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Supplemental Journal. ted States ;” which motion was determined in the gold, Roane, Robertson, Ruggles, Sage, Schureman, negative.
Sevier, Seybert, Sharp, Sheffey, Sherwood, Smith of Mr. S. then moved to amend the same section, New York, Smith of Virginia, Stockton, Stuart, Tanby inserting, after the word “of," in the tenth nehill, Taylor, Telfair, Troup, Udree, Ward of Mas. line, the word “maritime;" which was also deter- sachusetts, Wilson of Pennsylvania, Winter, and mined in the negative.
Yancey. The question was taken on engrossing the bill
, Caperton, Cilley, Constock, Crouch, Davenport, Davis
Nars-Messrs. Bard, Bigelow, Brigham, Brown, and reading it a third time, and passed in the of Pennsylvania, Ely, Goldsborough, Henderson, King, affirmative-yeas 94, pays 32, as follows : of Massachusetts, Law, Lovett, Pearson, Pickering,
YEAS—Messrs. Alexander, Anderson, Barbour, Bay- Piper, Pitkin, Slaymaker, Smith of Pennsylvania, lies of Massachusetts, Bines, Bowen, Bradbury, Bur. Stanford, Strong, Sturges, Taggart, Thompson, Vose, well, Calhoun, Cannon, Champion, Clopton, Condict, Wheaton, White, Wilcox, and Wilson of Massa. Cox, Creighton, Cuthbert, Desha, Duvall, Eppes, Far
chusetts. row, Findley, Fisk of Vermont, Fisk of New York, And the bill having been engrossed, was read Forsyth, Franklin, Gaston, Gholson, Goodwyn, Gour- a third time, and sent to the Senate by the hands din, Grosvenor, Hale, Hall, Harris, Hasbrouck, Hawes, of Mr. GASTON and Mr. FORSYTH. Hawkins, Hopkins of Kentucky, Hubbard, Humphreys, Hungerford, Hulbert, Irwin, Jackson of Virginia, Johnson of Kentucky, Kennedy, Kent of New York,
THURSDAY, March 2. Kent of Maryland, Kerr, Kershaw, Kilbourn, King The bill " for the protection of the commerce of North Carolina, Lefferts, Lowndes, Macon, McCoy, of the United States against the Algerine cruis. Montgomery, Moore, Nelson, Newton, Oakley, Orms- ers," was returned from the Senate, they having by, Pickens, Pleasants, Potter, John Reed, Wm. Reed, passed it without amendment. And the injuncRea of Pennsylvania, Rhea of Tennessee, Rich, Ring-ltion of secrecy was removed.
TO THE HISTORY OF THE THIRTEENTH CONGRESS.
COMPRISING THE MOST IMPORTANT DOCUMENTS ORIGINATING DURING THAT CON
GRESS, AND THE PUBLIC ACTS PASSED BY IT.
GREAT BRITAIN—RETALIATION. Mr. Monroe to Sir Alexander Cochrane, Vice Admi
ral, &c. [Communicated to Congress, the 26th day of Septem
DEPARTMENT OF State, ber, 1814.]
September 6, 1814. To the Senate and House of
Sir: I have had the honor of receiving your Representatives of the United States : letter of the 18th of August, stating that, having I transmit to Congress, for their information, been called on by the Governor General of the copies of a letter from Admiral Cochrane, com- Canadas, to aid him in carrying into effect measmanding His Britannic Majesty's naval forces on ures of retaliation against the inhabitants of the the American station, to the Secretary of State, United States for the wanton desolation commitwith his answer, and a reply from Admiral Coch-ted by their army in Upper Canada, it has berane.
come your duty, conformably with the nature JAMES MADISON. of the Governor General's application, to issue SEPTEMBER 26, 1814.
to the naval force poder your command an order to destroy and lay waste such towns and
districts upon the coast as may be found assailVice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane to Mr. Monroe. able. His BRITANNIC MAJESTY'S SHIP THE
It is seen, with the greatest surprise, that this Tonnant, Patuxent River, system of devastation, which has been practised
August 18, 1814. by the British forces, so manifestly contrary to Sir: Having been called upon by the Governor the usage of civilized warfare, is placed by you General of the Canadas to aid him in carrying on the ground of retaliation. No sonner were the into effect measures of retaliation against the in- United States compelled to resort to war against habitants of the United States for the wanton Great Britain, than they resolved to wage it in a destruction committed by their army in Upper manger most consonant to the principles of huCapada, it has become imperiously my duty, con- manity, and to those friendly relations which it formably with the nature of the Governor Gen- was desirable to preserve between the two naeral's application, to issue to the naval force un- tions after the restoration of peace. They perder my command, an order to destroy and lay ceived, however, with the deepest regret, ihat a waste such towns and districts upon the coast as spirit, alike just and humane, was neither chermay be found assailable.
ished nor acted on by your Government. Such I had hoped that this contest would have ter- an assertion would not be hazarded if it was not mioated without my being obliged to resort to supported by facts, the proof of which has, perseverities which are contrary to the usage of civil. haps, already carried the same conviction to other ized warfare, and as it has been with extreme re nations that it has to the people of these States. luctance and concern that I have found myself Without dwelling on the deplorable cruelties compelled to adopt this system of devastation, I committed by the savages in ihe British ranks, shall be equally gratified if the conduct of the and in British pay, at the river Raisia, which, tó Executive of the United States will authorize my this day, has never been disavowed or atoned for, staying such proceedings, by making reparation I refer, as more immediately connected with the to ibe suffering inhabitants of Upper Canada, subject of your letter, to the wanton desolation thereby manifesting that, if the destructive mea that was committed at Havre-de-Grace and at sures pursued by their army were ever sanctioned, Georgetown, early in the Spring of 1813. These they will no longer be permitted by the Govern- villages were burnt and ravaged by the naval ment. I have the honor to be, &c.
forces of Great Britain, to the ruin of their unALEX. COCHRANE, armed inhabitants, who saw, with astonishment,
Vice Admiral, Commander, fc. that they derived no protection to their properly Hon. JAMES MONROE.
from the laws of war. During the same season, 13th Con. 3d Sess.-41
Relations with Great Britain.
scenes of invasion and pillage, carried on under either Power may have committed against the the same authority, were witnessed all along the other, this Government will always be ready to waters of the Chesapeake, to an extent inflicting enter into reciprocal arrangements. It is prethe most serious private distress, and under cir- sumed that your Government will neither excumstances that justified the suspicion that re- pect nor propose any which are not reciprocal. venge and cupidity, rather than the manly mo- Should your Government adhere to a system tives that should dictate the hostility of a high- of desolation. so contrary to the views and pracminded foe, led to their perpetration. The late tice of the United States, so revolting to hudestruction of the houses of the Government in manily, and repugnant to the sentiments and this city is another act which comes necessarily usages of the civilized world, whilst it will be into view. In the wars of modern Europe, no seen with the deepest regret, it must and will be example of the kind, even among nations the most met with a determination and constancy becomhostile to each other, can be traced. In the course ing a free people contending in a just cause for of ten years past, the capitals of the principal their essential rights and dearest interests. Powers of the continent of Europe have been I have the honor to be, &c. conquered, and occupied alternately by the victo
JAMES MONROE. rious armies of each other, and no instance of such Sir ALEXANDER COCHRANE, wanton and unjustifiablé destruction has been Vice Admiral, Commander, fc. seen. We must go back to distant and barbarous ages to find a parallel for the acts of which I com- Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane to Mr. Monroe. plain. Although these acts of desolation invited, if
His BRITANNIC MAJESTY'S SHIP they did not impose on the Government the ne.
TONNANT, IN TAE CHESAPEAKE, cessity of retaliation, yet in no instance has it been
September 19, 1814. authorized.
Sir: I have had the honor to receive your let. The burning of the village of Newark in Up- ter of the 6th instant this morning, in reply to per Canada, posterior to the early outrages above the one which I addressed to you from the Pa. enumerated, was not executed on that principle. tuxent. The village of Newark adjoined Fori George, As I have no authority from my Goveroment and its destruction was justified by the officers to enter upon any kind of discussion relative to who ordered it, on the ground that it became ne. the points contained in your letter, I have only cessary in the military operations there. The to regret that there does pot appear to be any act, however, was disavowed by the Government. hope that I shall be authorized to recall my genThe burning which took place at Long Point was eral order; which has been further sanctioned by unauthorized by the Government, and ihe conduct a subsequent request from Lieutenant General of the officer subjected to the investigation of a Sir George Prevost. military tribunal. For the burning at Si. Da. A copy of your letter will this day be forwarded vid's, committed by stragglers, the officer who by me to England, and, uotil I receive instruccommanded in that quarter was dismissed, with- tions from my Government, the measures which out a trial, for not preventing it.
I have adopted must be persisted in, unless remuI am commanded by the President distinctly neration be made to the inhabitants of ihe Cana. to stale, that it as little comports with any orders das for the injuries they have sustained from the which have been issued to the military and pa- outrages committed by the troops of the United val commanders of the United States, as it does States. with the established and known humanity of the I have the hovor to be, yours, &c. American nation, to pursue a system which it
ALEX. COCHRANE, appears you have adopted. This Government
Vice Admiral, Commander, fc. owes it to itself, to the principles which it has Hon. JAMES MONROE. ever held sacred, to disavow, as justly chargeable to it, any such wanton, cruel, and unjustifable Warfare. Whatever unauthorized irregularities may have
GREAT BRITAIN. been committed by any of its troops, it would have been ready, acting on these principles of [Communicated to Congress, October 10th and 14th, sacred and eternal obligation, to disavow, and, as
and December 1, 1814.] far as might be practicable, to repair. Bui, in to the Senate and House of the plan of desolating warfare which your leiter Representatives of the United States : so explicitly makes known, and which is attempt- I lay before Congress communications just reed to be excused on a plea so utterly groundless, ceived from the Plenipotentiaries of the United the President perceives a spirit of deep-rooted States charged with negotiating peace with Great hostility, which, without the evidence of such Britain, showing the conditions on which alone facts, he could not have believed existed, or would that Government is willing to put an end to the have been carried to such an extremity.
For the reparation of injuries, of whatever pa- The instructions to those Plenipotentiaries, ture they may be, not sanctioned by the law of disclosing the grounds on which they were au. nations, which the military and naval force of thorized to negotiate and conclude a treaty of
Relations with Great Britain.
cease as soon
peace, will be the subject of another communi-lhe war. Had not Great Britain persevered obcation.
stinately in the violation of these important rights, JAMES MADISON. the war would not have been declared. It will WASHINGTON, October 10, 1814
as these rights are respected.
The proposition made by Mr. Russell to the To the Senate and House of
British Government immediately after the war, Representatives of the United States : and the answer given by this Department to AdI now transmit to Congress copies of the in- miral Warren's letter since, show the ground on structions to the Plenipotentiaries of the United which the United States were willing to adjust States charged with negotiating a peace with the controversy relative to impressment. Great Britain, as referred to in my message of
This has been further evinced by a report of the 10th instant.
the Committee of Foreign Relations of the House JAMES MADISON.
of Representatives, and an act of Congress passed WASHINGTON, October 14, 1814.
in consequence of that report. By these docu. ments you will see that, to accommodate this
important difference, the United States are disTo the Senate and House of
posed to exclude British seamen altogether from Representatives of the United States :
ihe American service. This being effectually I transmit for the information of Congress the done, the British Government can have no precommunications last received from the Ministers text for the practice. How shall it be done? Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United By restraints to be imposed by each nation on States at Ghent, explaining the course and actual the naturalization of the seamen of the other, ex. state of their negotiations with the Plenipoten- cluding, at the same time, all others not natutiaries of Great Britain.
ralized ? Or shall the right of each nation to JAMES MADISON.
naturalize the seamen of the other be prohibited, DECEMBER 1, 1814.
and each exclude from its service the natives of
the other? Whatever the rule is, it ought to be Mr. Monroe, Secretary of State, to the Plenipoten- reciprocal. If Great Britain is allowed 10 galu
tiaries of the United States for treating of peace with ralize American seamen, the United States should Great Britain.
enjoy the same privilege. If it is demanded that DEPARTMENT or STATE, April 15, 1813.
the United States shall exclude from their service GENTLEMEN: I had the honor, on the ul. all native British subjects, a like exclusion of timo, to receive from Mr. Adams two letters, one American citizens from the British service ought bearing date 30th September, the other on the to be reciprocated. Tbe mode also should be 17th October last, communicating the overture common to both countries. Each should be at of the Emperor of Russia to promote peace by liberty to give the same facilities, or be bound to his friendly mediation between the United States impose the same restraints that the other does. and Great Britain.. On the day following, Mr. The President is willing to agree to either alterDaschkoff
, the Russian Minister, made a similar native, and to carry it into effect by the most communication to this Department. The sub- eligible regulations that can be devised. ject has, in consequence, been duly considered, If the first alternative is adopted, the extent of and I have now to make known to you the result. the proposed exclusion will depend on the im.
The President has not hesitated to accept the pediments to naturalization, on the efficacy of mediation of Russia, and he indulges a strong ihe regulations 10 prevent imposition, and the hope that it will produce the desired effect. It is fidelity of their execution. The greater the diffinot known that Great Britain has acceded to the culty in acquiring the right of citizenship, the proposition, but it is presumed that she will not easier will it be to avoid imposition, and the more decline it.' The President thought it improper complete the desired exclusion. The law of the to postpone his decision until he should hear of last session of Congress relative to seamen proves that of the British Government. Sincerely de- how sincerely desirous the Legislative as well sirous of peace, he has been willing to avail him as Executive branch of our Government is, to self of every opportunity which might tend to adjust this controversy, on conditions which promote it, on just and honorable conditions, may be satisfactory to Great Britain. By that and in accepting this overiure he has been par: law it is made indispensable for every British ticularly gratified to evince, by the manner of it, subject who may hereafter become a citizen, to the distinguished consideration which the United reside five years, without intermission, within States entertain for the Emperor Alexander. the United States, and so many guards are imShould the British Goveromeni accept the media posed to prevent frauds, that it seems to be imation, the negotiation to which it leads will be possible that they should be eluded. No British held at St. Petersburg. The President commits subject can be employed in a public or private it to you, for which a commission is enclosed, ship of the United States, unless he produces to and he has appointed Mr. Harris secretary of the the commander, in the one instance, and to the mission.
collector, in the other, a certified copy of the act The impressment of our seamen and illegal by which he became naturalized. A list of the blockades, as exemplified more particularly in the crew, in the case of a private ship, must be taken, Orders in Council, were the principal causes of certiñed and recorded by the collector, and the
Relations with Great Britain.
consuls or commercial agents of Great Britain leaves it with regret, and adopts another, either may object to any seamen, and attend the inves- in consequence of marriage, of disease, or as an tigation. The commander of a public ship re- asylum for old age. ceiving a person not duly qualified, shall forfeit To a stipulation which shall operate prospecta thousand dollars, and the commander or owner ively only, the same objection does not apply. la of a private ship: knowing thereof, five hundred naturalizing foreigners, the United States may dollars, to be recovered in any action of debt, one prescribe the limit to which their privileges skall half to the informer, and one-balf to the United extend. If it is made a condition that do native States. It is also made penal, punishable as a British subject, who may hereafter become a cirfelony by imprisonment and labor from three to ized, shall be employed in our public or private five years, or by fine from five hundred to one ships, their exclusion will violate no right. Those thousand dollars, for any person to forge or coun- who might become citizens afterwards would acterseit, or to pass or use any forged or counter- quire the right, subject to that condition, and would feited certificate of citizenship, or to sell or dis- be bound by it. To such a stipulation, the Presipose of one.
dent is willing to assent, although he would much It may fairly be presumed, that, if this law prefer the alternative of restraints on naturalizashould be carried into effect, it would exclude all iion; and, to prevent frauds, and to carry the British seamen from our service.
same fully into effect, you are authorized to apply By requiring five years continued residence in all the restraints and checks, with the necessary the United States, as the condition of citizenship: modifications, to suit the cases that are provided few if any British seamen would ever take ad: in the act above recited, relative to seamen, for vantage of it. Such as had left Great Britain, the purposes of that act. and had resided five years in this country, would In requiring that the stipulation to exclude be likely to abandon the sea forever. And by British seamen from our service, with the regu. making it the duty of the commanders of our lations for carrying it into effeci, be made reci. public, and of the collectors in the case of private procal, the President desires that you make a ships, to require an authenticated copy from the provision, authorizing the United States, if they clerk of the court, before which a British subject, should be so disposed, to dispense with the obliwho offered his service, had been naturalized, as gations imposed by it on `American citizens. indispensable to his admission, and highly penal The liberal spirit of our Government and laws in either to take a person not duly qualified, and is unfriendly to restraints on our citizens, such by allowing also British agents to object to any at least, as are imposed on British subjects from one offering his service, and to prosecute by suit becoming members of other societies. This has the commander or collector, as the case might been shown in the law of the last session, relative be, for receiving an improper person, it seems to to seamen, to which your particular attention bas be impossible that such should be received. been already drawn. This provision may like
If the second alternative is adopted, that is, if wise be reciprocated if desired. all oative British subjects are to be hereafter ex- The President is not particularly solicitous cluded from our service, it is important that the that either of these alternatives (making the prostipulation providing for it should operate so as posed reservation in case the lalier be) should be not to affect those who have been already natu- preferred. To secure the United States against ralized. By our law, all the rights of natives are impressment he is willing to adopt either. He given to naiuralized citizens. It is contended by expects in return, that a clear and distinct provisome that these complete rights do not extend sion shall be made against the practice. The beyond the limits of ihe United States; that, in precise form in which it may be done is not in. naturalizing a foreigner, no State can absolve him sisted on, provided the import is explicit. All from the obligation which he owes to his former that is required is, that, in consideration of the Government, and that he becomes a citizen in a act to be performed on the part of the United qualified sense only. This doctrine, if true in States, the British Government shall stipulate any case, is less applicable to the United States in some adequate roander, to terminate or forthan to any other Power. Expatriation seems bear the practice of impressment from American to be a natural right, and, by the original charac- vessels. ter of our institutions, founded by compact on It has been suggested, as an expedient made principle, and particularly by the unqualified in for the adjustment of this controversy, that Britvestment of the adopted citizen with the full ish cruisers should have a right to search our rights of the native, allihat the United States could vessels for British seamen, but that the commando, 10 place him on the same footing, has been ders thereof should be subjected to penalties done. 'In point of interest, the object is of little in case they made mistakes, and took from them importance to either party. The number to be American citizens. By this the British Governaffected by the stipulation is inconsiderable; por ment would acquire the right of search for seacan that be a cause of surprise, when the charac-men, with that of impressing from our vessels ter of that class of men is considered. It rarely the subjects of all other Powers. It will not eshappens that a seaman, who seuiles on a farm, cape your attention that, by admitting the right, or engages in a trade, and pursues it for any in any case, we give up ibe principle, and leave length of time, returns to sea. His youthful the door open to every kind of abuse. The same days are exhausted in his first occupation. He l objection is applicable to any and every other