duties on imports and toppage, which 1831, of

4,494,545 02 accrued from the lot of January to the 30th September, If the foregoing estimate of the revenue and expendi1829, is estimated at $21,821,500, being $2,621,300 less ture be correct, the sum at the disposal of the Commisthan that which accrued in the corresponding period of sioners of the Sinking Fund, for the year 1880, will be the preceding year. This deficiency has' ariseo almost $11,500,000, and when the increase of population is eptirely in the 1st quarter of the present year, and was considered, may probably be safely computed at probably caused by the extensive importations which had $12,000,000 for the four succeeding years.

This sum been made in the early part of 1828, in anticipation of the will complete the payment of the whole Public Debt, increased duties. In the 2nd and third quarters of the year, within the year 1834, without applying to bank sbares. however, the importations bave so augmented, that accru Should it be determined to reduce the revenue, so as ing duties secured in those quarters are but 49,300 dol- to correspond with the existing expenditure, it will relars less than those secured in the second and third quar- quire the exercise of a wise forecast, on the part of the ters of the preceding year. This improvement still con- Legislature, to avert serious injury. Merchants baving tinues, and there is reason to believe that the duties ac- goods in band, liable to be affected in price by a change in cruing in the fourth quarter will nearly equal those of the the fiscal system of the Government, have a just right to fourth quarter of last year. It is worthy of remark that expect from it a reasonable notice, corresponding with the the aceruing revenue of the three first quarters of the magnitude of the change propused. In accordance with year 1829, though so much below that of 1828, is only these views, it is respectfully suggested, that, whatever 270,200 less than that of the same period of the year dimiaution of duties shall be determined upon, it be 1827.

made to take effect prospectively and gradually. The debentures issued, during the three first quarters It will, in such case, be proper, at an early period, to of 1829, were 3,059,060,25 which exceeds the amount is- select the articles upon which to commence the reducsued during the corresponding period of the year 1828, by tion. As auxiliary to this undertaking, the annexed 96,475 70.

tables, M and N, bave been prepared. Table M exbibits The amount of debentures outstanding on the 30th of the amount of duties accruing on such articles of impor. September last, and chargeable upon the revenue of 1830. tation, as are generally of foreign productiou. Table - N was $1,111,136, exceeding, by $65,992, the amount exhibits the tariff of duties imposed by foreign Governchargeable on the same day in 1828 on the revenue of ments, on such articles as are produced in, or exported 1829.

from, the United States, as far as has been ascertained at The value of domestic articles, exported from the United the Treasury Departmeut. States, for the year ending on the 30th of September last, The precise effect of a reduction of duties on the reis estimated at $65,800,000, being 6,130,331 more than venue, can only be ascertained by experience; but, as the value of those exported during the same period, in the imports will be somewhat increased by the operation, the preceding year.

it is not apprebended that a gradual reduction, commenThe amount of Custom House bonds in suit on the 301b cing at an early day, would sepsibly prolong the total of September last, was $6,691,714 20, being $1,967,485 extinguishment of the public debt. 45 more than on the same day in the preceding year.

The various duties devolved on the Treasury Depart. It may be observed, that the great increase of this item, ment, in relation to Custom Houses, and Land Offices, for several years past has arisen from the heavy failures bave led to the exercise of powers not sufficiently defined in the China trade ; in which series of bonds falling due by law. These are liable to be enlarged by successive grafrom the same houses, commence in one year, and termi dations, under special exigencies, without legislative sancpate in another.

tion, until the powers of the Department to perform iodisFrom a view of all these facts and considerations, the pensable duties are derived from usage, rather than the stareceipts for the year 1830 are estimated at $23,840,000. iutes. Of this nature, are those exercised in the payments Viz:

for contingent expenses of the Cutter service, repairs to Customs


Custom Houses, Wbarves, and Ware-bouses, belonging to Lands


the United States; expenses to Inspectors employed in Bapk Dividends


special services, in addition to their per diem compensa

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