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guished in an instant like a fire of dry grass : to him the oblation must not be given; for the clarified butter must not be poured on ashes.

169. • What retribution is prepared in the next life ' for the giver of food to men inadmissible into com

pany, at the sraddha to the gods and to ancestors, "I will now declare without omission.

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170. ' On that food, which has been given to Bráhmens who have violated the rules of their order, to • the younger brother married before the elder, and

to the rest who are not admissible into company, • the Racshases eagerly feast.

171. He, who makes a marriage-contract with the ' connubial fire, while his elder brother continues un

married, is called a perivéttră; and the elder brother a perivitti : 172. · The perivéttră, the perivitti, the damsel thus wedded, the giver of her in wedlock, and, fifthly, the performer of the nuptial sacrifice, all sink to

a region of torment.

173. ' He, who lasciviously dallies with the widow • of his deceased brother, though she be legally mar• ried to him, is denominated the husband of a dio dhishú.

174. Two sons, named a cunda and a gólaca, are • born in adultery; the cunda, while the husband is • alive, and the gólaca, when the husband is dead :

175. " Those


175. “ Those animals begotten by adulterers, destroy, CHAP. - both in this world and in the next, the food pre• sented to them by such as make oblations to the gods or to the manes. 176.: The foolish giver of a sraddha loses, in a future life, the fruit of as many admissible guests, as a thief or the like person, inadmissible into company, might be able to see. 177. · A blind man placed

man placed where one with eyes might have seen, destroys the reward of ninety ; he,

who has lost one eye, of sixty; a leper, of an hun• dred; one punished with elephantiasis, of a thou• sand.

178. • Of the gift at a sráddha, to as many Bráhmens, as a sacrificer for a Súdra might be able to

touch on the body, the fruit is lost to the giver, if . he invite such a wretch;



179. · And if a Bráhmen who knows the Véda, • receive through covetousness a present from such a ' sacrificer, he speedily sinks to perdition, like a figure of unburnt clay in water. 180. · Food given to a seller of the moon-plant, becomes ordure in another world ; to a physician pu' rulent blood; and the giver will be a reptile bred in

if offered to an image-worshipper, it is " thrown away; if to an usurer, infamous.

« them;

181. - That which is given to


a trader, endures

“ neither



neither in this life nor in the next, and that bestow

ed on a Bráhmen, who has married a widow, resem·bles clarified butter poured on ashes as an oblation O to fire.

182.' That food, which is given to other base, ' inadmissible men, before mentioned, the wise have

pronounced to be no more than animal oil, blood, flesh, skin, and bones.

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183. · Now learn comprehensively, by what Bráhmens a company may be purified, when it has been defiled by inadmissible persons ;

Bráhmens, the chief of their class, the purifiers of every assembly.

184. • Those priests must be considered as the puri' fiers of a company who are most learned in all the * Védas and in all their Angas, together with their • descendants who have read the whole scripture :

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185. ' A priest learned in a principal part of the Yajurveda ; one who keeps the five fires constantly burning; one skilled in a principal part of the Rîg' véda ; one who explains the six Védángas; the son ' of a Bráhmì, or woman married by the Bráhma ceremony; and one who chants the principal Sáman;

186. ' One who propounds the sense of the Védas, · which he learnt from his preceptor, a student who • has given a thousand cows for pious uses, · Bráhmen a hundred years old, must all be consi' dered as the purifiers of a party at a sraddha.

187. « On

uses, and a


187. · On the day before the sacred obsequies, or on CHAP. ' the very day when they are prepared, let the per

former of them invite, with due honour, such Bráhmens as have been mentioned; usually one superiour, who has three inferiour to him.

188. · The Bráhmen, who has been invited to a sráddha for departed ancestors, must be continually

abstemious; he must not even read the Védas; and 'he, who performs the ceremony, must act in the

same manner.


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Departed ancestors, no doubt, are attendant on such invited Bráhmens ; hovering around them like pure spirits, and sitting by them, when they are seated. 190. “ The priest, who having been duly invited to a sráddha, breaks the appointment, commits a grievous offence, and, in his next birth, becomes a hog.

191. ^ He, who caresses a Súdrà woman, after he has · been invited to sacred obsequies, takes on himself all the sin, that has been committed by the giver of the repast.

192. · The Pitrīs or great progenitors, are free from ' wrath, intent on purity, ever exempt from sensual

passions, endued with exalted qualities : they are pri• meval divinities, who have laid arins aside.

193. · Hear now completely, from whom they sprang; ' who they are; by whom, and by what ceremonies they are to be honoured. 194. - The Sons of Marichi and of all the other






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Rishis, who were the offspring of Menu, son of Brah

ma', are called the companies of Pitris, or fore-

195. · The Sómasads, who sprang from Vira's, are
• declared to be the ancestors of the Sádhyas ; and the

Agnishwáttas, who are famed among created beings

as the children of Marichi, to be the progenitors of " the Dévas.

196. • Of the Daityas, the Dánavas, the Yacshas,
· the Gandharvas, the Uragas, or Serpents, the Rac-

shases, the Garudas, and the Cinnaras, the ancestors
are Barhishads descended from ATRI;
197. · Of Bráhmens, those

those named Sómapas; of
· Cshatriyas, the Havishmats; of Vuisyas, those called
A'jyapas ; of Súdras, the Sucálins :

198. “ The Sómapas descended from Me, BHRIGU ;
' the Havishmats, from ANGIRAS; the A'jyapas, from
PULASTYA; the Sucálins, from Vasisht'ha.
199. • Those who are, and those who are not, con-
sumable by fire, called Agnidagdhas, and Anag-
nidagdhas, the Cávyas, the Barhishads, the Agnish-
wáttas, and the Saumyas, let mankind consider as
the chief progenitors of Bráhmens.

200. • Of those just enumerated, who are generally
· reputed the principal tribes of Pitris, the sons and

grandsons indefinitely, are also in this world con-
sidered as great progenitors.
201. - From the Rishis come the Pitris, or pa-

« triarchs ;





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