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On Transmigration and Final Beatitude.


1. ' 0 Thou, who art free from sin,' said the devout sages, · thou hast declared the whole system of duties • ordained for the four classes of men: explain to us

now, from the first principles, the ultimate retribution for their deeds.'

2. Bhrigu, whose heart was the pure essence of virtue, who proceeded from Menu himself, thus addressed the great sages :

• Hear the infallible rules . for the fruit of deeds in this universe.

3. 3.- Action, either mental, verbal, or corporeal, bears good or evil fruit, as itself is good or evil ; ' and from the actions of men proceed their various transmigrations in the highest, the

in the highest, the mean, and the - lowest degree:

4. • Of that three-fold action, connected with bodily ' functions, disposed in three classes, and consisting ' of ten orders, be it known in this world, that the heart is the instigator.

5. · Devising means to appropriate the wealth of .o • other men, resolving on any forbidden deed, and

conceiving notions of atheism or materialism, are the o three bad acts of mind :

6. ^ Scurrilous


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6. . Scurrilous language, falsehood, indiscriminate CHAP. · backbiting, and useless tattle, are the four bad acts of the tongue : 7. · Taking effects not given, hurting sentient creatures without the sanction of law, and criminal in

tercourse with the wife of another, are the three . bad acts of the body; and all the ten have their opposites, which are good in an equal degree. 8. · A rational creature has a reward or a punishment for mental acts, in his mind; for verbal acts, ' in his organs of speech ; for corporeal acts, in his · bodily frame.

9. · For sinful acts mostly corporeal, a man shall

assume after death a vegetable or mineral form ; for • such acts mostly verbal,

verbal, the form of a bird or a beast;

for acts mostly mental, the lowest of human "conditions :

10. · He, whose firm understanding obtains a com• mand over his words, a command over his thoughts, · and a command over his whole body, may justly be • called a tridandì, or triple commander ; not a mere anchoret, who bears three visible staves.

11. " The man, who exerts this triple self-command • with respect to all animated creatures, wholly sub

duing both lust and wrath, shall by those means "attain beatitude.



That substance, which gives a power of mo


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- tion to the body, the wise call cshétrajnya, or jívát

man, the vital spirit; and that body, which thence
• derives active functions, they name bhútátman, or
composed of elements :

13. ' Another internal spirit, called mahat, or the
great soul, attends the birth of all creatures imbo-
died, and thence in all mortal forms is conveyed
a perception either pleasing or painful.
14. · Those two, the vital spirit and reasonable soul,
are closely united with five elements, but connected
with the supreme spirit, or divine essence, which
pervades all beings high and low :

15. · From the substance of that supreme spirit are
• diffused, like sparks from fire, innumerable vital spi-
' rits, which perpetually give motion to creatures ex-

alted and base.

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16. By the vital souls of those men, who have ' committed sins in the body reduced to ashes, another

body, composed of nerves with five sensations, in · order to be susceptible of torment, shall certainly

be assumed after death;


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17. “ And, being intimately united with those minute
nervous particles, according to their distribution,

they shall feel, in that new body, the pangs inflict-
' ed in each case by the sentence of YAMA.

18. · When the vital soul has gathered the fruit of
sins, which arise from a love of sensual pleasure,

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but must produce misery, and, when its taint has

thus been removed, it approaches again those two ' most effulgent essences, the intellectual soul and the

divine spirit :
19. They two, closely conjoined, examine without
remission the virtues and vices of that sensitive soul,
according to its union with which it acquires plea-
sure or pain in the present and future worlds.
20. “ If the vital spirit had practised virtue for the
most part, and vice in a small degree, it enjoys

delight in celestial abodes, clothed with a body • formed of pure elementary particles ;

21. “ But, if it had generally been addicted to vice, ' and seldom attended to virtue, then shall it be de• serted by those pure elements, and, having a coarser

body of sensible nerves, it feels the pains to which YAMA shall doom it :

22.· Having endured those torments according to • the sentence of YAMA, and its taint being almost

removed, it again reaches those five pure elements • in the order of their natural distribution.

23. ' Let each man, considering with his intellec' tual powers these migrations of the soul according • to its virtue or vice, into a region of bliss or pain, continually fix his heart on virtue.

24. · Be it known, that the three qualities of the • rational soul are a tendency to goodness, to passion, ' and to darkness; and, endued with one or more of

• them,

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them, it remains incessantly attached to all these created substances :

25. . When any one of the three qualities predomi' nates in a mortal frame, it renders the imbodied spirit eminently distinguished for that quality.

26. · Goodness is declared to be true knowledge; * darkness, gross ignorance; passion, an emotion of · desire or aversion : such is the compendious descrip• tion of those qualities, which attend all souls.

27. ' When a man perceives in the reasonable soul a disposition tending to virtuous love, unclouded ' with any malignant passion, clear as

light, let him recognise it as the quality of good

the purest


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28. ' A temper of mind, which gives uneasiness and produces disaffection, let him consider as the adverse quality of passion, ever agitating imbodied spi


29. “ That indistinct, inconceivable, unaccountable disposition of a mind naturally sensual, and clouded

with infatuation, let him know to be the quality of • darkness.


30. “Now will I declare at large the various acts, ' in the highest, middle, and lowest degrees, which proceed from those three dispositions of mind. 31. ' Study of scripture, austere devotion, sacred knowledge, corporeal purity; command over the or


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