Jane J. Mansbridge
University of Chicago Press, 1990 M04 15 - 402 páginas
A dramatic transformation has begun in the way scholars think about human nature. Political scientists, psychologists, economists, and evolutionary biologists are beginning to reject the view that human affairs are shaped almost exclusively by self-interest—a view that came to dominate social science in the last three decades.
In Beyond Self-Interest, leading social scientists argue for a view of individuals behavior and social organization that takes into account the powerful motivations of duty, love, and malevolence. Economists who go beyond "economic man," psychologists who go beyond stimulus-response, evolutionary biologists who go beyond the "selfish gene," and political scientists who go beyond the quest for power come together in this provocative and important manifesto.
The essays trace, from the ancient Greeks to the present, the use of self-interest to explain political life. They investigate the differences between self-interest and the motivations of duty and love, showing how these motivations affect behavior in "prisoners' dilemma" interactions. They generate evolutionary models that explain how altruistic motivations escape extinction.
They suggest ways to model within one individual the separate motivations of public spirit and self-interest, investigate public spirit and self-interest, investigate public spirit in citizen and legislative behavior, and demonstrate that the view of democracy in existing Constitutional interpretations is not based on self-interest. They advance both human evil and mothering as alternatives to self-interest, this last in a penetrating feminist critique of the "contract" model of human interaction.
Part II Dimensions of the Problem
Part III An Ecological Niche for Altruism
Part IV Citizens
Part V Legislators
Part VI Constitutional Interpretation
Part VII International Relations
Part VIII Modeling
action altruism argue assumption behavior beliefs benefits Cambridge chap Chicago child citizens clause commitment conception concern conflict conformist transmission Congress context contract costs cultural decisions defection defectors deregulation dilemma discussion dual-utilities Economic Theory egoistic electoral Ellie empathy Essays example experience fair favor feel frequency of cooperators genetic group selection Harvard University human Hume important incentives individual institutions interaction interest irrational issues J. S. Mill Jon Elster Journal judgments justice legislative Mansbridge maximize moral mothering person motives naked preferences nomic normative one's outcomes payoff percent Political Science principle Prisoner's Dilemma problem Procedural Justice procedures Psychology Public Choice public value question rational choice rational choice theory reciprocal altruism reciprocity reelection relation between mothering response result Review role rule Sears self-interest selfish social social contract society studies subpopulation theorists tion traditional Tyler University Press unselfishness utility vote welfare York
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