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This estate was granted to the Jesuits, May 29, 1680, with two leagues frontage on the river; it is now the property of the Caughnawaga Indians.
The rapids are commonly known as the Lachine Rapids, and form a prominent feature in the scenery of that region. Navigation past them is rendered possible by the Lachine Canal, 872 miles long, extending from the town of Lachine (opposite Caughnawaga) to Montreal. The seigniory of that name was granted to La Salle (in the winter of 1667–68) by the Seminary of St. Sulpice, in honor of which he named it; but in 1669 the seigniory became known as Lachine, in derisive allusion to the expedition projected by La Salle to discover a route to China via the river (Faillon's Col. Fran., vol. iii., pp. 297, 298). The settlement founded by La Salle at Lachine was destroyed (Aug. 5, 1689) by the Iroquois, and 200 persons cruelly massacred; while many others were made captives, and either enslaved or tortured to death.
12 (p. 133). — Reference is here made to the lands granted to Pierre Le Gardeur (vol. viii., note 57).
13 (p. 133).- Montreal Island — the site of ancient Hochelaga, and of the modern city of Montreal — is 32 miles long by 10% miles wide, and forms the counties of Hochelaga and Jacques Cartier. The island was granted, soon after the restitution of New France by the English, to Jean de Lauson (vol. vi., note 2); but in 1640 he transferred the greater part of it to Dauversière and his associates of the Society of Notre Dame de Montréal. This association afterwards became so reduced in membership and in funds that in 1663 it surrendered the Montreal colony, with all its possessions and rights, to the Seminary of St. Sulpice (conducted by the Society of that name established in 1641 in France), which for six years had maintained an ecclesiastical establishment in Montreal, and had done much to aid the colony. The Sulpitians thus became the seigniorial proprietors of the island, which they held until the abolition of feudal tenure in 1854,-retaining, however, up to the present time a considerable part of their valuable domain. A full account of the Montreal colony is given by Faillon in his Col. Fran. For mention of the early aboriginal inhabitants of Montreal, see vol. v., note 52.
14 (p. 135). — Concerning Isle Jésus, see vol. ix., note 42.
15 (P. 135). — This river was. named Pontgravé by Champlain (1609), in honor of his friend; the name St. Jean was given to it in memory of Nicolet (vol. viii., note 29).
16 (p. 137). — Concerning Beaupré, see vol. xi., note 13. 17 (p. 157).— Regarding Lake Champlain, see vol. i., note 67. 18 (p. 171).— See sketch of the Attikamègues in vol. ix., note 20. 19 (p. 175).-In a Chapel: a nautical phrase, thus defined in
Supplément au Dictionnaire de l'Académie (Paris, 1825): vessel enters chapel when a wrong manoeuvre or other cause brings it into danger.” Littré describes it as “putting about, head to wind, despite oneself, and through the force of winds or of currents."
20 (p. 177).— For sketch of Jacques Hertel, see vol. ix., note 3. 21 (p. 181). — Concerning the Iroquet tribe, see vol. v., note 52.
22 (p. 187). — Abenaquiois (Abnaki, Wapanachki, or Wabenakies): a group of Algonkin tribes in New Brunswick and Maine. Ferland says (Cours d'Histoire, vol. i., p. 66): “Later, the Souriquois, the Abenaquis, and the Malecites became allies, in order to furnish mutual aid to one another in their wars against the English colonies. They have sometimes been confounded, by English and French writers, under the collective name of Abenaqui tribes." Laverdière (Champlain, p. 73) mentions “the Etchemins, afterward called Malécites;” and says that “the name Ouabenakiouek was given by the Montagnais to the Etchemins, especially to the savages of the Kennebec." Champlain, in his earlier voyages, visited the last-named tribe; and he relates (ut supra, pp. 1180, 1182, 1216) that in 1629 they sought his assistance against the Iroquois, whereupon he sent one of his men to visit their country. This envoy brought back a favorable report of the Kennebec region, and of the friendly disposition of its people.
For sketch of the Jesuit mission among these tribes, see Introduction to this series, vol. i., pp. 13-15; for details of their history and present condition, see Vetromile's Abnakis and their History (New York, 1866), and Maurault's Hist. des Abenakis.
The Abenakis of Maine are now principally represented by two small tribes in that State, the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy (vol. ii., note 6), living on the rivers of those names; and by a small remnant in Canada, at Becancour, and at St. François-du-Lac (Yamaska county).
23 (p. 193). — Claude Pijart, brother of Pierre (vol. viii., note 8), was born in Paris, Sept. 10, 1600, and became a Jesuit novice Aug. 7, 1621. His studies were pursued in his native city; and he was an instructor in the colleges at Orleans (1624 – 28), Caen (1632-34), and Rouen (1634 - 36). In July, 1637, he came to Canada, where he labored three years at Quebec and Three Rivers, in that time becoming proficient in the Algonkin dialect. Thus prepared, he began, with Raymbault (vol. xi., note 16), the mission (1640) to the Nipissings and other Northern Algonkin tribes, to whom he ministered during the greater part of the following nine years, - jointly with Raymbault until the latter's death, then with Ménard. Some intervals in this
re spent in the Huron mission,- upon the destruction of which, Pijart escaped, with others of the mission
aries, and later returned to Quebec. Soon after, he was assigned to the Jesuit residence at Montreal, and remained there (as superior, from 1653) until the arrival of the Sulpitians (August, 1657); he was then placed in charge of the parish church at Quebec, in which capacity he is frequently mentioned in the Jour. des Jésuites up to the close of that record (1668.) According to Sommervogel, Pijart died at Quebec, Nov. 16, 1680.
24 (p. 195). — Cap à l'Arbre (the Pointe Sainte-Croix of Champlain) is now known as Point Platon (vol. ii., note 66).
25 (p. 197).- Double: “A small copper coin, bearing on one side the image of the king, and on the other three fleurs-de-lis, which was worth the sixth part of a sou, or two deniers" (Littré).
26 (p. 213).— Thierry Desdames, a naval captain, was one of De Caen's employees, as early as 1622; and it was his ship that brought to Canada, the following year, the Récollets Viel and Sagard (vol. iv., notes 25, 48). In 1628, he brought to Quebec news of the approach of De Roquemont's squadron, and narrowly escaped capture by Kirk. Desdames left Canada upon its conquest by the English, but doubtless returned thither soon after its restitution to France, although the first mention we have seen of his name after that event is at this place in our text. From 1639 to 1646, Desdames was commandant at Miscou, and a warm friend of the Jesuit mission there; the Relation of 1643 mentions the generous aid given by him to the priest D’Olbeau in the latter's long and dangerous illness. No further information regarding Desdames's career is available. Dionne (“Miscou," in Can.-Français, vol. ii., p. 447) conjectures that “he may have remained as commandant in the Bay of Chaleurs until the arrival of Denys (1656-57?].”
27 (p. 217). — For sketch of Giffard, see vol. vi., note 8.
Guillaume Couillard came to Quebec in 1613, and was an employee of the successive mercantile companies (vol. iv., note 21) until 1628 - sometimes as a carpenter, sometimes as a sailor; Champlain praises his energy and excellent disposition. He married (1621) Guillemette, the second daughter of Louis Hébert (vol. ii., note 80); and, upon the latter's death, his title of Sieur de l'Espinay and the cultivation of his land devolved upon Couillard (vol. vii., note 5), who remained at Quebec during the English occupancy. He had ten children; of these, Louise married Oliver le Tardif (vol. v., note 49), and Marguerite, Jean Nicolet (vol. viii., note 29). Couillard died in March, 1663; his wife, in October, 1684.
Louis Henri Pinguet (born in 1588), a native of Perche, France, came to Canada probably before 1637; he died in December, 1670. He had three children; the daughter, Françoise, married Pierre de Launay (vol. viii., note 69).
28 (p. 221).— The Jesuit missions in Paraguay were an offshoot (1588) from those of Brazil — the latter founded in 1549, by Emmanuel Nobrega and other priests, at San Salvador. Early in the 17th century, the Indian neophytes of the Paraguay missions were gathered by their Jesuit directors into villages (or “ reductions "), forming what has frequently been styled, by historians of that order, “the Republic of Paraguay." There the converts were instructed, not only in religion, but in agriculture and various trades — spinning and weaving, building, carving, and the manufacture of firearms. Each village was governed by two of the priests; and the people owned, as common property, the products of their industry. These “ reductions” attained great prosperity, until 1631 – 32, when they were so ravaged by heathen tribes of Brazil that they were abandoned by the Christian natives, who descended the Parana and founded new colonies at the Grand Rapids of that river. Daurignac states that “in 1656 there were in Paraguay more than twenty towns wholly civilized, each reduction having a population of 5,000 to 6,000; and numerous other towns were partly civilized." Their great increase in numbers was partly due to the fact that Fathers Valdivia and Anchieta had obtained from the king of Spain decrees that the baptized Indians should be exempt from slavery. In 1759, the Jesuits were expelled from Brazil and other Portuguese colonies; and the communities they had founded soon lapsed into decay. Full accounts of these missions have been written by Charlevoix and Muratori.
29 (p. 227). — The Long Sault of the Ottawa River, about 45 miles above Montreal, is over six miles in length. Navigation past these rapids is now secured by the Grenville Canal, excavated, in most of its length, from the solid rock. At the Pass of the Long Sault, on the western shore, occurred (1660) the heroic defense of an intrenchment by Daulac des Ormeaux (more commonly known as “Dollard") and eighteen comrades, against 500 Iroquois, - the Frenchmen, by the sacrifice of their lives, saving Montreal from destruction by these savages. See Parkman's vivid description of this episode, in Old Régime in Canada (Boston, 1875), pp. 72–82.
30 (p. 241). — The Society of Jesus won renown as a missionary order, from its very foundation (1534). Only seven years later, Francis Xavier was sent to India, devoting the rest of his life to missionary labors there and in Japan, and before his death (1552) converting thousands to the Christian faith. The Japan missions were prosperously continued by Xavier's successors, despite frequent and cruel persecutions; they baptized thousands of natives, including many princes and nobles, and erected numerous churches. In 1587, an imperial edict was issued, banishing the Jesuits (who then
numbered 125), and condemning their converts to exile or death; but this was afterward mitigated to the extent of forbidding them only public worship and teaching. Persecutions and martyrdoms soon followed; and in 1613 most of the missionaries, with many of their converts, were expelled from the empire. Those remaining met a martyr's fate, until, in 1634, no Jesuits were left in Japan. Nevertheless, priests of this and other orders again made various attempts to renew missions in Japan, but in vain; they were put to death with cruel tortures, and at the capture of Ximabara (1638), after a six months' siege, the native Christians were massacred by thousands. By 1643, the Japanese mission was utterly destroyed, and definitely abandoned both by Jesuits and Franciscans (the latter order having also maintained missions in that country since about 1590).
31 (p. 247). — Oumastikoueian (named by the French, Le Crapaud, “the Toad"): an Algonkin chief of the same name as the one mentioned by Le Jeune in 1635–36 as spreading mischievous reports among the tribes, and finally meeting a violent death (vol. viii., p. 59; vol. ix., p. 95). The savage here mentioned was, later, baptized, but afterward returned to heathenism (Relation of 1641).
32 (p. 247). — Porcelain, or wampum (vol. viii., note 70), had an extensive use among the Indians in ceremonial intercourse, either inter-tribal or with the Europeans. When ambassadors set out for another nation, they bore before them the calumet, or pipe of peace, in evidence of their pacific purpose and to secure protection for their journey, and also belts of wampum to be submitted in confirmation of their proposals, or, if their people had been worsted in battle, to atone for injuries and purchase peace.” –Woodward's Wampum (Albany, 1878), p. 25. See Brébeuf's mention of his present of wampum to the Huron council, “to smooth the difficulties of the road to Paradise," and of a similar gift made by the Island tribe to the Hurons, to incite the latter to war (vol. x., pp. 29, 75).
33 (p. 263). - See sketch of Turgis in vol. viii., note 18.