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by Mr. Colebrooke (page 3), it is stated that a c'hári of Magad’ha, contains a solid cubick foot, and that' a dróna is the fourth part of a c'hári. All that can be learnt from these clashing authorities, is the uncertainty of the real capacity of the dróna in ancient times.

195. By wood is meant fuel. See note on v. 118 of this chapter.

202. The words and his nobles' should have followed the new prince;' we must therefore read, and let him gratify the new prince and his nobles with gems, and other precious gifts.'



Verse 77. The words “even' and pure' are omitted here; and the passage will accordingly read, and will have more weight than even many pure women.' · 156. Considerable difficulty attends the interpretation of this

Sir Willian Jones renders chacravridd'hi · safe carriage.' The word has been before used in these Institutes in the sense of compound interest, which is its usual import. Mr. Colebrooke, in his translation of the Digest, gives a gloss of CHANDÉSWARA as well as that of Cullúca: both are here subjoined.

“Who has agreed on the place and time,' is thus expounded on the authority of CHANDÉSWARA : the debtor says, “I will pay the debt at such a place, and at such a time;' and the creditor assents to that proposal. Such a creditor is a lender at wheelinterest (compound interest), having bargained for interest of that description. If he pass that place and time, if he do not go to that place at that time, the creditor shall not receive such interest, namely, wheel-interest: of course he must receive back the sum lent without interest. Hence, even should interest prescribed by the law be stipulated for a certain time and place, it shall not be received by the creditor if he do not attend at


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that place and time: for that small omission annuls legal interest.

“ But CULLÚCA BHATTA expounds the text otherwise: theterm · wheel' denotes the use of a wheel-carriage, or the like. A lender who has accepted that by way of interest, and has agreed on the place and time; for instance, he has agreed, that'a journey to Váránasi, or the use of a carriage for the year, shall be the only interest :' in such a case, if the debtor fail in time and place, if he do not carry goods to Váránast, or do not carry goods during the year, he shall receive the benefit, that is, the whole hire of the carriage : consequently, the whole interest is undischarged. Hindu Digest, Vol. I. p.

361. 193. The word 'publickly' should be inserted in the last clause of this verse, and the passage will then read, • be publickly punished by various degrees of whipping or mutilation, or even by death.'

234. The word róchand, which the translator interprets the liquor exuding from their foreheads,' may be equally rendered • the concrete bile of the cow, which is used as a yellow pigment.

246. Instead of the names which occur in the text, the translator has substituted in some instances the more familiar Sanscrit terms by which they are generally known. Thus, for nyagródha, he has given vata: both imply the ficus Indica. And for aswatt'ha, he writes pippala : they are the same tree, viz. ficus religiosa. The palása is likewise substituted for the cinsuca, a tree bearing beautiful red blossoms, and hence often alluded to by the poets : they are both known as butea frondosa.

The sálmali is the silk-cotton tree (bambu heptaphyllium).
The sála is the shorea robusta.


* Note on the above by Mr. Colebrooke. “ The translation (of the text) which I quote unaltered, varies from both comments.”

By the tála is most probably meant the palmyra-tree, or fan. palm (borassus flabelliformis). It likewise implies a species of the mountain palm (corypha taliera).

Of the two names brought in from the comment as abounding in milk, the first or udumbara is the glomerous fig-tree (ficus glomerata), and the second or vajradru implies the various species of euphorbia.

247. By vénu are intended all the varieties of the bamboo.

Sami is the name for two plants ; viz. the sami-tree or mimosa suma, and a shrub (serratula anthelmintica).

The sara is a sort of reed or grass (saccharum sara).

In Mr. Wilson's Dictionary the cubjaca is mentioned as an aquatick plant (trapa bispinosa), this is not therefore likely to be the one alluded to in this verse; and we may therefore suppose it is the same as the cubja (achyranthes aspera). The attributive affix ca being often subjoined at pleasure.

268. There is a mistake in the number five hundred,' which is out of all proportion when compared with the other fines : all the mss. state. • fifty.' The mistake is easily accounted for, by remembering how very similar the word panchasat is to panchasat, there being but the difference of a long and short vowel between them.

289. The words flowers, roots, and fruits,' have been omitted in the translation, and should have followed the words ' wood or clay'

299. In opposition to the dictum of the lawgiver, I feel happy in borrowing a note of Mr. Colebrooke's on this very verse. “ May I quote a maxim of no less authority ? Setdparádhair anitám pushpénápi ne tád'yét ; strike not, even with a blossom, a wife guilty of a hundred faults.” Hindu Digest, Vol. II. p. 209.

359. Instead of a man of the servile class,' the text reads (a man) not a brahmen.' The translator has followed Cullúca's comment.

375-377. I think the employment of the word.'' priestess' hardly admissable, as nothing more is intended by the word bráhmenì than a female bráhmen, or the wife of a bráhmen. By the word priestess I am led to understand a female constituted to direct or perform the offices of religion. By a reference to v. 18, Chap. IX. it will be seen that women can have nothing to do with the offices of religion. See likewise v. 155, Chap. V.


Verse 108. I am supported by Mr. Colebrooke's authority in reading the first hemistich of this verse, As a father should support his sons, so let the first-born support his younger brothers,” &c. Mr. Colebrooke thinks that Sir William Jones must have read pitaiva instead of pitéva.

242. The translator has followed the commentator, in reading shall be corporally or even capitally punished, according to circumstances.' The original simply decrees banishment as the punishment of the crime specified in the preceding verses.


Verse 25. The bhása is explained to be a vulture, and not a kite, by Mr. Wilson.

49. The colour sydva has been before rendered .black-yellow' by the translator in v. 153, Chap. III. : here he simply translates it · black. It is a matter of little or no consequence, but the colour is generally interpreted brown. In Menu it is only employed to describe the teeth.

90. Instead of this is no expiation,' the original reads · no expiation is decreed,' &c.

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136. It has just been remarked in the note on v. 25, that bhása is rendered vulture by Mr. Wilson.

Instead of if priests have accepted any property from base hands,' we should read if priests have acquired any property by infamous actions.'

260. The mss. state that the sinner should plunge • thrice a day,' and not twice a day,' as perhaps was in Sir William Jones's copy, which he seems to have followed.


The variations from the text in this chapter of the translator's version consist more in amplifications, owing to the translator having followed the comment, and not so much in any verbal differences. . It will be evident, therefore, that no notice could be given of them that would not have swelled these remarks beyond the space they were intended to occupy. It will be sufficient for the mere English reader to know, that the general sense of the original has been faithfully rendered by the translator.




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