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pré. Later, the Indian women come to him for instruction; but he soon has to dismiss these visitors on account of the noise made by the babies that accompany them. In April, a party of Algonkins and Montagnais go to attack the Iroquois, but are defeated, losing both their chiefs in battle. Makheabichtichiou, the Montagnais chief, applies to Montmagny for aid, and is told that it will be given them, if they consent to settle at Three Rivers and give up their nomadic life.

May day is celebrated by the light-hearted French, and a Maypole erected before the Quebec church “the first May day on which New France has honored the Church."

In June, a battle occurs between the Iroquets and Iroquois. The latter are defeated, losing thirteen prisoners, whom the Algonkins put to death with fearful tortures.

In July, a party of Abenakis come to Quebec, to visit the Montagnais. In defiance of prohibitions from the latter and from the French, they go to Three Rivers, to barter for beaver skins; but Montmagny compels them to return to their own country without any pelts, that they may not injure the trade of the Hundred Associates. The ships from France bring Fathers Claude Pijart and Claude Quentin.

Le Jeune and Ragueneau attend Montmagny to Three Rivers, to meet the annual Huron fleet. Pierre Pijart meets them there, having come with the Huron chief Aënons (mentioned by Brébeuf, in his Relation of the preceding year, as a warm friend of the mission). This man, becoming sick on the journey, dies at Three Rivers,— meeting his end piously, after having been baptized. As the Huron canoes start to return, they are attacked by an ambushed band of Iroquois, numbering some 500 warriors. Some of the Hurons are captured; but the others escape for their homeward journey,—Ragueneau being, fortunately, with this band. The Iroquois even threaten the French at Three Rivers; but Montmagny keeps them at bay, and sends to Quebec for reinforcements, whereupon the Iroquois retire. Soon after, the French return to Quebec, arriving there in time for Le Jeune to send his letters to France by the returning ships. He finishes writing the Relation,on board the Sainte Marie,” the ship that carried them back from Three Rivers.

Arrived at Quebec, he writes a dernière lettre, as a postscript to the former; this letter closes Part I. of the present document. In this epistle he relates that he was obliged, four days after reaching Quebec, to return to Three Rivers, to meet another Huron fleet that had just arrived at that settlement. The Hurons bring with them new pupils for the seminary,-even more than the Fathers can accept. Letters from the Huron mission relate the calumnies current there regarding the French, who are accused of being the cause of all the natives' misfortunes; but the missionaries heed not their persecutions, and continue their work full of faith and ardor. Montmagny's lieu tenant, De l'Isle, and Le Jeune hold a council with the savages at Three Rivers, making many speeches and presents; the savages are thus pacified, and their friendship won. Le Jeune concludes by relating the particulars of the illness and death of Charles Turgis, the missionary at Miscou.

R. G. T. Madison, Wis., December, 1897.

XXIX (continued)



Chaps. x.-xv. of the Relation proper, of 1637, and Le Jeune's Dernière Lettre, completing Part I. of the document, are given in the present volume. The greater portion of Part II. (Le Mercier's Huron Relation) will occupy Volume XIII.




ES Sauuages Montagnets donnent le nom de Manitou à toute Nature fuperieure à l'homme, bonne ou mauuaife. C'eft pourquoy quand nous parlons de Dieu, ils le nomment par fois le bon Manitou, & quand nous parlons du Diable ils l'appellent le mefchant Manitou. Or tous ceux qui ont quelque cognoiffance particuliere auec le Manitou bon ou mauuais fe nomment parmy eux Man[i]touifiouekhi. Et pour autant que ces gens-là ne cognoiffent que le mefchant Manitou, c'eft à dire le Diable, nous les appellons Sorciers. Ce n'est pas que le Diable se communique à eux fi fenfiblement qu'il fait aux Sorciers & aux Magiciens [155] d'Europe: mais nous n'auons point d'autre nom pour leur donner, veu mesmes qu'ils font quelques actions de vrays forciers: comme de fe faire mourir les vns les autres par forts ou defirs, & imprecations, par prouocations du Manitou, par des poisons qu'ils compofent: Et cela est si ordinaire parmy eux, du moins dans leur eftime, que ie n'en voy quafi mourir aucun, qui ne pense estre enforcelé. C'est pourquoy ils n'ont point d'autres Medecins que ces Sorciers dont ils fe feruent pour rompre les forts defquels ils penfent estre liez: en effet ils meurent quasi tous etiques, desseichans en forte qu'ils n'ont plus que la peau & les os quand on les porte en

(154) CHAPTER X.




HE Montagnet Savages give the name Manitou to

all Nature superior to man, good or bad. This

is why, when we speak of God, they sometimes call him the good Manitou; and, when we speak of the Devil, they call him the bad Manitou. Now all those who have any special acquaintance with the Manitou, be he good or bad, are called among them“ Man[i]touisiouekhi.” And inasmuch as these persons know only the bad Manitou, that is, the Devil, we call them Sorcerers. Not that the Devil communicates with them as obviously as he does with the Sorcerers and Magicians [155] of Europe ;]but we have no other name to give them, since they even do some of the acts of genuine sorcerers,- as, to kill one another by charms, or wishes, and imprecations, by the abetment of the Manitou, by poisons which they concoct. And this is so common among them, at least in their own opinion, that I hardly ever see any of them die who does not think he has been bewitched. This is why they have no other Physicians than the Sorcerers, whom they employ to break the spells by which they think they are held. In fact, they nearly all die of consumption, becoming so thin that they are nothing but skin and bone when they are borne

Hence it arises that these sorcerers are greatly feared, and that one would not dare offend

to the grave.

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