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73. · Brauma' himself, having compared a Sudra, CHAP. • who performs the duties of the twice-born, with a
twice-born man, who does the acts of a Súdra, said : “ Those two are neither equal nor unequal,” that is, they are neither equal in rank, nor unequal in bad conduct.
74. LET such Bráhmens as are intent on the means • of attaining the supreme godhead, and firm in their
own duties, completely perform, in order, the six following acts :
75. - Reading the Vedas, and teaching others to ' read them, sacrificing, and assisting others to sa' crifice, giving to the poor, if themselves have enough, ' and accepting gifts from the virtuous if themselves
are poor, are the six prescribed acts of the first-
of a Bráhmen, • three are his means of subsistence; assisting to sa'crifice, teaching the Vedas, and receiving gifts from ' a pure-handed giver.
77. · Three acts of duty cease with the Bráhmen, • and belong not to the Cshatriya; teaching the Védas,
officiating at a sacrifice, and, thirdly, receiving presents :
78. · Those three are also (by the fixed rule of law) forbidden to the Vaisya ; , since Menu, the lord of ' all men, prescribed not those acts to the two classes, military and commercial,
of subsistence, peculiar to the Cshatriya, are bearing arms, either beld for striking or missile, to the Vaisya, merchandize, attending on
cattle, and agriculture : but, with a view to the next • life, the duties of both are almsgiving, reading, sacrificing
Among the several occupations for gaining a • livelihood the most commendable respectively for ' the sacerdotal, military, and mercantile classes, are
teaching the Veda, defending the people, and com-
82. ' If it be asked, how he must live, should he · be unable to get a subsistence by either of those
employments; the answer is, he may subsist as • mercantile man, applying himself in person to tillage " and attendance on cattle :
83. · But a Bráhmen and a Cshatriya, obliged to • subsist by the acts of a Vaisya, must avoid with
care, if they can live by keeping herds, the business of tillage, which gives great pain to sentient creatures, and is dependant on the labour of others, . as bulls and so forth. 84. • Some are of opinion, that agriculture is excellent; but it is a mode of subsistence which the · benevolent greatly blame; for the iron-mouthed
pieces of wood not only wound the earth, but the CHAP. creatures dwelling in it.
85. ' If, through want of a virtuous livelihood, they • cannot follow laudable occupations, they may then
gain a competence of wealth by selling commodities
usually sold by merchants, avoiding what ought to « be avoided :
86. '. They must avoid selling liquids of all sorts, • dressed grain, seeds of tila, stones, salt, cattle, and human creatures;
87. “ All woven cloth dyed red, cloth made of sana, • of cshumá-bark, and of wool, even though not red; fruit, roots, and medicinal plants; 88. ' Water, iron, poison, Alesh-meat, the moonplant, and perfumes of any sort; milk, honey, butter
milk, clarified butter, oil of tila, wax, sugar, and · blades of cus'a-grass;
89. “ All beasts of the forest, as deer and the like; ravenous beasts, birds, and fish; spirituous liquors, ' nili, or indigo, and lácshá, or lac; and all beasts " with uncloven hoofs.
90. · But the Bráhmen-husbandman may at pleasure
tila-seeds for the purpose of holy rites, if he keep them not long with a hope of more gain, ' and shall have produced them by his own culture :
91. “ If he apply seeds of tila to any purpose but food, anointing, and sacred oblations, he shall be
plunged, in the shape of a worm, together with his
immediately sinks low ; by selling milk three days, he falls to a level with a Súdra ;
93. · And by. selling the other forbidden commodities with his own free will, he assumes in this
world, after seven nights, the nature of a
94. • Fluid things may, however, be bartered for í other fluids, but not salt for any thing liquid; so
may dressed grain for grain undressed, and tila-seeds · for grain in the husk, equal weights or being given and taken. 95. ' A MILITARY man, in distress, may subsist by all these means, but at no time must he have recourse to the highest, or sacerdotal, function.
96. " A man of the lowest class, who, through ' covetousness, lives by the acts of the highest, let (the king strip of all his wealth and instantly banish:
97. “ His own office, though defectively performed, . is preferable to that of another, though performed
completely; for he, who without necessity discharges the duties of another class, immediately forfeits his
98. ' A MERCANTILE man, unable to subsist by his own duties, may descend even to the servile acts
' of a Súdra, taking care never to do what ought CHAP.
never to be done ; but, when he has gained a competence, let him depart from service. 99. ' A Man of the fourth class, not finding employment by waiting on the twice-born, while his ' wife and son are tormented with hunger, • sist by handicrafts :
100. Let him principally follow those mechanical occupations, as joinery and masonry, or those various
practical arts, as painting and writing, by following ' which, he may serve the twice-born. 101. SHOULD a Bráhmen, afflicted and
afflicted and pining • through want of food, choose rather to remain • fixed in the path of his own duty, than to adopt ' the practice of Vaisyas, let him act in this manner :
102. · The Bráhmen, having fallen into distress, may receive gifts from any person whatever ; for by no sacred rule can it be shown, that absolute purity can be sullied.
103. · From interpreting the Véda, from officiating • at sacrifices, or from taking presents, though in · modes generally disapproved, no sin is committed
by priests in distress; for they are as pure as fire or water
104. ' He, who receives food, when his life could • not otherwise be sustained, from any man whatever, • is no more tainted by sin, than the subtil ether by
6 mud :