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They were afraid of eating much salt meat, because their allowance of water was not large; the wind rose and scattered their fires; thus, after a night of little rest, and less comfort, they gave the horses a feed of maize at four o'clock, and pursued their way to Pai Paulo, which stands on a rising ground above the river Seara Meirim, opposite to the termination of the plain. This was, without exception,' says Mr. Koster, the most desolate place I ever beheld. It was totally deserted; the roofs of some of the cottages were falling in; the walls of others had fallen, but the halfsupported roofs remained. The trees had mostly lost their leaves, not in the ordinary course of nature, but from an unnatural and destructive drought; and the course of the river was marked by nothing but the depth of its bed in a sand which was now loose and dry as that upon the soil above. At noon the travellers halted by a well dug in the bed of the same winding river; the water was brackish and dirty, so that the horses did little more than taste it. Another day's journey brought them to another pool in the river, and the fourth day's was still through the same desert. At one of the watering-places a miserable cow was drinking, which the major recognized, by her mark, to belong to his own estates,--she had strayed at least four hundred miles, in search of pasture and water. Here they overtook a party of Sertanejos, as the inhabitants of the interior are called. Towards evening the guide expressed a wish to turn back, and said that the Indians were afraid of proceeding; however imprudent it might have been to undertake the journey at this perilous time, there was now far more danger in returning than in pressing forward, and Mr. Koster made him proceed by a threat of shooting him if he should attempt to desert; he apologizes for this startling conduct by the necessity of the case, and his perfect conviction that the threat would be sufficient. The fifth was a dismal day, the pool where they expected to find water at noon was dried up; the few leinons which were left were distributed to the great relief of all, and as they proceeded, Mr. Koster learnt from the major a Sertanejo practice, not unknown to pedestrians in England, of putting a pebble in the mouth, to prevent thirst. On the following forenoon, however, they reached a well : the first draught was delightful,--the second nauseated them, so dirty and brackish was the water,--fortunately for them, as the effect of indulgence might Otherwise have been injurious, or even fatal. Some goats were seen here, and this led to the joyful discovery of an inhabited cottage. An elderly woman and her two daughters were at home, the father was absent. A present of some farinha, a few handfuls of maize thrown to the poultry, and above all some of those expressions of courtesy, which, when they come from the lips of a superior, seem to carry with them kindness as well as condescension, won the good will of this poor family, and they directed the travelbers to a dell' at some distance, where dry grass and leaves might, perhaps, still be picked up. It sometimes happens that lonely persons, like these in this lawless country, are insolently robbed by travellers, who take advantage of their houses, eat their poultry, and leave them without paying; but, as Mr. Koster justly observes, the wonder is that greater enormities are not frequently committed. In the evening they crossed the river for the forty-second and last time, and came to a hamlet, estimated at forty leagues from Natal,

the league being never less than four miles.

Mr. Koster and the Major had by this time become very intimate,-men must be strangely unsocial who would not during such a journey. Like the French, among whom horsemanship has a saving virtue like charity, the major was pleased with his new friend because he could ride; for he had supposed that there were neither horses, cows, dogs, nor churches, in England. The information which he received upon these points raised the character of the nation greatly in his estimation, and he said he should no longer believe that the English were Pagans. Four days after this, as the drought still continued, Mr. Koster judgedit best to strike towards the coast, from which he was about 200 miles distant. Having parted company with his friend, he missed the watering-place,ma serious misfortune if a herdsman had not turned back four or five miles to shew it him,-an instance this of the kindness which is shewn to strangers in Brazil. Mr. Koster on one occasion offended some goat-herds by offering payment for some milk; they sent the milk, but refused the money; three of them then came up to him, and when he thauked them they asked if he had intended to insult them by offering payment, as such things were vot customary in their country ? they were put into good humour when the travel ler informed them that in bis country, the people were "obliged to purchase the sand with which they scoured their houses. They then said the lad had told them there was an Englisliman in 'company, and they wished much to see him, as it was a bicho-an animal they had never seen. Their disappointment was very great when the guide assured them that the man who conversed with them in fluent Portugueze, and whose countenance was deeply dyed by a tropicaksun, was, in reality, the bicho concerning which they were so curious. · In the course of this day's journey the traveller observed many rocks of remarkable form, one in particular which he describes as

placed upon another of much smaller dimensions, and the resting point so small as to render its removal apparently easy, but on trial

it had not the slightest motion. It would indeed be curious if the rocking-stone should be found in Brazil; and it is not unlikely that this may have been one, for Brazil also has its antiquities of this kind, though the fact, perhaps, has never before obtained notice. In the year 1641, Elias Herckman made a journey into the interior, under the Dutch government, in search of mines; and in a part of the country not far from this, he found such monuments as, had they been discovered in Europe, would be as. signed to the Druids. The account is of such importance that it should be given in the original words of Barlæus :- Devitatis montium acclivibus, incessere per planiora, ubi duo lapides molares exactæ rotunditatis et stupenda magnitudinis visi; quorum diameter sedecim erat pedum, crassities vero tanta, ut è terra superficie vix mediu lapidis pars attinge extremis digitis ab erecto posset ; alter alteri superincumbebut, major minori. E centro, miro spectaculo, frutex se attollebat, karawata. Quo finè hos congesserint Barbari, in tantâ harum rerum ignorantiâ, non facile dixerim.' The Dutchmen certainly believed this to be a work of art; and if any doubt existed upon this subject, it would be removed by what they found soon afterwards : l'isi iterum magna molis lapides humano labore congesti, quales, etiam in Belgio Drantia regio habet, quos nulla vectalione, nulla hominum vi illuc deportari potuisse ob magnitudinem credus; formâ ut Arus referre videantur.'. In connection with this curious subject a passage inay be noticed which occurs in the present volume.

'In the month of November there arrived a priest upon a visit to the vicar, whose exertions are incessant on every subject which relates to the improvement of his country. He had now been staying with. & friend in the province of Paraiba, and had made a drawing of a stone upon which were carved a great number of unknown characters and several figures, one of which had the appearance of being intended to represent a woman. The stone or rock is large, and stands in the middle of the bed of a river, which is quite dry in the summer. When the inhabitants of the neighbourhood saw him at work in taking this drawing, they said, that there were several others in different parts of the vicinity, and they gave him the names of the places. It was his intention to return again the following year, and seek them out. I should have brought with me a copy of this curious drawing, if my departure from Pernambuco had not been hastened from unavoidable circumstances.'--pp. 319, 20. .. eget,..

It would be idle to offer at any guess concerning these sculptures,

their existence is certain, and in all probability an accurate account of them will be obtained ere long. Suffice it to observe that the facts thus brought together afford strong indications that the Tupis and Tapuyas were not the first inhabitants of Brazil. .' :: Ou the second day after leaving the goatherds, Mr. Koster


reached Açu': 'Oh! he exclaims, the joy of again seeing a church! -of the sight of a regular village and civilized persons, if even these can be called civilized according to European ideas.'

From Natal to Açu there is not a single settlement which deserves the name of village, except the deserted Pai Paulo; it is a flat, uncovered, miserable country. Yet even here, were the population numerous enough to render it needful, much might be done toward rendering it more habitable. The acaju and the inangaba grow upon the sandiest and most sterile ground, both trees bear a delightful and wholesome food; cabbage trees also are found here, and a little care in scattering the seeds might in a few years make the traveller certain of finding food during inost part of the year. Açu is a small town, containing about 300 inhabitants, and built in a square upon the river of the same name, Mr. Koster calls it a great river, but at this time its bed was dry. The houses are miserable huts, built of mud, and with the earth for the floor. When water is scarce this is a great discomfort, for the Brazilians are remarkably clean in their persons; and never complain of any local disadvantage so much as of the want of a bathing-place. A league from the town is a lake called Piato, about 32 miles in length and four in breadth.

In the summer its sides become sufficiently dry to enable thein to be cultivated, but the centre of it is invariably marshy and impassable. The fertility of its sides is very great, affording most plentifully rice, maizc, sugar cane, melons, &c. and I saw some cotton trees planted very near to the edge. The lake is filled from the river in the rainy season, and as the lands around it are much higher tlran the lake itself, the waters which run down from them wash away all vestiges of cultivation, till these again subside, and the same operations are continued the following season. In such dreadfully severe years as that during which I travelled, the people of the district would be starved if this Jake did not exist : it enabled the inhabitants of Açu, at the time I was there, to remain in their houses. The appearance of abundance, the bright green, the well fed horses and cattle, which we saw as we travelled along its banks, enlivened us all; there was a look of security, a seeming certainty of at least the necessaries of life, let what would happen, which we had not for a long time felt. The parched hills which surround the lake, its beautifully cultivated borders, and the dark and dangerous bogs which compose its centre and prevent the communication of the inhabitants of either bank, formed a very extraordinary scene. No water was to be seen, but the mud was too deep, and not of sufficient consistence for a man to be enabled to wade across; nor could a passage to the other side be effected by means of a raft, for a very trifling weight would make it sink.'—pp. 97, 98.

A few days more brought Mr. Koster to St. Luzia, a village Arith about 300 inhabitants upon the river which divides the cap


taincies of Rio Grande and Seara. Here the traveller's

passport was demanded with some incivility in the name of the commandant; he answered, that if the commandant had wished to see the passport, he would certainly have sent one of his officers to ask for it. The young mau rejoined, that he was the serjeant of the district. To this Mr. Koster made answer, that he could not know him in that capacity, because, instead of being in uniform, he was in the usual dress of shirt and drawers, and moreover his mauner was such, that he was resolved not to shew it him. The reply was, that he must and should shew it; he accordingly went off, and the traveller and his party prepared their arms, to the amazement and amusement of some of the more peaceable inhabitants.' The sequel and the justification of this resistance may best be related in the traveller's own words.

• I soon saw him again, and he was coming towards us, with two of three other persons; I called to him to keep at a distance, telling bimthat Julio would fire if he did not. This he judged advisable to do; and as I thought it proper and prudent to advance as soon as possible, we left the place soon after one o'clock, with a broiling sun; therefore we then saw no more of the serjeant. The dry river, upon which this village stands, divides the captaincies of Rio Grande and Seara, consequently there was much reason for the commandant's demand of my passport; but it was necessary to preserve the high opition generally entertained of the name of Inglez, Englishman, wherever the people possessed sufficient knowledge to understand that the said Inglezes, were not bichos, or animals; and also to keep up my own importance with the persons about me. It would not have answered, to have thus given way to a man who was inclined to make me feel the consequence which he judged his place would allow him to assume. If I had been invited to the commandant's house in a civil way, or if the serjeant liad come to me in his uniform, all would have gone well. These trifles, though apparently of no importance, weigh very heavily with persons who have made such small advances towards civilization ;, public opinion is every thing. If the idea of my being a bicho and a heretic had not been counter-balanced by that of rank and consequence, I might have hail the whole village upon me, and have been deserted' by my own people into the bargain.'-pp. 103, 4.

There are salt marshes in this part of the country; in one which the traveller crossed, the mud, even in this dry season, was from twelve to eighteen inches deep at the crossing place, and where a horse had left his footsteps the salt had crystallized : it was surrounded by carnauba trees,--the palm which produces the vegetable

The others are described as being dry and hard at this time, dark coloured and producing no grass ; several sea-side plants' grew upon the skirts, and the water which oozed from them was quite salt. The Portugueze are now a scientific people, and there

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