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II.

198. " When his teacher is nigh, let his couch or CHAP. - his bench be always placed low: when his precep' ter's eye can observe him, let him not sit carelessly

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199. - Let him never pronounce the mere name of - his tutor, even in his absence; nor ever mimick his gait, his speech, or his manner. 200. “ In whatever place, either true but censorious, or false and defamatory, discourse is held concerning his teacher, let him there cover his ears or remove to another place : 201. ' By censuring his preceptor, though justly, he will be born an ass; by falsely defaming him, a dog ; by using his goods without leave, a small worm; by envying his merit, a larger insect or reptile.

202. · He must not serve his tutor by the interven• tion of another, while himself stands aloof; nor must · he attend him in a passion, nor when a woman is

near ; from a carriage or raised seat he must descend • to salute his heavenly director.

203. “ Let him not sit with his preceptor to the lee-
ward, or to the windward of him ; nor let him say
any thing which the venerable man cannot hear.
204. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage
drawn by bulls, horses, or camels; on a terrace, on
a pavement of stones, or on a mat of woven grass;
on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a boat.

205. " When

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CHAP.

II.

205. " When his tutor's tutor is near, let him demean himself as if his own were present; nor let

him, unless ordered by his spiritual father, prostrate • himself in his presence before his natural father, or * paternal uncle.

206. “ This is likewise ordained as his constant behaviour toward his other instructors in science; to' ward his elder paternal kinsmen; toward all who

may restrain him from sin, and all who give him 'salutary advice.

207. “ Toward men also, who are truly virtuous, let · him always behave as toward his preceptor; and, in · like manner, toward the sons of his teacher, who

are entitled to respect as older men, and are not students; and toward the paternal kinsmen of his vene

rable tutor.
208. · The son of his preceptor,

or, whether younger or of equal age; or a student, if he be capable of

teaching the Véda, deserves the same honour with • the preceptor himself, when he is present at any ( sacrificial act :

209. · But he must not perform for the son of his ' teacher, the duty of rubbing his limbs, or of bath' ing him, or of eating what he leaves, or of washing 6 his feet.

210. · The wives of his preceptor, if they be of the same class, must receive equal honour with their • venerable husband; but if they be of a different

class

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class, they must be honoured only by rising and " salutation.

211. ' For no wife of his teacher must he perform • the offices of pouring scented oil on them, of attend

ing them while they bathe, of rubbing their legs and arms, or of decking their hair; 212. · Nor must a young wife of his preceptor be greeted even by the ceremony of touching her feet, · if he have completed his twentieth year, or can distinguish virtue from vice. 213 " It is the nature of women in this world to cause the seduction of men ; for which reason the wise are never unguarded in the company of females : 214. ' A female indeed, is able to draw from the right path in this life not a fool only, but even a

sage, and can lead him in subjection to desire or to « wrath.

215. “ Let no man, therefore, sit in a sequestered place with his nearest female relations : the assemblage of corporeal organs is powerful enough to snatch wisdom from the wise.

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216. 'A young student may, , as the law directs, ' make prostration at his pleasure on the ground be'fore a young wife of his tutor, saying, “I am such

an one;'

217. · And on his return from a journey, he must once touch the feet of his preceptor's aged wife,

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CHAP. and salute her each day by prostration, calling to

· mind the practice of virtuous men.

218. - As he who digs deep with a spade comes to a spring of water, so the student, who humbly serves · his teacher, attains the knowledge which lies deep " in his teacher's mind.

219. “ WHETHER his head be shorn, or his hair long, or one lock be bound above in a knot, let not • the sun ever set or rise while he lies asleep in the village. 220 - If the sun should rise or set, while he sleeps through sensual indulgence, and knows it not, he must fast a whole day, repeating the gáyatrì : 221. He, who has been surprised asleep by the setting or by the rising sun, and performs not that penance, incurs great guilt. 222. "Let him adore GOD both at sunrise and at sunset, as the law ordains, having made his ablution ' and keeping his organs controlled ; and, with fixed

attention, let him repeat the text, which he ought ' to repeat, in a place free from impurity. 223. " IF a

a Súdra perform any act leading to the chief temporal good, let the student · be careful to emulate it; and he may do whatever gratifies his heart, unless it be forbidden by law :

224. · The chief temporal good is by some declared ' to consist in virtue and wealth ; by some, in wealth

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' and lawful pleasure ; by some, in virtue alone; by CHAP.

others, in wealth alone; but the chief good here

below is an assemblage of all three : this is a sure • decision.

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225. ' A TEACHER of the Véda is the image of God; a natural father, the image of Brahma'; a mother, ' the image of the earth; an elder whole brother, the image of the soul.

226. “ Therefore a spiritual and a natural father, a * mother, and an elder brother, are not to be treated • with disrespect, especially by a Bráhmen, though the • student be grievously provoked.

227. · That pain and care which a mother and father

undergo in producing and rearing children, cannot • be compensated in an hundred years.

228. · Let every man constantly do what may please ' his parents: and, on all occasions, what may please

his preceptor: when those three are satisfied, his ' whole course of devotion is accomplished.

229. ' Due reverence to those three is considered as the highest devotion; and without their approba• tion he must perform no other duty.

230. “ Since they alone are held equal to the three worlds; they alone, to the three principal orders ;

they alone, to the three Vedas; they alone, to the • three fires :

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231. “ The natural father is considered as the gár

hapatya,

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