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Militia of the United States.


his former home, after the expiration of this lin-| the country, even to their very hearths and firegering and ruinous period of service, he will re- sides, to drag them forth in handcuffs to the field iurn, not to the cheerful cottage which he left, of batile, there to fight agaiost the wrongs of im. where joy and plenty smiled, but to a comfort. pressment, and to conquer the freedom of the less dwelling, from which want and misery have seas. chased every endearmeni, save only those whom Mr. President, there is a foreboding that arises Providence may have spared, to meet their bene from all this which fills me with the deepest confactors' return, with haggard eye and squalid as- cern. The growth of tyranny, when it once bepect, the miserable evidences of his long and cru- gins, is strong and rapid. A few years past, and el exile. These, sir, are to be some of the certain the name of conscription was never uttered but results of this dreadful conscription ; and how it was coupled with execration ; last year, it found few of the many who are doomed to suffer, now its way into a letter from the then Secretary of dream of the distress which you are at this hour War to the chairman of the Military Commiitee, preparing for them! Sir, believe me, there is no and it was then so odious that it was but little fiction in all this; it is but a faint sketch of the exposed to view. This year, we have conscripcalamities that are destined to afflict us, the real- tion openly recommended to us by the Secretary ity of which will far outstrip the anticipation of of War in an official paper; and, worst of all, it the liveliest imagination. Let me then ask you, finds champions and advocates on this floor. What sir, if you really intend to adopt this system as have we to expect next, but that, in the ensuing the law of the land, hostile as it is to the Consti- year, we shall see it stalking abroad through the tution, and pregnant with all these ills? Have land, accompanied by its loathsome train of fetthe people of this country not yet suffered enough? ters and chains, and executioners. And why is Will this honorable Senate, wise, discreet, and all this to be done? The necessity of the crisis reflecting, on whom the nation resis its hopes, lo is offered as the plea; yes, sir, necessity, that whom they have been taught to look in the mo- blood-stained plea of tyrants, which has served ment of anxiety and trial, and upon whose floor, every scheme of usurpation, to sacrifice the lives we have been once told, the lasi expiring strug- and liberties of men, to aid its projects of self-aggles of the liberties of this country would be ex- grandizement and ambition, is now given to justihibited, if they are doomed to expire-will they fy this measure; nothing is therefore left io us, sanction, by their approbation, such a measure as but, before it be too late, to improve the expethis?

rience which the misfortunes of others have Sir, it is not wise in those who are ambitious taught us, to our own and the national preservaof fame to indulge too much in prophetic views tion. The necessities of the times, of which we of things, but I fancy that I put little to hazard, hear so much and feel so sensibly, ought properly when I say, carry this system into execution when enough to urge us to active and animaied exeryou will, and you will find that the people of the tions in behalf of the nation; there is a vigor and a country will not bear it; not that a party will zeal which should characterize all our conduct at not bear it, but the great body of the people will this doubtful moment; but the ardor which imfrown indignant upon this attempt to despoil pels to action should be watched, lest it betray us them of the blessings of their Constitutional rights into error and excess. Times of imminent peril and personal liberties.

and alarm, are periods when public liberty is Sir, you dare not, at least I hope you dare not, most in danger, and it is difficult to decide wheattempt a conscription to fill the ranks of your ther he is the worthiest patriot who goes to batregular army. When the plan of the Secretary tle in defence of a nation's rights, or he who stands of War made its appearance, it was gratifying to the faithful sentinel over the Constitution in times find that it met with the abhorrence of almost of general effervescence, to guard it from violaevery man in the nation, and the merit of the bill tion and abuse. before you, if such a measure can be supposed to Unwilling, sir, to consume the time of the Senhave merit at all, is, that it is little else, as regards ate, whose patience, as well as my own, has been the militia, than a servile imitation of the Secre- much exhausted by the lingering progress of this lary's plan. And will you treat your militia with bill, I shall content myself with the remarks I more rigor than you are willing to practise upon have made upon the point which seemed most your regular soldiers? Will you adopt a system particularly to demand an open and avowed opof tyranny towards them, that you are reluctant position. Having before taken an occasion io to attempt towards the Army? Availing your express my opinion upon the other exceptionable selves of the popular appellation of militia, you parts of the bill, I will not trouble you with a reundertake to enforce a system of conscription capitulation. whose very severity must rouse those who may I must once more express to you, Mr. President, have been lulled into acquiescence, by a total the deep regret I feel, at not being able to give want of suspicion. Thus, sir, it is, that the war my vote in favor of a measure, which is said to be spirit of the nation has sunk so low that, like the designed to be for the defence of the States. There fallen public credit of the country, neither banks is not a man in this Senate, or in this nation, who or bounties can revive it. And the advocates of is more willing, or who will go further in applythis bill, becoming rash by disaster, since neither ing the true means of the country to its defence monstrous bounties in money or in land will avail at this time, than myself. But, upon all questions, them, now call upon us to pursue the freemen of | sir, there are certain bounds beyond which I can


Election of Presiding Officer.


never consent to go; and I must be understood respect to the late ELBRIDGE GERRY, Vice Presiat all times, whatever pledges I may make, as dent of the United States and President of the imposiog this restriction, this obligation upon my- Senate, the Chair of the President of the Senate sell

, viz: neither to overleap the limits of the be shrouded with black during the present sesConstitution, or to be accessary to an invasion of sion; and as a further testimony of respect for the essential principles of civil liberty.

the memory of the deceased, the members of the On the question, Shall this bill pass ? it was Senate will go into mourning, and wear black then taken and determined in the affirmative- crape round the left arm for thirty days. yeas 19, nays 12, as follows:

YEAS–Messrs. Bibb, Bledsoe, Brent, Brown, Chace, Condit, Fromentin, Gaillard, Giles, Lacock, Morrow,

Friday, November 25. Roberts, Smith, Tait, Taylor, Turner, Walker, Whar. The resolution brought up from the House of ton, and Worthington.

Representatives the 22d instant, for appointing a Nays—Messrs. Anderson, Daggett, Dana, German, joint committee, was read, and passed to the secGoldsborough, Gore, Horsey, Hunter, Lambert, Mason, ond reading. Thompson, and Yarnum.

The resolution for furnishing the American So it was Resolved, That this bill pass, and Antiquarian Society with a copy of the Journals that the title thereof be "An act to authorize the of Congress, and of the documents published unPresident of the United States to call upon the der their order, was read a third time, and passed. several States and Territories thereof for their The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the respective quotas of eighty thousand four hun- Whole, the consideration of the bill, entitled "An dred and thirty militia, for the de!ence of the fron- act for the relief of the petty officers and seamen tiers of the United States against invasion.” under the command of Captain Joshua Barney;"

and Mr. Smith was requested to take the Chair. WEDNESDAY, November 23.

On motion, by Mr. GAILLARD, the bill having DBATH OF THE VICE PRESIDENT.

been amended, so as to include the non-commis,

sioned officers and privates of the marine corps, About the hour of meeting, a report having on motion, by Mr. Brown, the further considerreached the Senate Chamber of the death of the ation thereot' was postponed until the first MonVice President of the United States, the mem- day in April next. bers from Massachusetts, Messrs. VARNUM and

The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the GORE, proceeded to his lodgings to ascertain the whole, the consideration of the bill for the relief fact; and, on their return, having a pounced the of Bowie and Kurtz, and others; and, on motion, fact to the Senate, the following proceeding took the further consideration thereof was postponed place, on motion of Mr. Bledsoe,

until Monday next. The Senate, being informed of the death of their The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the distinguished fellow-citizen, ELBRIDGE GERRY, Vice Whole, the consideration of the bill supplePresident of the United States,

mentary to an act laying duties on notes of Do Resolve, That a committee be appointed, jointly banks, bankers, and certain companies ; on notes, with such committee as may be appointed on the part bonds, and obligations, discounted by banks, of the House of Representatives, to consider and re- bankers, and certain companies; and on bills of port measures most proper to manifest the public re- exchange of certain descriptions; and, no amend, spect for the memory of the deceased, and expressive of the deep regret of the Congress of the United ment having been proposed, the bill was ordered States for the loss of a citizen so highly respected and to be engrossed and read the third time. revered.

ELECTION OF PRESIDING OFFICER Ordered, That Messrs. GORE, VARNUM, SMITA, On motion, by Mr. Brent, that the Senate ANDERSON, and GAILLARD, be the committee. now proceed to the election of President pro On motion of Mr. BLEDSOE,

tempore. Ordered, That the Secretary inform the House Mr. German submitted the following motion : of Representatives of the decease of the Vice

Resolved, That the Senate will on Monday next, President of the United States, and communi. at 12 o'clock, proceed to the choice of a President pro cate the foregoing resolution.

tempore." A message from the House of Representatives informed the Senate that the House concur in

This question was negatived by the following

vote : the resolution of the Senate for the appoinıment of a joint committee, to consider and report mea

For the motion-Messrs. Daggett, Dana, German, sures proper to manifest the public respect for the Goldsborough, Gore, Horsey, Hunter, Lambert, Mason, memory of the Vice President of the United

and Thompson-10. States, deceased; and have appointed a commit

Against itMessrs. Anderson, Bibb, Bledsoe, Brent, tee on their part.

Brown, Chace, Condit, Fromentin, Gaillard, Lacock, The Senate then adjourned.

Morrow, Roberts, Robinson, Smith, Tait, Taylor,
Turner, Varnum, Walker, and Wharton—20.

Mr. Brent's motion was then agreed to, and
THURSDAY, November 24.

the Senate proceeded to a choice accordingly. On motion, by Mr. GORE,

On the first ballot, the whole number of votes Resolved, unanimously, That from an unfeigned l being thirty, there were : For Mr. Gaillard, 14 ;




Mr. KING, 10; Mr. Chace, 3; Mr. ANDERSON, Mr. Hunter called up the petition of Henry 1; Mr. Smith, 1; and Mr. Tait, 1.

Nimmo, of Warren, in the State of Rhode Island, 'On the second ballot, there were: For Mr. presented on the 3d of March, 1814, praying the GAILLARD, 16; Mr. KING, 10; Mr. CHACE, 5; remission of certain duties on one hundred bales and Mr. ANDERSON, 1.

of cotton, the growth and produce of the State of Mr. Gaillard was therefore declared duly Georgia, as therein stated; and, on his motion, it elected ; and, on taking the Chair, addressed the was referred to a select committee, to consider and Senate nearly as follows:

report thereon, by bill or otherwise; and Messrs. Honorable Gentlemen : While I lament the sud- Hunter, Roberts, and Bibb, were appointed den and melancholy event which has led to the dis- the committee. tinguished honor conferred on me, I am so truly sen

Mr. FROMENTIN, from the committee to whom sible of my own incompetency to discharge the duties was referred the bill, entitled "An act for the of the station to which I am called, in a manner suita- relief of John Castille, of the city of New Orble to their importance, and correspondent to the leans,” reported it without amendment; and, on dignity of this honorable body, that I approach the his motion, the bill was considered as in Commitexercise of them with unfeigned diffidence and appre-tee of the Whole, and it was ordered to a third hension. All that I dare hope is, that my efforts will reading. be considered as the result of well-meant intentions : The bill supplementary to an act laying duties all that I dare promise is, that my best exertions shall on notes of banks, bankers, and certain compabe directed to a faithful and impartial execution of the nies; on notes, bonds, and obligations, discounted trust confided to me. Relying, then, on the candor and by banks, bankers, and certain companies; and liberality which have ever characterized this respectable on bills of exchange of certain descriptions, was Assembly, I will proceed to the performance of the

reported by the commitiee correctly engrossed. duties assigned me.'

The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the On motion, by Mr. BIBB,

Whole, the consideration of the bill to extend Ordered, That the Secretary wait on the Press the time of Oliver Evans's patent for his improveident of the United States, and acquaint him that ment un steam engines; and, after debate, the the Senate have, in consequence of the decease Senate adjourned. of the Vice PRESIDENT of the United States, elected the Honorable John GAILLARD President of the Senate pro tempore.

MONDAY, November 28. Ordered. That the Secretary make a similar The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the communication to the House of Representatives. Whole, the consideration of the bill for the relief

of Bowie and Kurtz, and others; and, no amend

ment having been proposed, on the question, SATURDAY, November 26.

Shall this bill be engrossed and read a third On motion, by Mr. VARNUM, to amend the time? on motion, by Mr. Smith, the further conJournal of yesterday, by striking out the follow-sideration thereof was postponed until to-morrow. ing words:

The resolution from the House of Representa« On motion of Mr. Anderson,

lives, appointing a committee on their part to join “Having been required by a majority," and insert- such committee as may be appointed on the part ing, in lieu thereof, " being desired by one-fifth," so to of the Senate, to inquire and report whether Conread, "the yeas and nays being desired by one-fifth of gress may not be more conveniently accommothe Senators present.”

dated, either by an alteration of the present It was determined in the affirmative-yeas 18 Chambers, or by procuring other rooms within a

convenieni distance of the public offices, was On motion, by Mr. GERMAN, the yeas and nays read the second time, considered as in Committee having been desired by one-fifth of the Senators of the Whole, and ordered to a third reading. present, those who voied in the affirmative are- The engrossed bill supplementary to an act lay

Messrs. Bibb, Daggett, Dana, Gaillard, German, ing duties on notes of banks, bankers, and certain Goldsborough, Horsey, Hunter, Lambert, Mason, companies; on notes, bonds, and obligations, disMorrow, Smith, Tait, Taylor, Thompson, Turner, Var- counted by banks, bankers, and certain companum, and Walker.

and on bills of exchange of certain descripThose who voted in the negative are

tions, having been reported correct, was read a Messrs. Anderson, Chace, Condit, Fromentin, La- third time. cock, Roberts, and Robinson.

On the question, Shall this bill pass ? it was The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the determined in the affirmative-yeas 20, nays 7, Whole, the consideration of the bill, entitled as follows: "An act authorizing the Secretary of State, dur- Yuas-Messrs. Anderson, Bibb, Bledsoe, Brown, ing the continuance of the present war, to make Chase, Condit, Dana, Fromentin, Gaillard, Lacock, an additional allowance to ihe owners and mas. Morrow, Roberts, Robinson, Smith, Tait, Taylor, Turnters of vessels for bringing back to the United er, Varnum, Walker, and Wharton. States destitute and distressed American seamen;"

Nays-Messrs. Daggett, Goldsborough, Horsey, Hunand the bill was ordered to the third reading.

ter, Lambert, Mason, and Thompson. The bill was then read a third time, by unan- So it was Resolved, That this bill pass, and imous consent, and passed.

that the title thereof be "An act supplementary to

nays 7.


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Naval Establishment.

SENATE. an act laying duties on notes of banks, bankers, ships of war, until the Navy has become respectable, and certain companies ; on notes, bonds, and ob- both from the number and rates of its vessels, and, stili ligations, discounted by banks, bankers, and cer

more so, from the gallantry and splendor of its achievetain companies, and on bills of exchange of cer

ments. By the laws now in force, the Navy will contain descriptions.

sist of four seventy-fours, three thirty-sixes,

eight sloops The bill, entitled "An act for the relief of John of war, besides a great number of brigs and schooners,

carrying, on the whole, not less than thirteen hundred Castille, of the city of New Orleans," was read a

guns. Of these, there remain to be put on the stocks third time, and passed. The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the This force is exclusive of the gunboats, the flotillas,

one of the seventy-fours and four of the forty-fours. Whole, the consideration of the bill to extend the and lake squadrons ; the latter of which consist of betime of Oliver Evans's patent for his improvement tween thirty and forty ships, some of which are large. on steam engines; and sundry amendments hav- The national vessels on the Lakes do not carry less ing been agreed to, the President reported it to than five hundred guns. the House accordingly.

Your committee are not aware, nor do they believe, On the question, Shall this bill be engrossed that any nation possessing a naval force, such as the and read a third time as amended ? it was de-above, is without a grade of officers above that of captermined in the affirmative-yeas 21, nays 8, as tain. The nation with whom the United States are follows:

now at war, is said to have about a thousand public Yeus-Messrs. Anderson, Bledsoe, Brown, Chace, ships; to command which, she has not less than two Condit, Dana, Fromentin, Gaillard, German, Horsey, from rear admiral of the blue to the admiral of the feet.

hundred admirals of ten different grades, ascending Hunter, Lambert, Morrow, Roberts, Robinson, Smith, At present, the Navy of the United States is comTait, Turner, Varnum, Walker, and Wharton. Nars-Messrs. Bibb, Brent, Daggett

, Goldsborough, lieutenants

, master commandants, and post captains.

manded by commissioned officers of three grades only, Lacock, Mason, Taylor, and Thompson.

The committee would feel that they had not done Mr. GOLDSBOROUGH, from the joint Library justice to the subject committed to them, if they failed Committee of Congress, to whom the subject was to contrast the situation of the Army with that of the referred, reported a bill to authorize the purchase Navy, as it respects the scope of promotion in each. of the library of Thomas Jefferson, late President The Army presents, for the encouragement of an honof the United States; and the bill was read, and orable ambition, the high station of major general passed to the second reading.

through ten different grades. It has also advantages

in the variety of its corps unknown to the Navy. The NAVAL ESTABLISHMENT.

youth of our country, ambitious of military fame, may, Mr. Tait, from the Committee on Naval Af- according to their taste, enter the Army as officers of fairs, to whom were referred two resolutions of cavalry, of artillery, of infantry, or of the rifle corps.

Not so with the naval officer. All that he can expect, the 7th instant, "instructing them to inquire what is, to be transferred from a subordinate station to the provision should be made for the appointment of

command of a ship of war. officers above the grade of Captain in the Navy late in the Army cannot but strongly impress the naval

The rapid promotions of of the United States," and also, “to inquire what officer with a deep sense of his own confined situation, provision should be made for conferring naval and of the cheerless prospect before him. Does not rank by brevet, in consideration of meritorious justice, then, dictate that the range for promotion service," made a report as follows:

should be enlarged in our Naval Establishment ! That your committee assume it as a policy now set

Your committee are of opinion that a discreet policy tled, that the United States are to have a permanent and a prudent foresight, not less than a just regard to Naval Establishment, which is to be gradually in the strong claims of the Navy, call for an enlargement creased, according to circumstances, and as the ability of the sphere of promotion. It cannot be long before of the Government may permit. Your committee deem the Navy will be called on to sail in squadron. The it unnecessary to go into a course of reasoning to sup- highest attainments in naval tactics should be encourport the soundness of this policy, and to establish (what aged. If you expect men to labor for the highest qualis now generally conceded) that a navy is the most ifications in their professions, it is necessary to open appropriate, the most efficient, and the least expensive to them the way to the station requiring them. The defence of this country,

surest mean by which you will probably induce the The commercial and maritime habits of a large por- officers to qualify themselves for an admiral's command, tion of the people of the United States press them to is, to create that grade in the Navy; thereby requiring, the ocean; hence have arisen competition and rival- in the same act, great professional attainments, and ship with other nations, pursuing the same course of offering a reward for them. industry. The history of all nations teaches us that Your committee are therefore of opinion, that, whethe persons and the property of our citizens on the high ther they view this subject in reference to the practice seas, unprotected, must be (as indeed they have been) of older and more experienced nations, or in regard to the subjects of frequent violence and injustice. Thé the just claims and the long and meritorious services true remedy against these maritime wrongs is maritime of the naval officers, or with a view to a just, prudent, force. A navy, growing up with the growth of the and liberal policy, on the part of the Government, a nation, cannot fail

, before the lapse of many years, to grade or grades superior to that of captain should now procure respect from abroad, and safety at home. be created in the Naval Establishment.

Congress, apparently influenced by these considera- As to the second resolution, relative to conferring tions, at an early period after the establishment of the naval rank by brevet, it does occur to your committee General Government, created a Naval Department, as necessary; it having been the practice of the Govand have authorized, from time to time, the building of lernment to confer actual rank without regard to senior


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ity, in reward of brilliant achievements or meritorious We often see on our own coast admirals with comservice.

mands inferior to those which the American Navy may The committee respectfully submit the following even now afford. resolutions:

The new grade to be established, and number of proResolved, That it is expedient to authorize by law motions, should be consistent with the scale and charthe appointment of officers above the grade of captain acter of the Naval Establishment, which may not, for in the Navy of the United States.

some years, require the distinction of flags as in the Resolved, That it is inexpedient, at this time, to make British navy, viz: red, white, and blue, at the main, any provision for conferring naval rank by brevet. fore, or mizen of each; making nine grades of admi

rals, rising in the order of the flags, from blue to red.

I am therefore of opinion, that it is now expedient Navy DEPARTMENT, Nov. 15, 1814. to establish the grade of rear admiral, without any disSır: In answer to the inquiry contained in your tinction of flags, leaving the promotions to vice admi. letter of the 8th instant, founded upon two resolutions ral and admiral for future services, and an enlarged of the Senate, passed on the 7th instant, instructing

establishment. the Committee on Naval Affairs to inquire "what pro

I am also of opinion, that the same principle which vision should be made for the appointment of officers induced the establishment of brevet rank in the Army, above the grade of captain in the Navy of the United for gallant actions, meritorious conduct, or long serStates," and " what provision should be made for con- vice, is equally applicable to the Navy, and cannot fail ferring naval rank by brevet, in consideration of merit- to excite to those actions which it is intended to reward; orious service," I have the honor to represent, that the but no officer so brevetted should be entitled to any high character which the American Navy has justly additional pay or emoluments, except when command. acquired; the general sentiment which indicates its ing on separate service. rapid increase and permanency; and the long, faith

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your ful, and honorable service which its senior officers have obedient servant,

W. JONES rendered their country; appear to me to justify and

Hon. C.Tait, Ch'n Naval Committee, Senate. call for the appointment of officers of a higher grade The report, together with the resolutions, were than that of captain.

read, and the report ordered to be printed for the Lov of country, and the laudable desire honora- | use of the Senate. ble fame, are strong excitements to noble action; but the prospect of progressive promotion to the highest distinction which talents, zeal, and valor, may justly

Tuesday, November 29. aspire to, is not perhaps less active and stimulating.

The Senate resumed, as in Committee of the Captains of long and honorable standing in the Whole, the bill for the relief of Bowie and Kurtz, Navy cannot but contrast the cheerless prospect of and others; and the following amendment was promotion in the naval service, with the rapid and high proposed, by Mr. Bledsoe: distinction to which their military brethren, with equal, Strike out, from the word "of,” in the seventh line, but not higher pretensions, have attained.

to the end of the bill, and insert, “ as a full compenThe naval force, in officers, seamen, and marines, is sation for the freight of the ship Allegany from Alprobably two-fifth parts of the whole military force of

giers to Gibraltar." the United States, actually employed, in which there are, I think, eight major generals and sixteen briga

On motion, by Mr. Smith, the further considdiers, exclusive of those of the staff, who enjoy the rank, eration thereof was postponed to, and made the pay, and emoluments, of brigadiers.

order of the day for, Friday next. The effect of a limited grade, without hope of pro

A message from the House of Representatives motion, is to contract the range of study and profes- informed the Senate that the House bave passed sional attainment within the sphere of the command a bill, entitled "An act to provide additional revthus limited. Hold out but the prospect of elevated enues for defraying the experises of Government, rank and command, and every officer of talents and and maintaining the public credit, by laying duworth will aspire to the highest qualifications. ties on spirits distilled within the United Siales,

Foreign example is to be received with caution ; yet, and by amending the act laying duties on licenses the practice of nations of great maritime experience to distillers of spirituous liquors;" in which bill may throw some light upon the subject. A compari- they request the concurrence of the Senate. son of the force of the British navy, with the number of admirals in that service, will exhibit the following to the second reading.

The bill last mentioned was read, and passed result, viz: of ships of seventy-four guns and upwards,

The resolution from the House of Representathere are

tives appointing a committee on their part, to join Building, about


such committee as may be appointed on the part In ordinary, about


of the Senate, to inquire and report whether Guards, hospital, prison, store ships, &c. 33

Congress may not be more conveniently accommoIn commission, about


dated, either by an alteration of the present ChamTotal


bers, or by procuring other rooms within a con

venient distance of the public offices, was read a The list of admirals contains two hundred and nine,

third time. exclusive of twenty-seven superannuated rear admi

On the question, Shall this resolution pass ? it rals, upon half-pay; thus exhibiting more than two

was determined in the negative-yeas 11, nays admirals for every ship of seventy-four guns and up- 19, as follows: wards, in commission.

Yeas-Messrs. Brown, Dana, Fromentin, Gaillard,

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