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into law; and it is undoubtedly a rose in prominence till the civil satisfactory thing that the recent war became necessary to reassert elections have proved the nation harmony of action. Since then at large to be more or less aware the material progress of the counof the fact. Still, the

try has been so abnormal, so stimquences arising internally out of ulated by the Protective spirit, national self-aggrandisement are that internal matters have been seen at the bottom of nearly every overlooked, and, as a natural regreat question. Witness the sult, are once more coming to the action of President Cleveland, in front. They have taken their colrejecting the treaty negotiated by ouring from the policy of the Mr Chamberlain and Sir C. States, which, as we have said, has Tupper, which was reported to pursued a course of selfishness tothe Senate as fair and equitable; wards the commerce of the world, and the protracted negotiations but in particular to that of the over the right of fishing in Behring United Kingdom, and are now so Sea, which has led Mr Blaine to far developed as to render it almost trifle with the peculiarly American certain a real source of danger is idea of arbitration. Both of these at hand. The “typical immiresults can be traced very clearly, grant,” as the author of Our as is generally believed, to the Country ' remarks, “is a European wish of securing a party triumph, peasant whose horizon has been and yet in both the welfare of the narrow, and whose ideas of country was overlooked; for it life are low." He has migrated to cannot be to the universal good such an extent, that there is now that strained relations should exist a large population of foreign exbetween the two great branches of traction; but instead of its being the Anglo-Saxon race.

the means of concentrating expeNot so very long ago there was rience, it furnishes the greatest published at New York a small percentage of crime. Whole colbook called “Our Country,' which, onies of these immigrants analthough written from a theological nually go West, where, in destandpoint, enjoyed, and still en- fiance of the example of their joys, a wide circulation. It drew wiser predecessors, they retain the attention of Americans to the their nationalities and free theminternal dangers menacing the Re- selves from American influences. public, and struck a true note on Already at Chicago, we are told, the coming supremacy of the West. the great majority of the people It is granted by every one that the are foreign by birth or parentage ; builders of America were men of and even in the city of New York, deep conviction, and that the foun- if all foreigners qualified themdations of democracy were firmly selves for the franchise, they could laid. As their task proceeded, a easily outvote the real Americans ; unity of purpose grew up which while numbers scattered over the embraced the immigrants flying country "are apparently under from European tyranny, and who, the impression that the ten comaccording to Bancroft,“ renounced mandments are not binding west their nationality to claim the rights of the Missouri.” In the course of Englishmen.” With the achieve- of a few years, almost at present ment of independence, however, within view, as the centre of popand the cessation of all dread of ulation advances, the West must outside interference, local interests dominate the East, must “elect the executive and control legisla fied to work in the light of comtion"; for under manhood suffrage petition at the minimum of profit, every man has an equal voting a thing he has not even brought value. It is of little moment that himself to think about. The the population of American-born M'Kinley bill shows, too, he will persons of American parentage not allow them to be reduced. may be nearly two-thirds of the There is therefore to be seen, in the whole; for the American fran- difference between the interests chise has been so easily obtained, of the East and the West, all the sufficient time has not elapsed to elements of political discord and allow of the absorption by the disruption, so that when Congress Anglo-Saxon American of the is controlled by the West, à reheterogeneous Europeans who, versal of the policy of the East until that


cannot be may be expected. It is true a termed Americans in the sense the portion of the West has lately original owners of the country favoured the tariff, but it was understand. The significance of only a part of the political game, all this has been so thoroughly which will disappear as the centre grasped, that a new party is said of power is transferred, and the to have been formed some time ago, inhabitants understand that de“ to uphold American ideas of law, velopment has been made at their order, and education," but into expense, most notably in the matwhich no foreigner is admitted. ter of railway extension through What, then, is in the future for the former monstrous price of steel the American people, as viewed rails. When this reversal takes through the light of the present place it can only lead to furious tendency?

dissension, and the world will see The authors of the tariff are enacted over again the spectacle the capitalists of the East, who, of an assault on vested interests. having had

so far the voting The peril of the position will then power in their hands, have been attain its height, and all will deable to maintain exorbitant duties pend on the temper of the people; for their own benefit. The West but the drift of things to-day does was opened up at a ridiculous not


well. expense, the rate on pig-iron, an The folly of endeavouring to article which most directly affects reconcile by Protection the wants the farmer, as it is the basis from of the New World is thus painfully which all his tools are made, has apparent, and the false stimulabeen at about $7, or 30s. a ton. tion of industry for a selfish end A high cost of production had is working on to its natural contherefore to be and still is sup- clusion, till presidential messages ported, which, as already declared, to Congress call for such changes places the Western wheat-grower as will prevent

" financial disin difficulties that have risen out turbance," or the formation of of the competition of other nations, "schemes of public plunder.” It until it is almost a matter of exist- is a curious commentary, however, ence to be able to produce cheaper. upon the history of manhood He is forced, however, by the suffrage, to observe how basely it tariff to supply his wants through has been used to subserve private the Eastern manufacturer, who interests to the detriment of the cannot allow duties to be effec- nation's, and what a capable intively reduced without being satis- strument of mischief it may become when worked by a selfish sible for the increase of crimedemocracy ; while having once gone will add to the confusion of the persistently wrong on a funda- moment, and these foreign Amerimental question, it cannot recover cans, still cherishing the traditions itself without giving rise to a and the language of their native period of even unpremeditated homes, will snatch at the opporretaliation. As it enables the tunity to obtain some advantage East to maintain a tariff for its for their communities. The stupidsole benefit, it will hereafter be ity of having permitted European necessary for the West, by the nationalities to retain their sepsame power, to destroy that tariff arate existences will be acknowand kill off the high-priced raw ledged when too late to be easily material which is injurious to its remedied – the recent Italian development. Monopolies, culti- troubles at New Orleans being a vated by a free democracy, will painful example; while the other meet with their reward, but the interests, social and religious, will democracy that encourages them, also strive for the mastery by is more imbued with the spirit of endeavouring to guide the reins the early Spaniard than with that of government through the power of the Pilgrim Father. In the of possessing the casting vote in end, the sufferer through it all will Congress. In the general disorder be the Eastern working man, who that must everywhere follow, in upholds the present system in the the struggles for local ascendancy, belief it is his interest to do so; the ultimate danger will be that for when capital has retired from of a federal nature, till, with the the condition it now occupies, as exasperation of strife, party spirit it certainly will do with the first will break loose and temporarily breath of adversity, the artisan pass beyond control, so that it will be thrown on his resources. would not be surprising if history He does not see he is the tool of should repeat itself and attempts the capitalist unless the question were made to form small indeis one of wages, and that the pendent centres. Thus in a free farmer will sacrifice him remorse- state, selfishness, symbolised by lessly for the profits he has taken Protection, turns on the heads of out of the West. His notion of its worshippers. Without doubt success is centred in himself, the the Anglo-Saxon may be trusted advancement of his town or state, to secure his own salvation, as his while the country at large is instincts are those of a conqueror; a geographical expression. The but at the commencement he must situation, however, having been be the chief loser from the liberty created through the ballot-box, that owes its origin to him, which unity must suffer in the first in- he alone knows how to use with stance as Protection is the father moderation, and that for the want of provincialisms, and these will of its natural expansion has rebe called into play from the habit, acted on himself to his great dislong fostered, of dwelling on local advantage. When, however, he considerations. Here, then, is the finally reasserts his principles and heart of the matter. Ignorance levels up democracy again to the and selfishness—the characteristics point of progress, the result, it is as we are told of a great part of to be feared, will only have been the immigrant population, who we arrived at over misery and bloodmust not forget are mainly respon- shed, though with his victory


would come that of Free Trade, and "embittered even private life.” at the same time a true idea of Not only did they hate and injure unity.

one another, but “all alike hated In the present day we hear a whole classes of their own nation great deal of the perfection of and the whole heathen races.” humanity, but little of that spirit Ancient exclusivism, adopted for of unselfishness which is the key- the sake of worldly dominion and note of the Christian republic. prosperity, became the means of The world, while full of experience, annihilating a race, and, whatever has hardly got beyond, in many way we may look at it, the most respects, its primitive condition; important race of antiquity. Unfor though the stronger has ceased der the new conditions of modern to make war upon the weaker, in progress the very same state of the literal meaning of the term, affairs is thus working up again, he subjects him to its equivalent without, however, an atom of in an industrial bondage which spirituality as a redeeming featsaps out existence by hopeless de- ure, and called by the name of spair. Whatever may be the mili- "patriotism." America, the ninetary requisites of Europe, on which teenth century “land of promise," a justification of Protection is par- has consequently before her eyes tially based, there is no

the warning of the past; but where, why the tariff should be main- in the recurrence of the world to tained in America, save the im- heathen ideals, and worse, in its possibility of reducing it without denial of God for at least the becreating dissatisfaction, and, in lief in the gods was the making of some respects, disaster among the Greece and Rome_will arise the manufacturing classes. The evil, Spirit that rescued mankind from however, is working to the point the chaos of their own forming, when the heroic remedy must of and inaugurated a bond of union necessity be soon applied or not known by the name of “love”? at all. Nor, in expressing this, are It is by no means, therefore, we without an historical parallel, with a selfish view that the Britas may be seen in the secular his- ish people advocate the extension tory of the Jews just prior to the of free exchange. It is the only commencement of the Christian thing that can reconcile the inter

The nation at the epoch was ests of humanity all over the world, as full of intelligence as the Amer- by distributing the inhabitants at ica of to-day, and the people were, the places most suitable for their according to Dr Geikie, looking support, and thus deciding the forward to a future “as gross as position of each individual in life Mahomet's paradise.” They were on the basis of an unfettered comthirsting in the same way as na- petition. In the chaining up of tions still are, for all the blessings competition by Protection lies the of material gain, to obtain which secret of half the industrial trouthe fulfilment of the law was the bles, as over-production in the ideal aim. This spiritual protec- modern sense could not otherwise tion, which isolated them from the take place, but would be limited rest of mankind by drawing round by the natural operation of the Palestine a barrier as effectual as laws of Free Trade, when the ina modern tariff, was a base corrup- terests of the farmer and the artition of the Mosaic institutions, san would remain identical. and created a spirit of hate that With the destruction of Protec


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