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and ourselves to set fire to that little which we had built up in the space of 9 or 10 years, in the way of a house and a Church, fearing lest the enemies should profane those places of Holiness. We called this Island St. Joseph; and the fixed residence, which we transferred thither, by the name of the first,—the Residence of Ste. Marie. These forests, unbroken, perhaps, from the beginning of the world, received us and furnished us materials for fortifying ourselves, together with our Barbarians, against our common enemies,—Ut sine timore inimicorum liberati, we might serve our common Lord. We had with us some laymen, to the number of 40, who from devotion, without hope of any temporal recompense, served this Mission; plying every sort of trade, each one according to his proper capacity,— and all, that of soldier, in order to defend those poor fugitives from the incursions of those pitiless foes. All, with the Barbarians, so applied themselves to the work that in one summer we found ourselves regularly defended, as well as our Christians, who in a short time gathered thither from various quarters, so that they could receive with safety and facility the instructions necessary for the preservation and increase of their faith. But there is not in this life any good without its counterpoise of some evil. This great concourse, which was the culmination of all our labors, brought with it, in part, the ruin of the country, which, as it was new, and could not be sufficiently cultivated in so short a time,— especially by starving people, and those occupied, besides in housing and fortifying themselves,— could not yield enough to feed so many people, famished, and oppressed by a thousand misfortunes which had begun the year before. In molte limoline, che facemmo di 800. lacchi, la metà di gran turchefco, la metà di ghiande, che fi ftimauano in quel tempo cola delitiofa, e ce le leuauamo noi fteffi dalla bocca/ non potemmo impedire, che non ne moriffero l' inuerno le centinaia, e centinaia di fame. L' eftate molti haueuano più tofto differita la morte, che prolongata la vita, viuendo, ò ne' bofchi di poche radiche amare, e frutti faluatichi; ò sù i fcogli di qualche pefciolino, che come alla sfuggita pefcauano per timore de nemici. Ma [124 i.e., 126] l' ìnuerno, che la terra era coperta di 6. ò 7. palmi di neue, & i laghi, e fiumi agghiacciati non potendo hauere alcun foccorfo, nè dalla terra, nè dall' acqua; fi riduffero ad vn' eftrema miferia Era cofa fpauentofa il vedere in vece d' huomini, fcheletri moribondi, caminar più come ombre di morti, che come corpi de' viui; e nutrirli di quel che la natura hà più in horrore.- diffotterrare i cadaueri, (che noi fotterrauamo con le noftre mani, mancando fpeffo i parenti de morti di forze per farlo^ per cibarfene, e mangiare i refti delle volpi, e de cani. Quid non mortalia pecora cogis/acra fames? Gli Huroni prima d' hauer la luce della Fede è vero, che mangiauano i cadaueri de' loro nemici, ma hebbero fempre horrore di mangiarli tra di loro niente meno, che gli Europei. Ma in quefta occafione la neceffità oltrapafsò tutte le leggi: qualche fratello hà màgiato il morto fratello: qualche madre i morti figli, & i figli doppo morte non riconofceuano, nè rifpettauano i cadaueri de' propri] padri. Era vn fpettacolo affai frequente di consequence, notwithstanding the many alms that we gave,— 800 bags, half of turkish corn, half of acorns, which at that time were esteemed a delicious article, and which we ourselves took from our own mouths,— we could not prevent hundreds and hundreds of them from dying in the winter by hunger. In the summer, many had rather postponed death than prolonged life, by living either in the woods on a few bitter roots and wild fruits; or on the rocks, on some little fish,— which they caught, as it were, by stealth, for fear of the enemies. But [124 i.e., 126] in the winter,— when the earth was covered with 6 or 7 palms of snow, and the lakes and rivers were frozen,—unable to obtain any succor from either the land or the water, they were reduced to an extreme misery. It was a frightful thing to see, instead of men, dying skeletons, walking more like shadows of the dead than like bodies of the living; and feeding themselves on that which nature has most in abomination,— exhuming the corpses (which we buried with our own hands, the relatives of the dead often lacking the strength to do so), in order to nourish themselves therewith, and eat the leavings of foxes and dogs. Quidnon mortalia pectora cogis, sacra fames? It is true that the Hurons, before having the light of the Faith, ate the dead bodies of their enemies; but they always had, no less than the Europeans, a horror of eating one another, among their own people. But on this occasion necessity exceeded all laws: a certain brother ate his dead brother; a mother, her dead sons; and the sons, after death, did not recognize or respect the corpses of their own fathers. It was a quite frequent spectacle to see two little children still sucking the dry breasts of their dead veder due bambini fucchiar ancor le fecche màmelle della morta madre, le madri fpirar con i figli nel feno, ò vederli morir alla mammella, che offeriuano anche à i più grandi vn dopo l' altro per tirarne più tofto il fangue, che il latte, ma con refignatione sì grande, e sì chriftiana, che tiraua dagli occhi lagrime non meno di copaffione, che di deuotione. Habbiam veduto venire i moribondi da loro fteffi à domandarci il Battefimo per paffaporto dell' altra vita; benedicendoci in vn tépo, che pareua, che l' impatiéza gli doueffe tirare ogni maledittione dalla bocca. Molti ci pregauano, che li fotterralìlmo ancor fpiranti, per paura d' effer diuorati da' fuoi, ò almeno lafciati nudi, cofa, che ftimano più obbrobriofa in morte, che in vita. Le iftruttioni, le prediche, l' amminiftrationi de Sacramenti, mai fono ftate più frequenti, nè riceuute con più deuotione non folo le fefte, ma i giorni anche di lauoro, quefte con le vifite degli ammalati, e fepoltura de morti erano le occupationi quotidiane de noftri Padri. S' aggiùgeua à quefti mali il timore de nemici, che ci faceua vegliar le notti intiere, per no effer come l' anno inanzi prefi all' improuifo. Ma egli fapendo le fortificationi fatte, e la vigilanza, & ordine, che fi guardaua nell' Ifola, voltò le armi altroue, come s' è vifto. Molti, che aiutati dalle noftre limofine fcamporno il flagello della fame, furono affaliti da vn mal contagiofo, che in pochi dì fece grà ftrage, maffime ne' putti. Non vi reftaua più che la guerra per rouinarli affatto, e quefta non mancò, e così furono nell' ifteffo tèpo [125 i.e., 127] mother, the mothers dying with their children in their laps; or to see them die at the breast, which was offered even to the largest, one after the other, to draw thence blood rather than milk,— but with so great and so Christian resignation that it drew from the eyes tears, no less of compassion than of devotion. We have seen the dying come of their own accord to ask from us Baptism, as a passport to the other life,—blessing us at a time when it seemed that impatience should have drawn every malediction from their lips. Many begged us to bury them while still breathing, for fear of being devoured by their people, or at least left naked,— a thing which they esteem more shameful in death than in life. Instructions, sermons, administrations of the Sacraments, were never more frequent; nor had they received with more devotion not only the feasts, but also the working days; these, with visits to the sick and the burial of the dead, were the daily occupations of our Fathers. To these evils was added the fear of the enemies, which caused us to watch whole nights, in order not to be taken unawares, as in the year before. But they, knowing the fortifications that were made, and the vigilance and order which were observed on the Island, turned their arms elsewhere, as was seen. Many who, aided by our alms, escaped the scourge of hunger, were attacked by a contagious disease, which in a few days made great slaughter, especially among the children. There remained nothing but war to ruin them altogether, and this failed not; and thus they were at the same time [125 i.e., 127] smitten with all three scourges. For, as soon as the ice began to melt and the earth to become bare, our dying people went out from the Island, in which they

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