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name, and to pledge himself that the King of Spain would undertake to defend it for his Holiness. These representations were of course disregarded. The inhabitants, with as little regard to private feeling and individual interests as had been shown to national honour in this transaction, were compelled to evacuate the city and retire to Portugal; and the English took possession of Tangiers, believing, as the Earl of Sandwich used to say, that if it could be walled and fortified with brass, it would repay the charge. The ill consequences ensued which might be expected from such a beginning; the new settlers, to make room for whom the old inhabitants had been turned out of house and home, were a rabble of needy and greedy adventurers; and governors, soldiers, and settlers were entirely ignorant of the manners, language, and mode of warfare of the people with whom they were to deal. Gailan obtained victories which, says Menezes, he would never have won over the industry and valour of Portuguese generals ;-our own writers, indeed, acknowledge that the Portuguese seldom encountered the Moors but they defeated them, and that our men were sadly massacred through the unadvisedness of the commanders and the disorder of the troops. After a great waste of blood and treasure, it was determined, in 1685, that Tangiers should be abandoned: the Portuguese ambassador was instructed to request that it might be restored to his Crown, promising, that in that case the port should always be open to the English, and pointing out the evil consequences of suffering it to be occupied by the piratical powers. Charles would have assented to this reasonable request; but his brother the Duke of York objected, say. ing, it was not for the honour of England to give up to Portugal a place which she herself did not think it convenient longer to defend ; it was for her honour to dismantle it, and Portugal or Spain might then occupy it as they pleased. The fortifications therefore, and the mole, on which such great sums had been expended, were blown up,--but the Moors instantly occupied the ruins,--and their first act was to dig up the bones of the Portuguese knights who had so long been the terror and scourge of their nation. In a well-written discourse concerning Tangiers, printed a few years before the place was thus abandoned, it is observed, that with wise measures this possession might not only maintain itself

, but yielda considerable revenue to the crown of England; that the pirates might be effectually curbed from thence, and that it might be rendered a dreadful city to the Moors, Spaniards, Turks, and French. The advantages which might have been derived from retaining it, are given us by Gibraltar; but the possibility of that important acquisition could not at that time have been contemplated, and the British statesmen who occupied so commanding a position as Tan

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tries. The greater part of the present empire of Morocco paid tribute to Emanuel, and that city itself sometimes trembled when it was announced that the Portuguese horsemen were in sight. A considerable revenue was derived from these conquests; but in the succeeding reign it became apparent that the projects of this enterprising people were beyond their strength, and that their population could not at the same time support a dominion in India and in Africa ; Joam III. naturally preferred his oriental to his Barbary possessions, but the preference was unfortunate. No European power would have contested that country with him,-it was at his own doors, serving at once as a school of war, and a wide field where the Portuguese might have gone on for generations conquering and to conquer. India, on the other hand, was already contested; Castille was intruding ; France perpetually threatening to intrude, and pirating against the homeward bound fleets : it inight also have been foreseen, that the strongest maritime power in Europe must eventually command the coasts of India, and that Portugal could not continue to be that power. Tangiers was among the few places which were retained; and, unlike Ceuta, Tangiers followed the revolution which restored the

Braganza family to their rights. The Conde da Ericeyra, Don Fernando de Menezes, had been governor for some years, and had well supported the honour of his country and of his race in his wars against Gai. lan, when by a secret arrangement between the courts of Lisbon and London, it was determined that this city should be ceded to England as a part of the Infanta Catherina's dowry on her marriage with Charles II. When the Count received secret orders to de. liver up the city in conformity to the agreement, he wrote to the Queen Regent entreating her to spare him

the grief which he must feel at seeing a nation which, though in alliance with Portugal, was nevertheless of a different religion, take possession of a city in which the Catholic faith had flourished for two centuries, and of which the Menezes of his family had been the first conquerors and the constant defenders. The Queen offered him & marquisate if he would perform the service which she required, and intimated her displeasure if he persisted in his wish to resign the government;-but, with a feeling to which every Englishman will do justice, Menezes re-solicited and obtained his recall. He beguiled the hours of his leisure --perhaps of his disgrace, --in writing a history of the city. The Spaniards of Ceuta, he says, persuaded the Portuguese not to abandon to heretics a place which they had so long and so bravely defended as a bulwark of the faith; the English, they said, would not be able to maintain it, and would sell it to the Moors if they could make a good bargain; the Spanish governor even offered to take possession of it in the Pope's

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name, and to pledge himself that the King of Spain would undertake to defend it for his Holiness. These representations were of course disregarded. The inhabitants, with as little regard to private feeling and individual interests as had been shown to national honour in this transaction, were compelled to evacuate the city and retire to Portugal; and the English took possession of Tangiers, believing, as the Earl of Sandwich used to say, that if it could be walled and fortified with brass, it would repay the charge. The ill consequences ensued which might be expected from such a beginning; the new settlers, to make room for whom the old inhabitants had been turned out of house and home, were a rabble of needy and greedy adventurers; and governors, soldiers, and settlers were entirely ignorant of the manners, language, and mode of warfare of the people with whom they were to deal. Gailan obtained victories which, says Menezes, he would never have won over the industry and valour of Portuguese generals ;-our own writers, indeed, acknowledge that the Portuguese seldom encountered the Moors but they defeated them, and that our men were sadly massacred through the unadvisedness of the commanders and the disorder of the troops. After a great waste of blood and treasure, it was determined, in 1685, that Tangiers should be abandoned: the Portuguese ambassador was instructed to request that it might be restored to his Crown, promising, that in that case the port should always be open to the English, and pointing out the evil consequences of suffering it to be occupied by the piratical powers. Charles would have assented to this reasonable request; but his brother the Duke of York objected, say- . ing, it was not for the honour of England to give up to Portugal a place which she herself did not think it convenient longer to defend; it was for her honour to dismantle it, and Portugal or Spain might then occupy it as they pleased. The fortifications therefore, and the mole, on which such great sums had been expended, were blown up,--but the Moors instantly occupied the ruins--and their first act was to dig up the bones of the Portuguese knights who had so long been the terror and scourge of their nation. In a well-written discourse concerning Tangiers, printed a few years before the place was thus abandoned, it is observed, that with wise measures this possession might not only maintain itself, but yielda considerable revenue to the crown of England; that the pirates might be effectually curbed from thence, and that it might be rendered a dreadful city to the Moors, Spaniards, Turks, and French. The advantages which might have been derived from retaining it, are given us by Gibraltar ; but the possibility of that important acquisition could not at that time have been contemplated, and the British statesmen who occupied so commanding a position as Tan

giers, were of more capacious minds and comprehensive views than their successors by whom it was abandoned.

Ali, the Spaniard, tells us, that though the bay is somewhat exposed to easterly winds, a valuable port might be made there with little expense. The river, however, is so choaked with sand that, as we learn from Lempriere, it is many years since the Emperor's large ships could winter there, as they were used to do: and in this manner most of the rivers in Morocco, which were formerly navigable, have become no longer capable of navigation. The maritime force of Morocco has thus been destroyed by causes which would be remediable under an enlightened government. The armies are irregular and barbarous, as incapable of resisting a European force in the field, as a European force would be of maintaining its ground against their desultory and incessant warfare. They are excellent but cruel horsemen; and their horses, having been trained to travel aļl day and feed only at night, and accustomed to endure the heat and the rain without shelter, are much better fitted for military service than animals used to the full feed and hot stables of Europe. Contrary to the received opinion, Ali Bey observes, that the white or ash-coloured horses are the strongest; as these are the most numerous also, it is perhaps the original colour of the species.

Justice is administered at Tangiers with humorous impartiality to both parties, for they are beaten out of the hall by the soldiers as soon as sentence is pronounced. The governor is the judge, and decides according to his own sense of right and wrong, with nothing to direct him but the precepts of the Koran. It is better perhaps that there should be too little law than too much : and we might find something to imitate as well as admire in the summary proceedings of a Mahommedan judge. Cases sometimes occur in England wherein a longer imprisonment precedes the trial than would be adjudged as a punishment for the offence :-a pie-poudre court for minor delinquencies might remedy this injustice, and prevent many of those petty crimes which it is now too expensive or too troublesome to bring before a judge, but which lead the perpetrator on from step to step to the last stages of guilt.

The couscoussou, which is the principal food of the Moors, and which they believe was invented by Mahommed when he lay awake one night with an empty stomach, is only a different form of maccaroni : Ali Bey regards it as the best possible food for the people. Fingers are used instead of knife and fork, because the Prophet used no other knife and fork than his fingers. Tea, having heen introduced at Court as presents from the English, has made its way rapidly into general use. In Lempriere's time it was very expenşive and scarce, and consequently only the rich and

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Luxurious afforded it. At present, the lowest ranks of society in. Qulge in it; and the Spanish traveller tells us, that more tea is drunk, in proportion, in Morocco than even in England. They put sugar into the tea-pot, and take it very strong, seldom using milk: the manner of preparing it in Lempriere's time was with tansey and mint, both herbs of so powerful a taste that the tea must have been added for its supposed medicinal effects, not for any flavour which could possibly have survived through such an admixture. In Tibet it is taken rather as a gruel than an infusion, the leaves being boiled with water, flour, butter and salt, and the whole mixed together. Morocco is supplied with this important article of increasing consumption from England, by way of Gibraltar. Their sugar

also is derived from the same market. The Jews at Tangiers are not confined to a particular part of the town, but live intermingled with the other inhabitants-a privilege which they enjoy in no other part of the Mahommedan world. This privilege, however, such as it is, tends to increase the misery and danger of their situation : for where they live separately, they are not exposed to any incidental insults and injuries, as long as they remain within their own district,-a Jewry being almost as safe from the intrusion of a 'good Mussulman as a pigsty; but where they are liable to meet and jostle in the street, quarrels are perpetually arising, and the judge never decides in favour of the Jew. This shocking partiality begins from the cradle. Ali Bey says, that a Mussulman child will insult and strike a Jew, who, whatever be his age and infirmities, dares not defend himself, and is not allowed to complain : he has seen the Mahommedan children amuse themselves with beating the little sons of the Synagogue. An odd use is made of the Jews in this country; after a long drought, when the Mussulmen have prayed for a change of weather without effect, they turn them out of the town, and order them not to return without rain ; believing that God will grant their petition to be rid of their foul breath and unsavoury odour. Lancelot Addison notices another odd opinion which the Barbary Moors, in his time, entertained that the Jews were an anomalous issue, and not, like other men, descended from Adam, but that the end for which they were created was to serve the Mussulmen. They are obliged to wear a particular dress, every part of which, except the shirt, is black. In some towns they must walk barefoot, and every where take off their shoes when passing before a mosque, or the house of any Mussulman of distinction. When they meet a Moor of high ránk, they must hastily turn away to a certain distance on the left of the road, leave their sandals on the ground several paces off, bend the body forward, and

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