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alarmed and terrified nation be- conceal) the 'Detectio’ is characlieved at first the evidence of terised not so much by an angry their senses.” It is true that the energy of fury and abhorrence as Edinburgh rabble had been in- by a cold and calculated malignity flamed against her by the preach- of detraction, the art of the rheers; but, so far as we are aware, torician being everywhere more any reliable evidence that is palpable than the passion of the available goes to show that had it moralist. Mr Hill Burton did not been for the terrorism (yer not love Vary; but even JIr cised by a few resolute men, the Burton could not stomach the nation as

a whole would have 'Detectio.' Of all caricatures the gone solid for the Queen. Knox Detectio' was in his opinion the himself admitted that the wick- Grossest. * In it,” he adds, “a ed,” as he calls her party, "might number of incredible charges are have exceeded the firithful ;and heaped up:" and then he proceeds that had she remained at Dunbar, to inquire what could have in“could she have had patience to cluced Buchanan to defame his stay at Dunbar for three or four mistress in this outrageous fashdays without any stir,” the nation ion! Ile did it—is the somewhat would have rallied round her, surprising explanation—because in “The people did not join as was producing a great work of rhetoriexpected ;” and it is added by cal art, it was necessary to follow Maitland, “never a ine came to “the grand forms of ancient clasus after Carberry Ilill." Even sical denunciation "—the “grand in Edinburgh itself the tide forms of ancient classical denunturned so quickly that it was ciation " being apparently the litthought prudent by the Lords to crury equivalent for wilful lying. convey the captive Queen without But even from this point of view delay to Lochleven, strongly guard- the writer surely overshot the ed and under cover of night. mark, for the result was a pic

Mrs Oliphant's defence of the ture “so inhuman and imposliterary apologist of the Congre- sible in its utter blackness" that gation against the charge of in- it produced an immediate reaction, gratitude to the mistress who had and has done not a little to disbeen good to him, is more in- credit the faction on whose behalf genious than convincing. At the it was penned. baptism of the infant James in It may be freely admitted that December 1566, Buchanan had the l'asket Letters were not written lauded the Queen to the skies; by (ieorge Buchanan ; and yet Mrs within the year he was her most Oliphant's plea for their genuinesavage critic.- lle did not hesi ness (which, to do her justice, is tate to affirm, for instance, in the not very strenuously urged) need ‘Detectio,' that during the period not be accepted as conclusive. The when he was in daily attendance Glasgow letter is, as she remarks, at Court, her immorality was by far the most important; for it shameless and notorious. Mrs not only contains the really damOliphant suggests that he may aging confessions, but is in itself have been ignorant of the scan i miracle of literary art. 6 Mr dal at the time, and that when Froude has said that only Shakehe found he had been deceived speare or Mary Stuart could have he gave vent to his fury and al- written it — at all events the horrence. But (apart from the writer, supposing it to be forged, fact that there was no scandal to must have been of unquestionable

imaginative genius. It is one of rocks on which the bark which carried the most wonderful compositions Mary's fortunes was wrecked. There ever given to the world. We look on

can be no doubt now that she was the with awe while these dark secrets

victim of a conspiracy which, from the of the heart are unfolded ”-and actively at work.

day she left France, was more or less

The men who more to the same effect.

Now engaged in it had resolved that she what is known as the Glasgow should fail, and they kept on her track letter consists of many closely with merciless tenacity till she was printed pages of small type, and hunted down.

Knox in Scotland, the Glasgow letter is only one of Cecil in England, were the real leaders seven or eight that were produced than once defeated by the high spirit

of an enterprise which, though more and printed by Buchanan. The and resolute bearing of the Queen, ulothers are in no sense Shake- timately brought her to the block. spearian; and while the Shake- The one saw in her a menace to spearian passages in the Glasgow Protestantism ; the other, a menace letter do not extend to a dozen to England. It is possible that they lines, they are quite out of keeping judged justly: Lethington was of with the rest of the letter, which though he knew Mary's most secret

à different mind ; but Lethington, is as dull and decorous as a State inclinations better than any other Paper. One Shakespearian pas- man, may have been mistaken. She sage represents the writer--the may have misled him. Her candour high-bred, high-spirited, intrepid and her frankness may have been Mary-as meekly deprecating the

assumed. We know, besides, that

the mark at which he always shot' anger of a lover of whom she

was the union of the kingdoms under stands in mortal terror; in another

a Scottish Prince. He believed that she is made to boast coarsely and through Mary alone could Union be offensively of her own infamous secured ; and the ardour with which treachery to the helpless Darnley : he advocated her claims may have “ Have ye not desire to laugh to

blinded him to the risks they involved. see me lie so well ?” Never was

But even if we should come to hold

that Knox and Cecil had good reason a Shakespearian reputation more

to dread the ascendancy of the Scottish easily gained ; and the neglected Queen, it cannot be denied that their writers of the courtly rhapsodical, methods were cruel and their instruhigh-flown romances of the Eliza ments base. The injury they inflicted bethan age, must feel with a pang upon Scotland was incalculable. The (if they feel at all now) that unfortunate country, which had enOblivion blindly scattereth her joyed a brief period of peace, again

became the theatre of deadly strife. poppies.”

Nothing like the 'Douglas wars Apart from the Casket Letters, the ferocity of a Border feud inflamed we should like to have heard the by religious passion – had hitherto views of so competent and skilful been known in Scotland. For all this a critic as Mrs Oliphant upon that Knox and Cecil were responsible. It version of the events of Mary's may not have been too heavy a price reign on which the most recent to pay; they may have been bound at

all hazards to rid themselves of Mary defence of her innocence is based. Stuart ; but the fact remains that The construction may or may not the Scottish Anarchy was their joint be sound; but we have not yet work.” seen any answer that commends itself to our judgment. In the If this view be correct, the con·Stuart Relics' the case for the clusion that Mary was more sinned defence in its latest form has been against than sinning becomes logibriefly restated :

cally irresistible. The assassination “Faction and fanaticism were the of Rizzio, the Lennox marriage,

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the defection of Moray, the Run as thry were concerned, may posabout-Raid, the Darnley murder, sibly have been a real loss :the Bothwell marriage, were merely

“When a Scottish Prince ascended moves in the game which Cecil and the English throne, Scotland was Knox were playing. They had one jubilant. The stubborn determinaend and one end only in view---to iion to remain free had never been make Mary impossible. She was Overcome, and had now

its to be divided from her subjects; reward. The ancient prophecies had she was to be deprived of her good had not been fought in vain. Under

come true. The War of Independence name; she was to be forced into an

no other conditions, indeed, so far as untenable position. What have

one can judere', could l’nion have been hitherto been regarded as the peacefully brought about. The jealous criminal indiscretions of the Queen susceptibilities of the weaker people are now seen to have been dislicul were allaved. at Stuart king took ties expressly created for her by the place of Tudor and Plantagenet; the untiring animosity of her foes.

and through good and evil fortune

Scotland as a whole had been true The Bothwell marriage was the to the Stuurts. A resolute and dislast link in the chain. An un- ciplined minority, indeeil, had driven scrupulous faction thrust her into Mary into exile but, even in her his arms; and when she had re lowest estate, she had failed to alienate luctantly consented to a distaste- the affectionate fidelity of two-thirds ful union, they turned upon her of her people. The nation at large, and swore that she was his ac

it is now generally admitted, was at

no time hostile to her. As it was a complice.

small band of Independents with With the Edinburgh of Mary Cromwell at their head who put Stuart (one of the most brilliant Charles I. to death, so it was a small and animated pictures in the book) band of (alvinists with Knox at their Mrs Oliphant concludes her his head who banished Mary. And even torical survey, — the subsequent of her infant son had been scrup

when Mary was banished, the rights chapters being devoted to very ulously protected. It seemed pleasant sketches of the great wonderful stroke of luck that made men who since the beginning of the ruler of a petty province and an the eighteenth century have made impoverished people ihe sovereign of Edinburgh and Scoiland memor a rich and prosperous empire'; but the able Allan Ramsay,

Robert seeming gain was possibly a real loss. Burns, Walter Scott. The suc

In spite of his personal eccentricities,

James VI. had been cession of James VI. to the

airly popular

with the Scots; but when he crossed English throne was (even more the Border, the frivolous pedantry emphatically than the Act of and clownish yait of the wisest fool in Union itself) “the end of an auld (hristendom could not fail to excite sang." The smaller kirgdom in- the ridicule of a polished society. deed maintained its nationality for lnder the fierce light that beat about a hundred years, but the Stuarts

the English throne the womanish

weaknesses of the modern Solomonwere swept away by the stronger Solomon ihe son of Davidl'— were current of the wider stream. sharply and grotesquely accentuated. Whether they might not have The initial misunderstanding was been happier had fortune been less never emirely healed. It is possible kind, is one of those puzzling that the English people did not underinquiries on which Sir Thomas stand the Stuarts ; it is certain that Browne loved to speculate, and English people. In Scotland no steady

the Stuaris did not understand the to which no confident reply can be given. But, as has been sug- bear upon the sovereign. lle enjoyed,

popular pressure had been brought to gested, the seeming gain, in so far as a rule, complete freedom of action,

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-doing what was right in his own and Strafford. Laud appears to have eyes, until the nobles were gravely been even more insensate, more moledispleased, when they rose in arms like, than his master ; but Wentworth and put him to death. Parliamentary was a man of quick intelligence and opposition was practically unknown profound policy. It is foolish to conwhat resistance there was, though demn such a man without a hearing violent, being intermittent and spas -as most historians have been inmodic. But in England, from an clined to do. We may be tolerably almost unknown antiquity and by an sure that he saw more than we are almost unbroken tradition, the people able to see now. He may have felt, had been taught to shelter their and felt truly, that the revolution in political liberties and their civic men's minds which had taken place, privileges behind the forms of the which was taking place, must lead tó Constitution. No tax could be levied anarchy. He may have felt, and felt except with the consent of the Com- truly, that the revolutionary forces mons; no citizen could be punished could only be kept in check by rapid except by legal process. The most and decisive action, and that proimperious of the Tudors did not crastination would be fatal to the venture to cross the line that in- monarchy. Had he succeeded in veterate and immemorial usage had crushing the Revolution he might drawn; and he knew by an inherited possibly have been reckoned a farinstinct how far he could safely go. seeing English statesman ; but he On the other hand, the whole domain failed, and in such circumstances of English constitutional law was a failure cannot be condoned.” terra incognita to James and to his It might be said for them (were

Between the execution of Charles it any excuse) that they knew not I. and the rising of the '45 a hunwhat they did. The principles which dred years intervened ; but during were most deeply rooted in the con that time there was little in the victions of Englishmen were unin- records of the Stuarts on which telligible to rulers who had been their partisans can look back with educated abroad. So Charles entered

satisfaction. upon a hopeless contest with a light

The sava Pelopis doheart. He brushed aside the time mus was tottering to its fall; yet honoured limitations of the Constitu to the very end the Scots adhered tion as if they were cobwebs. It is with rare fidelity to the race that possible that the wisest ruler could had ruled them so long. It was not ultimately have averted the con

among the barren mountains and flict. There were theories in the air which made all government impos- board that the last of the Stuarts

the brave men of the western seasible. Religion had reacted upon politics ; and the Puritan had become bade a final farewell to “ the vision the Republican. The sharp antay- of a kingly crown.” In the '45 onism between the men who declared Moidart and Morar were remote that they would live as their fathers and inaccessible; even to-day the had lived, would believe as their land of the Camerons and the father's had believed, would worship Macdonalds a land of wood and as their fathers had worshipped, and the men who hated the Church and water, of crag and glen, of windy detested the Monarchy, was certain seas and rocky islands and Atlansooner or later to bring Cavalier and tic sunsets—is little known and Roundhead into deadly conflict. But rarely visited; but it has associaalthough sooner or later an appeal to tions which will not be quickly arms might have been inevitable, it obliterated; for it is the country was the incurable perversity of the King that precipitated the crisis. He lying between Loch Shiel and invited a conflict which might have Loch Arkaig that is most closely been delayed. In so far as he did identified with the brilliant and not himself lead, he was led by Laud daring adventure of Prince Charlie.



We had a lucky but almost un On landing at New York our eventful voyage to New York in first experience of the country the Cunard s.s. Servia, crossing the was the excessive rudeness of the Atlantic in the most wonderful custom-house oflicials. Discourtway between heavy storms on both esy was nothing to the very insides, and just missing each. The solent manner in which a customjourn:ny after leaving Queenstown house oflicial ordered a delicate took just a week from Sunday, English lady to unstrap her nuOctober 18th, to Sunday, 4 P.M., merous boxes herself, and utter26th of October, when we disem- ly refused either to give her any barked. We left Liverpool, Satur- assistance, or any information as day, 13th, about two. A very to whether she could get any porter amusing incident took place in to assist her in her arduous task. Queenstown harbour. Two pretty I have travelled all over the world, Irish girls who had embarked on but never Saw

a custom - house our ship, were on the arrival of officer behave so badly to a lady the Servia in that port soon before. If it was meant to show after joined by a gentleman who that the Americans despise those had come by mail from England, who belong to their own mother and who came otl' from the shore country, it was done in a way only on the steam-tender. This

gen to make contempt fall back upon tleman, with the most excited their own heads. Our own exerand pantomimic gestures, begged tions on her behalf not suflicing, a one of these fair maidens to re German-American gentleman from turn to shore with him and be- New York very kindly came to the come his bride.

Before his ar

rescue, and might soon have been rival on board he had, we learned, seen voluntarily unstrapping the sent her five telegrams to the same boxes for her in a way which will effect, to prevent her departure if make his memory always glad to possible. But the young lady at our remembrance. A gentleman he first appeared to be obdurate, for was indeed! No more need be said. the unfortunate man was seen going My first idea of New York was, off again to the shore on the tender, how like the outskirts of London hatless, and holding out his out were the streets we passed through stretched arms imploringly to the from the docks. They gave one a lady of his love. But that man general idea of Flammersmith, and was not to be beat. Ile returned the more one sees of New York, when the tender came back again the more English it seems to one. with the last mails, and this time The only thing they have which he brought a parson with him. we have not got in England seems This pledge of the honesty of his to be the elevated railway runintentions of marrying her had, I ning down the Sixth and other understand, been exacted by this avenues. In the hotels they have cautious Irish young lady as

a clever invention which might condition of her going ashore with well be copied elsewhere. him. She now went with him, and bell, is in erery room a dial-plate the Servia sailed without her. Let with a needle. This needle on us hope they were happy ever after. being turned to any one of about

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