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streets of houses where there was action of the Mission is regarded once nothing but rock to be seen with much sorrow by their coThe arrangement for inhabiting religionists in England, and has such houses is curious, since the had the effect of stirring up many contributors drew lots among them- to assist their brethren in the selves for the first tenancy. It East, rather than leave them to is now stated in the Jewish press the charity of the Gentiles. that the erection of 4000 houses The method whereby these destiis contemplated along the southern tute immigrants made their reroad which leads to Bethlehem. markable advance is characteristic The main difficulty in such build- and simple. They offered theming is the water-supply; for Jeru- selves as intermediaries and capisalem possesses only one very in- talists, though possessing very little different spring, and its inhabitants cash. They met the peasants, who are mainly dependent on rain-water were bringing their produce to the cisterns. This is a very ancient capital, at some distance from the question, and one which in Pilate's gates, and purchased all their stock. time the Romans solved by mak- The peasants were both willing so ing two long aqueducts from the to save the loss of time and the springs of Etam and from other uncertainty belonging to a sale in fountains south of Bethlehem ; but the crowded markets, and were these have been allowed to fall also very willing to shorten their into ruins the lower one only day's journey by several miles. from time to time, when mended, But the Jew did not pay in cash bringing water to the Temple en- but in small promissory - notes, closure, while the upper channel which they had agreed to accept behas been entirely deserted. An tween themselves. By this means English company has, however, of the peasant was forced, if he aclate proposed to remedy this de- cepted the Jew's offer, either to fect-although it may be doubted resell his notes at a discount, or if the available supplies will be to deal solely with Jewish sellers. sufficient for a largely increased These notes were pronounced ilpopulation.

legal by the Government, and their In addition to these purely Jew- withdrawal was ordered. The ish settlements, efforts have been Jews refused to accept them save made by the Missions to assist the at a very large discount: the loss Jews by a special fund, which was fell on the peasantry, and the conintended to found a colony in the sequence was that they very soon low hills west of the city at Artûf. reappeared in the market.

When The choice of a site cannot be con- by these means the Jewish middlesidered very judicious, since the man has made a considerable profit, villages in the valleys suffer much there is no doubt that some will from fever in autumn. Neverthe- undersell their fellows by offering less, an agricultural centre has cash to the peasants; but meanactually been founded, and many time the city population falls into of the destitute emigrants were

the hands of Jewish traders, who thus drawn away from the over- hold the food - supply in their crowded capital. It does not, how- power; and the increase of prices, ever, appear that any large pro- and the coercion thus made practiportion of the Jews so assisted cable, cannot be said to have made by Christian Missions have as yet the Jews popular with the more embraced Christianity; and the primitive population, by whom VOL, CXLIX.NO. DCCCCVIII.

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lytise hidden under a humani- will he be able to live there in tarian cloak, or partially avowed peace and in prosperity when he as an ultimate result to be gained. gains admission ? But the present movement is from From a political point of view, within, and it has consequently no real objection can be urged, stirred an enthusiasm during the save on the part of the Russians, past year which seems to increase who are taking energetic action to rather than to diminish. The bring about a result which has Chovevey Sion association is in- already been prejudicial to their tended to unite the “friends of interests, and which in the end Sion” in a powerful organisation, may be yet more damaging. The having for its object the agricul- Jews are a peace-loving people, tural colonisation of Palestine by and all their interests are bound Jews expelled from Russia and up in peace, and in the commerce from Europe; and it already num- which so much depends on tranbers among its leaders several well- quillity. The persecution of Jews known men of influence and wealth. has already rendered abortive the Its affiliated local centres are recent Russian attempt to raise widely spread, and the number of money, which may be suspected its adherents is increasing from to be mainly useful for warlike hundreds to thousands. In spite purposes.

Public opinion is too of the difficulties to be encountered strong among the Jews to be —and in what scheme will no dif- disregarded by

the most ficulties be found ? — it appears wealthy and powerful among their destined to affect the fortunes of great capitalists. No great HePalestine, and to make a remark- brew banker can assist a people able change in the distribution, who are active in ruining Hebrew and in the status, of the Jewish commerce. On the other hand,

the Sultan might expect to find The advantages which such a useful allies among those who scheme presents are obvious. The cannot but nourish for many years Jew of Russia and of the East is a bitter resentment against their very different from the civilised persecutors. A Jewish population Jew of the West. He has not in Palestine would rank on the attained to either the education or side of their hosts, were they rethe refinement of his more fa- ceived with open arms; and would voured brethren, and he is an represent a much more powerful Oriental, not a European, For interest than do the Circassians, this reason he is better fitted at to whom the Sultan has already the present time for oriental life, given shelter, settling them in the and for the conditions which pre- Jaulan plains, south of Mount vail in Eastern countries. More



be that such an over, the journey from Russia to argument may not appeal to the Palestine is short and inexpensive, Khalif, who, as the head of Islam, as compared with the task of must see with suspicion the incrossing Europe to reach England. creasing power of his non-Moslem The country is almost next door subjects; but surely the presence to the home from which, in Aus- of the Jewish ally is better than tria or at Moscow, he is likely to the future approach of the Greek be expelled. The question re- Christian enemy.

The Moslem mains, Will he be allowed to retum population does not increase in to the land of his fathers? and Syria : the country is empty, com


pared with its capability of sup- capitalists have already acquired porting a population; and appears land, and have prospered in spite to be a prey already within the of the dreaded bakshish system. grasp of Russian armies from the The financial position of the Jews East, whenever the signal is given. would probably render it easier

To England such a change would for them than for others to overbe certainly beneficial. It would come the Sultan's objections, and prevent the dreaded influx of they can hardly be recognised as hungry foreigners, and it would having a common interest with establish on the eastern shores of any of those who covet his dothe Mediterranean a population minions. The spirit of nationality friendly to ourselves, since no might no doubt arise among them other country has treated the when gathered in a fatherland; Jew with greater justice and con- but the Jewish bond of union is sideration than has Great Britain. religious rather than national, and For such reasons the Jewish pro- the Koran places the Jew, and the posals should therefore be accept- Christian also, in a different cateable to the whole of Europe, with gory—as tributaries allowed the the exception of Russia, who has exercise of their own creed-to left herself no real ground for ob- that in which it ranks those who jection.

have no “religion of a book." The objections which are raised The Government of the Porte holds by those who claim to be practical in its gift the waste lands which, critics of such a scheme are briefly, according to law, it can bestow —first, that the Turkish Govern- without payment on those who are ment will not consent, and will willing to cultivate; and some make it impossible for a Jewish years ago it was calculated that colony to succeed ; secondly, that 200,000 acres of such land existed the country is already populated, in Lower Galilee, while beyond and is little better than a rocky Jordan the healthy region of desert; thirdly, that the Jews will Gilead sustains only a very sparse never take to agricultural pursuits, settled population. The ruined being entirely addicted to trade; condition of the peasantry also and lastly, that the movement is makes them willing to dispose of “enthusiastic,” which in the pres- their freehold lands to any purent times is equivalent to saying chaser, although such arrangements that it is a mere religious delusion, should be so concluded as not to not organised by practical men of discourage or dispossess the native business.

population, which, however small, As regards the first point, it re- is sturdy and laborious, and better mains to be proved that the Sultan fitted than any other element of is averse to such projects. It is population to till the land, under stated in the Jewish press that the just and favourable conditions. restrictions which prevented for- To


that the country is eigners from acquiring land in the already populated is to make a East have quite recently been statement applicable to any other withdrawn. They have

never part of the world. The new colonies really prevented such titles being in South Africa already contain acquired and recognised. Mission- so large a Kaflir population that ary societies have evaded the law it seems impossible in many parts by making purchases through Mos- to find room for white men, with

Jewish and other out grievous injustice to a law-abid

lem agents.

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