Weekly return of births and deaths (infectious diseases, weather) in London (and other great towns).


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Página 355 - The quantity of quicklime required is thoroughly slaked in a pailful of water. Stir up the milk of lime thus obtained and pour it immediately into the cistern containing at least 50 gallons of the water to be softened, taking care to leave in the pail any heavy sediment that may have settled to the bottom in the few seconds that intervened between the stirring and pouring. Fill the pail again with water, and stir and pour as before. The remainder of the 700 gallons of water must then be added, or...
Página 91 - Tlie mortality of a population with an excess of births over deaths is lower than the mortality of a stationary population where the births and deaths are equal. And the reason on reflection is obvious. The births take place steadily year by year in a city ; and if they are in excess of the deaths, they throw into it not only additional children under 5 years of age, but also children and adults above that age; and hence there is less than the due pro-portion of old people in...
Página 355 - ... paddle. The water will now appear very milky, owing to the precipitation of the chalk which it previously contained in solution, together with an equal quantity of chalk which is formed from the quicklime added. After standing for three hours the water will be sufficiently clear to use for washing, but to render it clear enough for drinking at least twelve hours
Página xxvi - ... liable to be incomplete during the rapid passage of polluted surface water into shallow wells. In the case of deep well and spring water, however, if the proportion of previous contamination do not exceed 10,000 parts in 100,000 parts of water...
Página xxvi - In the case of deep well and spring water, however, if the proportion of previous contamination do not exceed 10,000 parts in 100,000 parts of water, this risk is very inconsiderable, and may be regarded as nil if the direct access of water from the upper strata be rigidly excluded ; because the excessive filtration to which such water has been subjected in passing downwards through so great a thickness of soil or rock, and the rapid oxidation of the organic matters contained in water when the latter...
Página 201 - ... Barking Creek, on the Thames, 14 miles below London Bridge. With certain differences, the sewage of the south side of the Thames is amenable to the same kind of treatment. By some returns, furnished in June, 1870, by the engineer of the Metropolitan Board of Works, it appears that the average daily quantity of sewage pumped into the river Thames at Crossness was 170,934 cubic metres, and at Barking 152,808 cubic metres — equivalent to about as many tons by weight.
Página 1 - Salford, 40-3 in Leeds, and 31*4 both in Portsmouth and Nottingham. The ruling epidemic was scarlet fever, London and Liverpool were great sufferers. Diarrhoea was fatal, and so was fever. Then to violence many deaths were referred ; in Birmingham 402, Liverpool 700, London 2,576. Liverpool is the first, Birmingham second, London third, in the rank of danger from violent death, of one kind or another. The seasons influence the mortality largely. The mortality was at the highest rate of 31 in 1,000...
Página 91 - ... under 5 and above 55 than the other. When the births exceed the deaths, the effect is to increase the number of children under 5 years of age, ; and it is conceivable that a novice in these inquiries may rush to the conclusion, that the effect of an excess of births is to increase the general rate of mortality ; whereas it is found by observation to have the contrary effect.
Página xxxi - December one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, every company shall effectually filter all water supplied by them within the metropolis for domestic use, before the same shall pass into the pipes for distribution, excepting any water which may be pumped from wells into a covered reservoir or aqueduct, without exposure to the atmosphere, and which shall not be afterwards mixed with unfiltered water, (1) 5.
Página 2 - The annual deaths averaged 808. The lowest number of deaths in any one year was 154 in 1857 ; the highest number was 2,012 'in the year 1863. In n of the years the deaths exceeded 1,000, in 13 they were below 600 ; thus they fluctuated to the extent of one fourth every two or three years.

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