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CHAP.

II.

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166." Let the best of the twice-born classes, in-
tending to practice devotion, continually repeat the

reading of scripture; since a repetition of reading
the scripture is here styled the highest devotion of
a Bráhmen.

167. “ Yes verily; that student in theology performs
• the highest act of devotion with his whole body, to

the extremities of his nails, even though he be so far
sensual as to wear a chaplet of sweet flowers, who
to the utmost of his ability daily reads the Vida.

168. A twice-born man, who not having studied
' the Vida, applies diligent attention to a different and

worldly study, soon falls, even when living, to the condition of a Sídra; and his descendants after him. 169. " The first birth is from a natural mother; the second, from the ligation of the zone; the third from ' the due performance of the sacrifice; such are the · births of him who is usually called twice-born, according to a text of the Vída :

170. “ Among them his divine birth is that, which
' is distinguished by the ligation of the zone, and sa-

crificial cord; and in that birth the Gáyatrà is his
mother, and the A'chárya, his father.
171 - Sages call the A'charya father, from his
giving instruction in the Veda: nor can any holy
' rite be performed by a young man, before his in-
( vestiture.

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172. · Till he be invested with the signs of his class,

he

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II.

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' he must not pronounce any sacred text, except what CHAP.

ought to be used in obsequies to an ancestor ; since " he is on a level with a Súdra before his new birth from the revealed scripture : 173. · From him, who has been duly invested, are required both the performance of devout acts and ' the study of the Véda in order, preceded by stated ceremonies. 174. " Whatever sort of leathern mantle, sacrificial thread, and zone, whatever staff, and whatever under

apparel are ordained, as before-mentioned, for a youth ' of each class, the like must also be used in his religious acts.

175. “ These following rules must a Brahmachári, or student in theology, observe, while he dwells with ' his preceptor ; keeping all his members under control, for the sake of increasing his habitual devotion. 176. Day by day, having bathed and being purified, let him offer fresh water to the Gods, the Sages, and the Manes ; let him show respect to the images of the deities, and bring wood for the obla6 tion to fire.

177. • Let him abstain from honey, from flesh meat, ' from perfumes, from chaplets of flowers, from sweet

vegetable juices, from women, from all sweet sub-
stances turned acid, and from injury to animated
beings;
178. From unguents for his limbs, and from black

powder

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CHAP.

II.

powder for his eyes, from wearing sandals, and car

rying an umbrella, from sensual desires, from wrath, ' from covetousness, from dancing, and from vocal and « instrumental musick;

179. · From gaming, from disputes, from detraction, · and from falsehood, from embracing or wantonly looking at women, and from disservice to other men.

180. · Let him constantly sleep alone: let him never ' waste his own manhood; for he, who voluntary

wastes his manhood, violates the rule of his order, and becomes an avacírní :

181. “ A twice-born youth, who has involuntarily ' wasted his manly strength during sleep, must repeat ' with reverence, having bathed and paid homage to

the text of scripture : Again let my strength return to me.

182. - Let him carry water-pots, Alowers, cow-dung, • fresh earth, and cusa-grass,

as much as may useful to his preceptor; and let him perform every day the duty of a religious mendicant.

183. ' Each day must a Bráhmen student receive his ' food by begging, with due care, from the houses of

persons renowned for discharging their duties, and • not deficient in performing the sacrifices which the

Véda ordains.

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184. • Let him not beg from the cousins of his preceptor; nor from his own cousins; nor from other • kinsmen by the father's side, or by the mother's;

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but, if other houses be not accessible, let him begin CHAP. • with the last of those in order, avoiding the first;

II.

185. • Or, if none of those houses just mentioned can . be found, let him go begging through the whole dis• trict round the village, keeping his organs in subjec' tion, and remaining silent; but let hin turn ' from such as have committed any deadly sin. 186.5

Having brought logs of wood from a distance, I let him place them in the open air; and with them

let him make an oblation to fire without remissness, · both evening and morning.

187. ' He, who for seven successive days omits the

ceremony of begging food, and offers not wood to the • sacred fire, must perform the penance of an avacírní,

unless he be afflicted with illness.

183. · Let the student persist constantly in such begging, but let him not eat the food of one person only: the subsistence of a student by begging is held equal to fasting in religious merit.

189. · Yet, when he is asked in a solemn act in - honour of the Gods or the Manes, he may eat at his

pleasure the food of a single person; observing, how

ever, the laws of abstinence and the austerity of an - anchoret : thus the rule of his order is kept inviolate.

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190. · This duty of a mendicant is ordained by the “ wise for a Bráhmen only; but no such act is appointed 6 for a warriour, or for a merchant.

191. Let

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CHAP.

II.

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191. Let the scholar, when commanded by his pre-
ceptor, and even when he has received no command,
always exert himself in reading, and in all acts useful
to his teacher.
192. “ Keeping in due subjection his body, his speech,
his
organs

of

sense, and his heart, let him stand with the palms of his hands joined, looking at the face of · his preceptor.

193.- Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, · be always decently apparelled, and properly composed ; and when his instructor says,

“ be seated," . let him sit opposite to his venerable guide.

194.“ In the presence of his preceptor let him always • eat less, and wear a coarser mantle with worse appen

dages; let him rise before, and go to rest after his tutor.

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195. Let him not answer his teacher's orders, or converse ·with him, reclining on a bed; nor sitting, nor eating, nor standing, nor with an averted face: 196. " But let him both answer and converse, if his preceptor sit, standing up; if he stand, advancing ' toward him; if he advance, meeting him; if he run,

hastening after him ;

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197. ' If his face be averted, going round to front him, from left to right; if he be at a little distance,

approaching him; if reclined, bending to him; and, . if he stand ever so far off, running toward him.

198. " When

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