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edifying. On the other hand, error is always obnoxious, simply as such; but it is of the worst kind when it corrupts. There may be sterile truth, and harmless error. It is not therefore the speculative perfection, nor the mere logical consequence, that makes the great concern in doctrines addressed to the people, but joined with them the stress and bearing which the error or the truth may induce into men, not as reasoning beings only, but made such as they are, that is, to act and be influenced in many other ways according to their mixt nature and their popular character. A sense of this importance in the style of the doctrines addressed to them seems to have originated this whole controversy. Some persons called foranother, and, as they thought, a better mode of preaching than they said was prevalent among the Clergy: among other improvements they wished the doctrine of Regeneration to be preached, and the need of it to be urged. Now this precise term does not, we suppose, contain in it the very essence of the Gospel. We are not speaking of the thing implied by it, which is that very essence, but of the word and symbol. We are aware that some words by association and habit have a positive virtue in them, which makes them unexchangeable. But in argument, a correct synonym, or an equivalent phrase, is, when substituted, as good as the original term. Let us assume then, that the thing itself intended by that word is a change of life to Christian holiness : or let any other correct definition of it be given. The one party and the other, in this question, agree in the necessity of urging men to Christian holiness, to a new life, to a new heart. The one say, it is all to begin ; the other say, it was begun in baptism. Both agree in the need of inculcating it now. If the belief that it was begun in baptism be likely to check the actual and necessary attainment of it, the doctrine which teaches that belief may be dangerous. But if those who believe in its communication in a certain degree to the soul in baptism press the consciences of baptised persons with the need of daily and continued increase of holiness; and tell them, as, in conformity with that belief, they ought, that without such moral renovation, in act, and principle, and life, the grace of baptism will only bring them into heavier guilt ; then they seem to be doing the same thing which the others.wish them to do, who affirm that the entire work is still to be done; for they both allow that the preacher must urge holiness, and the people labour for it.
The principle of practical doctrine admitted by both, is, so far as we have just now considered it, coincident and commensurate, on each side. We do not persuade indifference to the severe truth, but it may be of use to show that both opinions, both systems in the point of regeneration, when they come to meet the consciences of men, take nearly the same scope and direction, and have the
same matter in common. Those therefore who have been animated to the assault of an existing doctrine, upon the motive of a regard to practical holiness and active Christianity, may perhaps see that those whom they oppose may be pursuing the same business as themselves, although they do not set out from the same tenets, nor speak in the same language. The interest of religion may not be absolutely dependent upon the peculiar view which they take of regeneration : much less upon the very word itself.
We know, however, how much men are divided and governed by words, and it is because of their dominion in giving an impulse to the mind that religion and morals are so much concerned in the due appropriation of them. If 'Regeneration' be an efficacious word, there is a fair reason for insisting upon it. If others lead to the same effect, the practical interest is saved, and one motive for controversy is so far abated. The accuracy of a right faith may be made a separate question if it should be necessary. But men may be taught the Gospel, safely, and effectually, in great measure, upon the same grounds by those who think differently of baptismal regeneration. At any rate, a high esteem of the value of baptism does not, either in rigid or in popular argument, undermine the practical reasons for
kind of exertion towards a Christian life. If it be so preached as to operate to this pernicious effect, the wrong belongs to the teacher and not to the doctrine. In discussing the doctrine therefore there is no sufficient cause for aggravating the discussion with the charge and alarm of an evil tendency on one side to abuse the consciences of men, and blind them with the confidence of a false security. And if there be sufficient cause for that apprehension, and the controversy be entirely discharged of the burden of it, perhaps the distinct and fair reasons may obtain a more disinterested hearing. For it must be confessed that a zeal for practical religion, mixing itself with the infirmities and misapprehensions of men, may be as injurious to sound religious truth, as it is possible for an erroneous faith to be injurious to the efficacy of religion.
A question sometimes put, which of certain disputed doctrines is most conducive to a Christian life? is premature and unfair, as long as there is any hope of ascertaining which is the true one. For that only which is true, is to be maintained. But among truths, the most improving are to be preferred for the more constant use, and more frequent inculcation. And this is the true province of zeal, in the range of its exertions to spread a living piety in the world, yiz, not to make doctrines, but to select and apply them. Upon the supposition, therefore, that our view of baptismal regeneration is correct; and with the further knowledge that a daily and present change is still to be made in the hearts and lives of baptised persons : we may account for a fact which we do not wish to dis
guise; that many of our best divines, such as Tillotson, when they are not writing professedly of baptism, still make regeneration the great theme of their discourse, by which they intend the present conversion of men from sin to holiness. Their judgment and feeling probably was, that the more useful topic to be sounded in the ears of their people, was the present debt of their Christian calling. From which judgment and feeling we probably should not dissent.
But when the demand, whether just or invidious, was made upon our clergy to preach the doctrine of regeneration, it certainly was some answer, to reply, that regeneration was given in baptism, and therefore the Liturgy itself took care of the doctrine. It may be, however, that there was too much stress laid upon this one part of the reply, as if it met the whole challenge of the complaint preferred. For the conversion of the man to Christian principles in act, in habit, and in practice, by whatever name that may be called, was not strictly included in the regeneration of baptism. If it were included, then so many divines would have mistaken their way, who continued to call men to such conversion, even after they were baptised. Nay those divines are often silent as to the fruit of baptism, when they are most strongly inculcating the topics of spi. ritual improvement. The answer, therefore, was in some sense a partial one. So far as it related to baptism, it was correct.
But more remained to be said. It has indeed been said, but has lost something of its proper force and prominence, by the comparative stress laid upon the baptismal doctrine. Our hope is, that the clergy of our church will be found faithful in propounding, with a sincere and enlightened labour, the whole of that truth which is confided to them; and will so furnish a correct and sub. stantial reply to any complaint made against them. If there were any failure in this discharge of their trust, it is neither the refutation of an ill-worded or acrimonious censure, nor the exposure
of doctrinal error in those who stir the complaint, which would make amends for a defect fatal to interests too great for controversy.
Art. XI.-1. Journal of Travels in Sweden, Russia, Poland, &c. during the Years 1813 and 1814. By the Rev. J. T. James, of Christ Church, Oxford. 4to.
1816. 2. Die Konigin Luise : der Preussichen Nation gewidmet.--pp.
224. 8vo. 1814. IN N the language of Iceland the same word is employed to de.
scribe the ignorant man, and him who never enjoyed the advantages of travelling abroad ;--and in one of the metrical composi
tions of that country we find a bard most pathetically lamenting : the hardship of his fate in being compelled to live eternally in the remote island of his birth, without any intercourse with the rest of the world. A similar complaint for some years prevailed in this country; the danger to be apprehended at present is, lest too many should avail themselves of the opening for foreign excursions now so widely afforded, and claim the merit of wisdom by running post.
One of the merits of the Journal before us consists in the unambitious style of the narrative, and the care which the author has taken not to crowd his pages with minute details of his own personal adventures, to the neglect of more material statements : and when we consider how much has been said and written of late respecting the greater part of the countries which he visited, we are agreeably surprised at the variety of new matter which his volume contains; though it is impossible not to notice a few slight inaccuracies and an occasional specimen of a taste somewhat mistaken.
It is curious now to reflect for how long a period Gottenburgh was the nearest friendly port on the Continent to which an Englishman had access. Here Mr. James, like all other travellers of that day, first landed; and we shall at once conduct our readers to those parts of his tour to which the circumstances of the time lent a peculiar interest,
We should do him injustice were we to describe in other words than his own the state of his feelings on entering Prussia.
• We passed again into the Brandenburg territory near Hohenzieritz, and a marked difference became immediately visible in the face of the country. On every side it bore the silence and solitude of a deserted Jandi swept off for the exigencies of war, not a man capable of bearing arms was to be seen, and the village cross or the well, the usual baunts of the gaping rustic, was every where alike forsaken. The corn stood ripe in the fields withçut hands sufficient to gather the harvest. Here and there were scattered a few groups of old people, women and children, who were exerting their feeble efforts in the fields by the wayside ; their cottages meanwhile tenantless but for the tutelary stork, that, nestling on the chimney top, seemed to hewail the loneliness around. Filled with these dreary images, we drew near the border of a forest, where our attention was arrested by a monument erected to the memory of the late queen. It was here, while on her journey, she was seized with that inflammatory complaint, whose violence baffled all attempts at relief, and in a few hours terminated her existence in a neighbouring cottage. During the present eventful epoch we needed not to call in aid the solemn character of this sequestered spot to heighten those impressions, chivalrous as well as melancholy, which a reflection upon the fate and virtues, the sad reverses and premature death of this beau.
tiful and amiable princess will never fail to excite in every honourable and feeling mind. We travelled through the gloomy forest in silence, and with sensations hardly to be exceeded by the gallantry and loyalty of a Prussian bosomi'-pp. 29, 30. : In'a former Number we adverted to the German work which we have taken this further opportunity of noticing. It is attributed to Madame de Berg, who accompanied the Dutchess of Cumberland to this country. She has given us apparently a very faithful outline of the life of the Queen of Prussia, with some interesting particulars relative to the illness of which she died. We observe that her account of the last moments of the Queen is at variance with that given above; and from her intimate connexion with the Prussian court, her authority cannot well be disputed. It is probable that the monument noticed by Mr. James may serve to mark the spot where, whilst on her journey to visit her father, she experienced the first attack of that complaint which afterwards proved so fatal: but she lived upwards of three weeks after her arrival at Hohenzieritz; and though princely mansions, we know, are occasionally styled cottages,' we apprehend that Mr. James was not aware that the Queen ended her days at the palace of the Duke, her father. She died on the 19th July, 1810, and her body was finally deposited at Charlottenburg on the 23d December following, the anniversary on which seventeen years before she first made her appearance in Prussia as a bride. Had she lived in more tranquil times, she would probably only have been known to us as a beautiful and engaging woman; but the days were eventful in which ber lot was cast,—she was placed in most trying circumstances, and her conduct during the whole of her career will bear a comparison with that of the greatest of her sex, either in ancient or modern times. As Madame de Berg's work is little known in this country, and no translation of it has yet appeared,--that part of it which relates to the most curious period of the Queen's life will not, we think, prove unacceptable,
• The armistice which then took place was soon after followed by a meeting between the two emperors, and subsequently with the King of Prussia. Negotiations for peace were entered into, and the head quarters of the Emperor Alexander, as well as of the king, were removed to Tilsit, where Napoleon then was ; 30 that the three Powers had their head-quarters established in the same town. Prussia was now also negotiating for peace, but it was against this power that the rancour of the French Emperor was chiefly directed; and it was most severely felt. •The rectitude and moderation of the king's character stood him in no stead when opposed to the overbearing and contemptuous treatment which was manifested to him by bis enemy on every occasion, for