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residue; the son of the Cshatriyà-wife, two shares; CHAP. • the son of the Vaisyà-wife, a share and a half; and • the son of the Súdrà-wife, may take one share.

152. · Or, if no deduction be made, let some person learned in the law divide the whole collected

estate into ten parts, and make a legal distribution ' by this following rule :

153. • Let the son of the Brahmanì take four parts; ' the son of the Cshatriyà three ; let the son of the

Vaisyà have two parts ; let the son of the Súdrà
take a single part, if he be virtuous.
154. " But whether the Bráhmen have sons, or have
no sons, by wives of the three first classes, no more

than a tenth part must be given to the son of a Súodrà.

155. “ The son of a Bráhmen, a Cshatriya, or a Vaisya by a woman of the servile class, shall inhe‘rit no part of the estate, unless he be virtuous ; nor jointly with other sons, unless his mother was law-. fully married : whatever his father may give him, let o that be his own.

156. “ All the sons of twice-born men, produced by wives of the same class, must divide the heritage

equally, after the younger brothers have given the · first-born his deducted allotment.

157. - For a Súdra is ordained a wife of his own class, and no other : all, produced by her, shall have equal shares, though she have a hundred sons.

158. " OF

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158. • Of the twelve sons of men, whom MENU, sprung from the Self-existent, has named, six are • kinsmen and heirs ; six, not heirs, except to their own fathers, but kinsmen.

159. · The son begotten by a man himself in law'ful wedlock, the son of his wife begotten in the

manner before described, a son given to him, a son ' made or adopted, a son of concealed birth, or whose real father cannot be known, and a son rejected by ' his natural parents, are the six kinsmen and heirs :


160. “ The son of a young woman unmarried, the son of a pregnant bride, a son bought, a son by a twice-married woman, a son self-given, and a son by a Súdrà, are the six kinsmen, but not heirs to collaterals.


161. · Such advantage, as a man would gain, who ' should attempt to pass deep water in a boat made ' of woven reeds, that father obtains, who passes the gloom of death, leaving only contemptible sons, who are the eleven, or at least the six, last mentioned.

162. " If the two heirs of one man be the son of ' his own body and a son of his wife by a kinsman,

the former of whom was begotten after his recovery from an illness thought incurable, each of the sons, exclusively of the other, shall succeed to the whole estate of his natural father.


163. The son of his own body is the sole heir to





' his estate, but, that all evil may be removed, let

СНАР. « him allow a maintenance to the rest ;

• And, when the son of the body has taken an account of the paternal inheritance, let him give a

sixth part of it to the son of the wife begotten
by a kinsman, before his father's recovery; or a
• fifth part, if that son be eminently virtuous.

165. " The son of the body, and the son of the wife,
may succeed immediately to the paternal estate in the
manner just mentioned; but the ten other sons can

only succeed in order to the family duties and to
' their share of the inheritance, those last named being

excluded by any one of the preceding.

166. · Him, whom a man has begotten on his own • wedded wife, let him know to be the first in rank, as the son of his body.

167. · He, who was begotten, according to law, on " the wife of a man deceased, or impotent, or dis• ordered, after due authority given to her, is called

the lawful son of the wife.


168. ' He, whom his father, or mother with her husband's assent, gives to another as his son, pro

vided that the donee have no issue, if the boy be

of the same class and affectionately disposed, is • considered as a son given, the gift being confirmed by pouring water.

169. · He is considered as a son made or adopted, r whom a man takes as his own son, the boy being


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equal in class, endued with filial virtues, acquainted ' with the merit of performing obsequies to his adopter, and with the sin of omitting them.

170. . In whose mansion soever a male child shall
' be brought forth by a married woman, whose husband
' has long been absent, if the real father cannot be

discovered, but if it be probable that he was of an
equal class, that child belongs to the lord of the
unfaithful wife, and is called a of concealed
birth in his mansion.


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171. ' A boy, whom man receives as his own
son, after he has been deserted without just cause
by his parents, or by either of them, if one be
dead, is called a son rejected.
172. · A son, whom the daughter of any man pri-
vately brings forth in the house of her father, if she
afterwards marry her lover, is described as a son
begotten on an unmarried girl.

173. “ If a pregnant young woman marry, whether
' her pregnancy be known or unknown, the male child
' in her womb belongs to the bridegroom, and is

called a son received with his bride.

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174. "He is called a son bought, whom a man, • for the sake of having a son to perform his obsequies, purchases from his father and mother, whether the boy be equal or unequal to himself in good qualities, for in class all adopted sons must be equal.

75. " He



175. He, whom a woman, either forsaken by her CHAP. ' lord or a widow, conceived by a second husband, • whom she took by her own desire, though against law, is called the son of a woman twice married : 176. ' If, on her second marriage, she be still a virgin, or if she left her husband under the age ' of puberty and return to him at his full


she ' must again perform the nuptial

nuptial ceremony either ' with her second, or her young and deserted, hus( band.

177. He, who has lost his parents, or been aban. doned by them without just cause, and offers him' self to a man as his son, is called a son self-given.

178. ' A son, begotten through lust on a Súdrà by • a man of the priestly class, is even as a corpse,

though alive, and is thence called in law a living corpse:

179. But a son, begotten by a man of the servile " class on his female slave, or on the female slave ' of his male slave, may take a share of the heritage, ' if permitted by the other sons : thus is the law established.

180. “ These eleven sons (the son of the wife, and 'the rest as enumerated) are allowed by wise legis·lators to be substitutes in order for sons of the

body, for the sake of preventing a failure of obse-
181. Though such, as are called sons for that pur-
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