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of 1636 (vol. x. of this series, p. 129). Hale relates a similar tale as given by an old Huron-"perhaps the most complete account of the Huron cosmogonic myth which has yet been obtained" (Jour. Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. i., pp. 178-183). Cf. Cusick's Ancient History of the Six Nations (Lockport, N. Y., 1848), p. 13.

The Delawares also fancied that "an enormous tortoise carried the world on its back;" see Loskiel's Mission among Indians of N. America (Latrobe's trans., London, 1794), part 1, p. 30. Cf. Heckewelder's "Indian Nations," in Amer. Philos. Soc. Trans. (Hist. and Lit. Com.), vol. i. (Phila., 1819), p. 246: "The Tortoise, or as it is commonly called, the Turtle tribe, among the Lenape, claims a superiority and ascendency over the others, because their relation, the great Tortoise, a fabled monster, the Atlas of their mythology, bears according to their traditions this great island on his back, and also because he is amphibious, and can live both on land and in the water, which neither of the heads of the other tribe[s] can do." Cf. also the "Walam Olum" of the Lenape, as given in Brinton's Lenapé and their Legends (Phila., 1885), p. 179; he remarks (p. 133), The turtle or tortoise is everywhere in Algonkin pictography the symbol of the earth." Schoolcraft makes a similar statement.

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In some instances, the tortoise was also regarded as a creative agent. Dankers and Sluyter record—in their "Journal of a Voyage to New York, 1679-80" (translated by Murphy), in Long Island Histor. Soc. Memoirs, vol. i. (Brooklyn, 1867), p. 268-the statements of Indians whom they met near the present Newark, N. J., ascribing such power to the turtle: "The true name by which they call this Supreme Being, the first and great beginning of all things, was Kickeron or Kickerom, who is the origin of all, who has not only once produced or made all things, but produces every day. I told him I had conversed with Jasper or Tantaqué, another old Indian, on the subject, from whence all things had come, and he had told me they came from a tortoise; that this tortoise had brought forth the world, or that all things had come from it; that from the middle of the tortoise there had sprung up a tree, upon whose branches men had grown. That was true, he replied, but Kicheron [sic] made the tortoise, and the tortoise had a power and a nature to produce all things, such as earth, trees, and the like, which God wished through it to produce, or have produced."


Peter Jones (Ojebway Indians, p. 255) states that in 1837 he saw, near the N. E. shore of Lake Huron, an island on which there was a large rock shaped like a turtle, to which "the heathen Indians frequently offered their devotions and sacrifices;" and he found beneath its head several pieces of tobacco, evidently left there by the Indians as such offerings.

6 (p. 97).—See sketch of Ragueneau in vol. ix., note 40.

7 (p. 113).— Khiondaësahan (also spelled Ekhiondatsaan): A large village on the trail to Teanaustayé (St. Joseph). As this name occurs in the Relations only in 1637, the village was probably removed elsewhere soon after that year.—A. F. HUNTER.

8 (p. 117).-See Le Jeune's description of the aboriginal process of fire-making (vol. vi., p. 217). The "metallic stones" were pieces of iron pyrites, used from the earliest times (and even now employed by some Eskimo tribes) for this purpose — sometimes alone, but more often with flint. This primitive method was succeeded in the Iron Age by the flint and steel, which is still used in many parts of the world, and has but recently been superseded in civilized countries by the lucifer match (invented about 1830). The outfit of flint, steel, and tinder used by Europeans was early supplemented by matches (Fr. allumettes),— slightly-twisted hempen cords, or splinters of wood, tipped with sulphur. Such as these, Le Jeune refers to in the text. The tinder box of the Europeans was readily adopted by the American Indians, as they came into association with white men, and, among many tribes, soon superseded their own primitive methods. For detailed account of aboriginal appliances for fire-making, with many illustrations, see Hough's “FireMaking Apparatus," in U. S. Nat. Mus. Rep., 1887-88, pp. 531-587. 9 (p. 127).— For sketches of Chastellain and Garnier, see vol. viii., notes 51, 52.

10 (p. 133).— River of the Hiroquois: thus named by the French because it was the route used by their Iroquois enemies for hostile incursions; later, known as Richelieu River. Sauthier's map (engraved by Faden, 1777) gives the name Richelieu only to that part of the river above Chambly; thence to St. Antoine, he names the river Chambly; and the rest of the stream, to its mouth, the Sorel. These latter names are those of officers under Marquis de Tracy, who by his orders erected forts on this river (August, 1664),—Pierre de Saurel (or Sorel), who built the fort of that name, at the mouth of the river, on the site of old Fort Richelieu; and Jacques de Chambly, who erected a fortification at the foot of the rapids, at the present village of Chambly.

11 (p. 133).—This rapid was at first called simply "Grand Sault," the great rapid; but after 1611 it received the name Sault St. Louis-apparently in memory of a young Frenchman named Louis, who in that year was drowned while attempting to descend the rapids in a canoe. The name St. Louis is also applied to the lake above, formed by an expansion of the St. Lawrence; and, again, designates the seigniory lying on the southern shore, opposite the rapids, in which the old mission town, Caughnawaga, is situated.

This estate was granted to the Jesuits, May 29, 1680, with two leagues frontage on the river; it is now the property of the Caughnawaga Indians.

The rapids are commonly known as the Lachine Rapids, and form a prominent feature in the scenery of that region. Navigation past them is rendered possible by the Lachine Canal, 81⁄2 miles long, extending from the town of Lachine (opposite Caughnawaga) to Montreal. The seigniory of that name was granted to La Salle (in the winter of 1667-68) by the Seminary of St. Sulpice, in honor of which he named it; but in 1669 the seigniory became known as Lachine, in derisive allusion to the expedition projected by La Salle to discover a route to China via the river (Faillon's Col. Fran., vol. iii., pp. 297, 298). The settlement founded by La Salle at Lachine was destroyed (Aug. 5, 1689) by the Iroquois, and 200 persons cruelly massacred; while many others were made captives, and either enslaved or tortured to death.

12 (p. 133).— Reference is here made to the lands granted to Pierre Le Gardeur (vol. viii., note 57).

13 (p. 133).—Montreal Island—the site of ancient Hochelaga, and of the modern city of Montreal is 32 miles long by 10%1⁄2 miles wide, and forms the counties of Hochelaga and Jacques Cartier. The island was granted, soon after the restitution of New France by the English, to Jean de Lauson (vol. vi., note 2); but in 1640 he transferred the greater part of it to Dauversière and his associates of the Society of Notre Dame de Montréal. This association afterwards became so reduced in membership and in funds that in 1663 it surrendered the Montreal colony, with all its possessions and rights, to the Seminary of St. Sulpice (conducted by the Society of that name established in 1641 in France), which for six years had maintained an ecclesiastical establishment in Montreal, and had done much to aid the colony. The Sulpitians thus became the seigniorial proprietors of the island, which they held until the abolition of feudal tenure in 1854,- retaining, however, up to the present time a considerable part of their valuable domain. A full account of the Montreal colony is given by Faillon in his Col. Fran. For mention of the early aboriginal inhabitants of Montreal, see vol. v., note 52.

14 (p. 135).—Concerning Isle Jésus, see vol. ix., note 42.

15 (p. 135).—This river was named Pontgravé by Champlain (1609), in honor of his friend; the name St. Jean was given to it in memory of Nicolet (vol. viii., note 29).

16 (p. 137).- Concerning Beaupré, see vol. xi., note 13.

17 (p. 157).— Regarding Lake Champlain, see vol. i., note 67. 18 (p. 171).—See sketch of the Attikamègues in vol. ix., note 20. 19 (p. 175).—In a Chapel: a nautical phrase, thus defined in

Supplément au Dictionnaire de l'Académie (Paris, 1825): “A vessel enters chapel when a wrong manœuvre or other cause brings it into danger." Littré describes it as "putting about, head to wind, despite oneself, and through the force of winds or of currents." 20 (p. 177).— For sketch of Jacques Hertel, see vol. ix., note 3. 21 (p. 181).—Concerning the Iroquet tribe, see vol. v., note 52. 22 (p. 187).— Abenaquiois (Abnaki, Wapanachki, or Wabenakies): a group of Algonkin tribes in New Brunswick and Maine. Ferland says (Cours d'Histoire, vol. i., p. 66): “Later, the Souriquois, the Abenaquis, and the Malecites became allies, in order to furnish mutual aid to one another in their wars against the English colonies. They have sometimes been confounded, by English and French writers, under the collective name of Abenaqui tribes." Laverdière (Champlain, p. 73) mentions "the Etchemins, afterward called Malécites;" and says that "the name Ouabenakiouek was given by the Montagnais to the Etchemins, especially to the savages of the Kennebec." Champlain, in his earlier voyages, visited the last-named tribe; and he relates (ut supra, pp. 1180, 1182, 1216) that in 1629 they sought his assistance against the Iroquois, whereupon he sent one of his men to visit their country. This envoy brought back a favorable report of the Kennebec region, and of the friendly disposition of its people.

For sketch of the Jesuit mission among these tribes, see Introduction to this series, vol. i., pp. 13-15; for details of their history and present condition, see Vetromile's Abnakis and their History (New York, 1866), and Maurault's Hist. des Abenakis.

The Abenakis of Maine are now principally represented by two small tribes in that State, the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy (vol. ii., note 6), living on the rivers of those names; and by a small remnant in Canada, at Becancour, and at St. François-du-Lac (Yamaska county).

23 (p. 193).—Claude Pijart, brother of Pierre (vol. viii., note 8), was born in Paris, Sept. 10, 1600, and became a Jesuit novice Aug. 7, 1621. His studies were pursued in his native city; and he was an instructor in the colleges at Orleans (1624-28), Caen (1632–34), and Rouen (1634–36). In July, 1637, he came to Canada, where he labored three years at Quebec and Three Rivers, in that time becoming proficient in the Algonkin dialect. Thus prepared, he began, with Raymbault (vol. xi., note 16), the mission (1640) to the Nipissings and other Northern Algonkin tribes, to whom he ministered during the greater part of the following nine years,-jointly with Raymbault until the latter's death, then with Ménard. Some intervals in this period were spent in the Huron mission,-upon the destruction of which, Pijart escaped, with others of the mission

aries, and later returned to Quebec. Soon after, he was assigned to the Jesuit residence at Montreal, and remained there (as superior, from 1653) until the arrival of the Sulpitians (August, 1657); he was then placed in charge of the parish church at Quebec, in which capacity he is frequently mentioned in the Jour. des Jésuites up to the close of that record (1668.) According to Sommervogel, Pijart died at Quebec, Nov. 16, 1680.

24 (p. 195).-Cap à l'Arbre (the Pointe Sainte-Croix of Champlain) is now known as Point Platon (vol. ii., note 66).

25 (p. 197).— Double: "A small copper coin, bearing on one side the image of the king, and on the other three fleurs-de-lis, which was worth the sixth part of a sou, or two deniers” (Littré).

26 (p. 213).—Thierry Desdames, a naval captain, was one of De Caen's employees, as early as 1622; and it was his ship that brought to Canada, the following year, the Récollets Viel and Sagard (vol. iv., notes 25, 48). In 1628, he brought to Quebec news of the approach of De Roquemont's squadron, and narrowly escaped capture by Kirk. Desdames left Canada upon its conquest by the English, but doubtless returned thither soon after its restitution to France, although the first mention we have seen of his name after that event is at this place in our text. From 1639 to 1646, Desdames was commandant at Miscou, and a warm friend of the Jesuit mission there; the Relation of 1643 mentions the generous aid given by him to the priest D'Olbeau in the latter's long and dangerous illness. No further information regarding Desdames's career is available. Dionne (“Miscou,” in Can.-Français, vol. ii., p. 447) conjectures that "he may have remained as commandant in the Bay of Chaleurs until the arrival of Denys [1656-57?]."

27 (p. 217).— For sketch of Giffard, see vol. vi., note 8. Guillaume Couillard came to Quebec in 1613, and was an employee of the successive mercantile companies (vol. iv., note 21) until 1628-sometimes as a carpenter, sometimes as a sailor; Champlain praises his energy and excellent disposition. He married (1621) Guillemette, the second daughter of Louis Hébert (vol. ii., note 80); and, upon the latter's death, his title of Sieur de l'Espinay and the cultivation of his land devolved upon Couillard (vol. vii., note 5), who remained at Quebec during the English occupancy. He had ten children; of these, Louise married Oliver le Tardif (vol. v., note 49), and Marguerite, Jean Nicolet (vol. viii., note 29). Couillard died in March, 1663; his wife, in October, 1684.

Louis Henri Pinguet (born in 1588), a native of Perche, France, came to Canada probably before 1637; he died in December, 1670. He had three children; the daughter, Françoise, married Pierre de Launay (vol. viii., note 69).

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