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tion, therefore, in America, the that Navigation Act they once so condition of that country will be fiercely denounced. If, in the land radically changed; and there can- of its early development, democnot be a doubt that when it occurs, racy can make no advance on the a genuine impulse must be given victory of the rights of man, its not only to the wellbeing of the day is done there, great and splenpeople, but to the wellbeing of all did as its service has been. The peoples. The reason of the suc- people of the United Kingdom cess so far of democracy, lies in have improved upon it by the adthe fact that it promotes the great dition to its triumph, so far as est good of the greatest number; they are concerned, of free exbut this cardinal principle is being change, and the hopes of the workforgotten in America, and outside ing men of all nations must henceof the British Isles or in portions forth rest exclusively on the unof the empire has only a semi- folding of British genius. It may existence. The foolishness of stim- be that owing to forgetfulness of ulating production in the United her duty towards humanity, AmerStates and excluding the competi- ica is at the length of her tether tion of the world, is seen in the for the present, that the impetus inability to lighten taxation by derived from the founders can reducing the annual surplus, which carry her no further. She has curtails the operations of business walked on the path marked out by causing a constant flow of cur- by her early history, gathering rency to the Treasury. The sur- wealth at every step, trusting to plus is thus “a rock of offence” to a rapidly developing continent, every one engaged in agriculture and glorying in the selfishness of and commerce, and cannot be the moment, but without the guidmaintained to benefit the manu- ance of the wise men when the facturer. Already the farmers' way was uncertain ; and as a conalliances are multiplying in every sequence, if no halt is made, if the direction, all breathing bitter sec- route is not retraced, all the

magtarianism and full of economical nificent possibilities before the fads for the begetting of a money New World may be closed indefmillennium. There are, accord- initely by the reaction of that ingly, some hard times before de

very self-confidence which opened mocracy in the United States; but them up.

This would be a great the strangest thing connected with disappointment for the Americans it is the deliberate manner Ameri- themselves, and a sad ending to cans have worked up trouble for their own expectations. themselves in the very spirit of



The progress of the East is so regions beyond the Jordan, was slow as compared with that of the still nominal; and yet more recentWest, and the survival of anciently the provincial governor, setting things is so marked, when the forth to levy tribute from the Beni European leaves the railways of Sakhr, has been glad to return even Europe for the baggage-mules of with the loss of all his clothing. the Levant, that the new-comer is The use of repeating-rifles, with tempted to suppose that the con- which the Turkish mounted police dition of the countries east of the were armed, soon, however, changed Mediterranean is immutable, and this condition of lawlessness to one will so remain while the Turkish of law, as the Turks understand empire endures. Yet within the the word. The nomads, first driven last twenty years great changes from the western plains, were afterhave come over Syria and Pales- wards controlled with increasing tine, and the course of events in success, by the governor whose seat Cyprus and Egypt has not been is at the town of Es Salt in Gilead. without its effect on the neighbour- The power of the true Arabs has ing shores. Yet greater changes year by year decreased on the are actually now commencing to eastern borders of Syria, and has be made, and may perhaps result become extinct west of the Jordan; in the realisation of what seemed the power of the Turks has conmere dreams only a dozen years ago. stantly waxed stronger, so that at

When, after the bombardment the present time independence has of Acre in 1840, the power of the almost ceased to exist within the Sultan was re-established in Syria, borders of the Syrian provinces. with the aid of the British fleet, The massacres of 1860 at Damasthe Turkish Government was called cus also led to very important upon to rule a region which had changes in the Lebanon region. long been accustomed to semi-in- The Maronites, under an equitable dependence, under various native government, have multiplied and families dwelling at the different prospered; and their enemies the “seats” throughout the country. Druzes, gradually deserting the The real power of the Pashas was Lebanon, are now mainly settled at first small, but gradually in- on Mount Hermon, and in the creased; and the turbulent hill broad plains of Bashan. They are population of the Samaritan region among the most independent and was finally reduced to submission, turbulent of the Sultan's subjects through the cruel severity of the in this region; but are held in Kurdish governors.

Great num

check by means of military forts, bers of the peasantry were hanged. established by the Damascus GovThe old faction-fights of the Keis ernment for that object. and Yemini, and of the small local The exploration of the country, factions which existed in the cities and the numerous publications to and even in the villages, were re- which it gave rise, have also had pressed, and the taxes were farmed their effect in the great increase out, and collected by the aid of a of the annual visitors, who now mounted force. But twenty years descend on Palestine in armies ago the power of the Sultan, in the at Easter-time, and whose travels

are now rather more widely ex- grow in favour, and to attract the tended than of old, though few influence and capital of Jewish comparatively have followed the leaders of weight, we may perhaps example of our royal Princes, who, be destined to witness a very in 1882, visited the greater part remarkable historic event — the of the central region beyond the return of the Jews to their native Jordan. This familiarity with land—and a change in the conWestern customs and wants has dition of Palestine without prewrought considerable change in cedent in modern times. It is the manners of the peasantry in proposed here briefly to consider many regions; and although the the feasibility and the desirability change is in some respects not for of such a movement, its chances of the better, it seems that the old success, and the difficulties to be fanaticism of the Moslems in the overcome; and to consider also the mountain regions has been in great recent events within the country degree extinguished, at least as far -such as the construction of railas outward manner is concerned. ways, and changes of laws which The changes are, however, not created disabilities for foreigners merely in floating population, or anxious to settle in the Turkish in peasant manners, for the actual dominions—which tend to remove residents in Palestine are becoming difficulties, and to render the result more numerous, and are increased in question more probable. chiefly from foreign sources. The The recent outcry against the German colonies, which have now Jews on the Continent was one been established for twenty-two of the main reasons why the proyears at Jaffa, Haifa, and Jeru- ject of a return to Palestine began salem, have spread, and intro- to be entertained by their leaders. duced a European element into This has been intensified by the the country. The increased power recent action of the Governor of and wealth of individual Jews has Moscow. The Jews are perhaps led to the purchase of land, in the best organised of civilised which Jewish capital has been people, and recognise, more comsunk, and has encouraged other pletely than any other race, the Jews to enter the country. duty of providing for those among

This influx of Jewish popula- them who are poor and unfortution, which has now been going on nate ; but the strain on their rewith increasing rapidity for about sources has suddenly become very a dozen years, has, during that heavy. It is said that 15,000 poor time, been mainly due to the or destitute Jews have arrived in oppression of the race in Russia. England within six months, and The recent severe edicts which an equally large influx is impendhave excluded the Jews from Mos- ing. The laws now being enforced cow, forcing them to sell in Russia may lead to the displacetheir synagogues and to fly for ment of something like a million their lives, have quite recently of Russian subjects—Jews by race given a new and very urgent im- and by religion ; and the question pulse to the question as to Jewish therefore becomes imperious, Where colonisation in Palestine-an im- are they to go? and what are they pulse from within, not from with- to do if the conditions of existence out, which is for that reason more in Russia itself are rendered inlikely to lead to practical results. supportable? To answer this we Should this movement continue to must first know what class of



Jews we have to deal with, and highest positions of power in the what they are able to do; and may empire before the destruction of also ask what are the reasons why Jerusalem, and after its fall. The such severity is now being shown Roman antipathy to the Jews had towards them, not only in Russia, little or no religious reason, and but also to some extent in Ger- other causes must therefore be many, France, and Austria? Nay, sought in this case, causes which even in Britain it has been pro- no doubt were in operation later posed to introduce some regula- as well. tions which may stay the influx In the early times of Norman of such foreign destitute immi- persecution religious reasons were grants from the East.

often brought forward as the exIt is usually said that the hatred The well-known story of and persecution of the Jews have the Jews of York, who were bealways been due to religious antip- lieved to have entrapped a Chrisathies, to the exclusiveness of the tian boy to slay him in connection Jews themselves, and to their op

with the Passover rite, represents pression of those from whom they a cry which has now for some have exacted usury. They have eighteen centuries been raised, been called a parasitic nation ; from time to time, in every country but, if we may judge from their where the Jews abode. It is still distribution, such parasitic life is raised almost every year, not only due-like all other parasitic life in Asia but even in Europe. Yet -to the indolence and unhealthi- the Jews are not the only people ness of those on whom they live. against whom this horrid accusaMankind is apt to lay its sins on

tion has been made. The Romans the shoulders of others, and to accused the Christians of devourreproach others with the natural ing babes. Fathers of the Church results of its own actions. A very like Cyril accused the Gnostic slight acquaintance with the his- heretics of “chopping up wretched tory of the Jews, and with their little children” in their mysteries. present distribution, suflices to The Church of Rome brought the show the justice of this view. The same accusation against the Temprejudice against Jews dates much plars, and there is no more reason earlier than the times when Chris- why we should credit this ancient tians of the middle ages reproached calumny in one

case than in them with the death of the Christ. another. It is to the credit of Tacitus writes with a bitterness the Turks that, by special decree, against them which is only equalled such statements against Jewish by the contempt and dislike ex- subjects of the Porte have been pressed by the Roman poets, who declared to be calumnious. describe the Jewish hucksters, and But while these and other accumoney-lenders, and impostors who sations served to stir up the evil infested the capital of the world. feelings of the superstitious and Claudius expelled the Jews from ignorant, there were other more Rome some twenty years before real causes at work. The Norman they were persecuted by Nero, in nobles were not deterred by relitimes when Jews and Christians gious objections from borrowing were little distinguished in the money of the Hebrew. Costly eyes of the Roman Government;

suits of armour,

kind of but such measures had little effect, oriental produce, were bought, and and Jews and Jewesses rose to the had to be paid for: lands were mortgaged; and in the time when forgotten, and when it comes the the Normans set out to conquer wrath of the Mujik is easily roused. Southern Italy and Sicily, when Contrast with this condition of their success led men to think affairs, which prevails not only in of other conquests east of the Russia, but wherever an inert and Mediterranean, it can hardly be unprogressive people come in condoubted that the feudal nobles tact with a large Jewish populawere in considerable monetary dif- tion, the case of Scotland, where ficulties, and found the persecu- the people are thrifty, hard-worktion of the Jews preferable to the ing, of good understanding, and payment of their debts, or of the canny,” and where it is said the interest on their loans.

and every

Jew finds it hard to prosper. No When Palestine became a Nor- man is obliged to borrow at high man kingdom, they were careful interest if he does not live beyond to exclude from it a class which his means; but when he is called they dreaded ; and although money to pay his bond, it is no answer to still was borrowed at usurious in- accuse his creditor of slaying babes terest, to support the ruinous ex- at the Passover. penses of war and feudal service, The Jew in Russia is also acit was borrowed from the Armen- cused of being a dangerous Nihilians, Greeks, and Templars. The ist with revolutionary opinions. Jews were in a very flourishing We may, however, be allowed condition in non-Christian regions largely to discount such a descripof the Levant in the twelfth cen- tion, when, on the one hand, we tury; but Benjamin of Tudela, remember what are considered revwho found them independent at olutionary opinions in Russia, and Palmyra, and highly esteemed by how often they are in other lands the Sultans of Damascus and looked upon as very moderately Baghdad—nay, even ruling king- progressive; and when, on the other,

the Caucasus met we remember that one of the chief with only a few poor families of accusations against Jews has been Jewish dyers and glass-makers in that of obstinate conservatism in Palestine.

retaining their laws, their creed, In our own times the Jew is their customs, their isolated organimost hated in those countries sation, and their peculiar dialects. where, by superior energy, enter- The Jewish character is conservaprise, and organisation, he has tive rather than revolutionary, and monopolised to a great extent the the authority of their own leaders trade and financial business of the is usually respected and obeyed. land. In Russia, the people, as a The Jew, in fact, holds to the whole, can hardly be regarded as more backward nations of Europe progressive, or eager to work; the somewhat the position that the Mujik's heaven is a state of peace- boy who is unpopular, and who ful and not too sober idleness; his will work, in spite of all that is simplicity and his laziness lead done to distract him, holds at a him to turn a willing ear to the school. It is clear that this unpopJew, who proposes to lend him ular boy will gain the prizes ; that money, to

him trouble, he will raise the standard of work; and to bring to his door things and that, if extreme measures be which he will not go to fetch for not taken, it will become impossihimself, and sometimes cannot so ble both to neglect work and also obtain. The day of reckoning is to maintain an average position.

doms near


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