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• triarchs; from the Pitris, both Dévas and Dánavas ; CHAP. * from the Dévas, this whole world of animals and vegetables, in due order.

202. · Mere water, offered with faith to the proge' nitors of men, in vessels of silver, or adorned with silver, proves the source of incorruption.

203. “ An oblation by Bráhmens to their ancestors • transcends an. oblation to the deities; because that

to the deities is considered as the opening and com-
pletion of that to ancestors.
204. “ As a preservative of the oblation to the

patriarchs, let the house-keeper begin with an offering ' to the gods ; for the Racshases rend in pieces an obla• tion which has no such preservative.

205. • Let an offering to the gods be made at the beginning and end of the sráddha: it must not begin and end with an offering to ancestors ; for he, who begins and ends it with an oblation to the Pitris, quickly perishes with his progeny. 206. - LET the Bráhmen smear with cow-dung a purified and sequestered piece of ground; and let him, with great care, select a place with a declivity " toward the south:

207. « The divine manes are always pleased with an . oblation in empty glades, naturally clean, on the • banks of rivers, and in solitary spots. 208.5

Having duly made an ablution with water, • let him place the invited Bráhmens, who have also

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CHAP. ' performed their ablutions, one by one, on allotted

• seats purified with cusa-grass.

209. · When he has placed them with reverence on ' their seats, let him honour them, (having first ho' noured the Gods) with fragrant garlands and sweet



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210. ' Having brought water for them with cusa-grass ' and tila, let the Bráhmen, with the Bráhmens, pour · the oblation, as the law directs, on the holy fire.

211. · First, as it is ordained, having satisfied Agni, Soma, and Yama, with clarified butter; let him pro' ceed to satisfy the manes of his progenitors.

212. If he have no consecrated fire, as if he be yet unmarried, or his wife be just deceased, let him drop Ý the oblation into the hand of a Bráhmen ; since, what ' fire is, even such is a Bráhmen; as priests, who know " the Véda declare :

Holy sages call the chief of the twice-born ' the gods of obsequies, free from wrath, with placid

aspects, of a primeval race, employed in the advancement of human creatures.

214. Having walked in order from east to south, ' and thrown into the fire all the ingredients of his

oblation, let him sprinkle water on the ground with · his right hand.

215. ( From the remainder of the clarified butter having formed three balls of rice, let him offer them,






with fixed attention, in the same manner as the CHAP. water, his face being turned to the south: 216.' Then having offered those balls, after due ceremonies and with an attentive mind, to the manes of his father, his paternal grandfather, and great grandfather, let him wipe the same hand with the

roots of cusa, which he had before used, for the ' sake of his paternal ancestors in the fourth, fifth, and

sixth degrees, who are the partakers of the rice and clarified butter thus wiped off.

217. · Having made an ablution, returning toward the ' north, and thrice suppressing his breath slowly, let

him salute the Gods of the six seasons, and the · Pitrīs also, being well acquainted with proper texts • of the Véda,

218. Whatever water remains in his ewer, let him

carry back deliberately near the cakes of rice; and, ' with fixed attention, let him smell those cakes, in • order as they were offered :

219. · Then, taking a small portion of the cakes in order, let him first, as the law directs, cause the · Bráhmens to eat of them, while they are seated.

220. • If his father be alive, let him offer the sráddha to his ancestors in three higher degrees; or let • him cause his own father to eat, as a Bráhmen at the - obsequies :

221. - Should his father be dead, and his grandfather living, let him, in celebrating the name of his father,



that is, in performing obsequies to him, celebrate also · his paternal great grandfather ;

222. - Either the paternal grandfather may partake of the sráddha (so has Menu declared) or the grandson, authorized by him, may perform the ceremony at his discretion.

. Having poured water, with cusa-grass and tila, into the hands of the Bráhmens, let him give them ' the upper part of the cakes, saying 66 Swadhá to .the manes !”


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224. “ Next, having himself brought with both hands, ' a vessel full of rice, let him, still meditating on the

Pitrës, place it before the Bráhmens without precipi-
225. Rice taken

up, but not supported with both hands, the malevolent Asuras quickly rend in pieces. 226. · Broths, potherbs, and other eatables accompanying the rice, together with milk and curds, • clarified butter and honey, let him first place on the

ground, after he has made an ablution; and let his
mind be intent on no other object :
227. “ Let him add spiced puddings, and milky
messes of various sorts, roots of herbs and ripe
fruits, savoury meats, and sweet smelling drinks.
228. - Then being duly purified, and with perfect
presence of mind, let him take up all the dishes,
one by one, and present them in order to the Bráh-
mens, proclaiming their qualities.

229. Let

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229. · Let him at no time drop a tear; let him on CHAP. no account be angry; let him say nothing false; · let him not touch the eatables with his foot; let I him not even shake the dishes :

230. “ A tear sends the messes to restless ghosts ; anger, to foes; falsehood, to dogs; contact with his foot, to demons; agitation, to sinners.

231. " Whatever is agreeable to the Bráhmens, let * him give without envy; and let him discourse on • the attributes of God: such discourse is expected by the manes.

232. · At the obsequies to ancestors, he must let • the Bráhmens hear passages from the Véda, from ' the codes of law, from moral tales, from heroick poems, from the Puranas, and from theological texts.

233. · Himself being delighted, let him give delight ' to the Bráhmens, and invite them to eat of the pro' visions by little and little ; attracting them often ' with the dressed rice and other eatables, and mentioning their good properties.

234.“ To the son of his daughter, though a stu• dent in theology, let him carefully give food at the " sráddha; offering him a blanket from Népal as his ' seat, and sprinkling the ground with tila.

235. " Three things are held pure at such obsequies, • the daughter's son, the Népal blanket, and the tila ; • and three things are praised in it by the wise, clean


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