Imágenes de páginas

Il a esté efgalement regreté des François & des Sauuages, qui l'honoroient & aimoient tendrement.

Quoy qu'en deux ans ou enuiron que ce bon Pere à efté en ce lieu, il n'ait baptisé qu'vn ou deux petits enfans Sauuages, qui moururent incontinent apres le baptefme, toutesfois ce feul bien estoit capable desfuier tous fes traüaux, & luy apportera eternellement vne recompence & vne confolation pour laquelle il expoferoit encore mille vies s'il eftoit en eftat de les donner. Dieu foit à iamais loüé de la fidelité & du courage qu'il à donné à ce sien feruiteur. Ie prie V. R. & tous nos Peres de fe fouuenir de luy deuant Dieu & ne point oublier nos pauures Sauuages. C'est la requeste que luy en fait le moindre de fes enfans qui fe dira encor ce qu'il est.

Mon R. PERE.

Voftre tres-humble & tres-obeïffant feruiteur en N. S. Iefus Christ.


De Kebec ce 11. de Septembre. 1637.

one or two little Savage children, who died immediately after baptism, yet this good deed alone was capable of mitigating all his trials, and will bring him an eternal recompense and consolation for which he would expose a thousand more lives, if he had them to give. God be forever praised for the fidelity and courage that he granted this his servant. I pray Your Reverence and all our Fathers to remember him before God and not to forget our poor Savages. This is the request made to you by the least of your children, who will again sign himself, what he is,


Your very humble and very obedient servant in Our Lord Jesus Christ,


From Kebec, this 11th of September, 1637.


(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages of English text.)

I (p. 25). This remedy for dysentery is apparently the same as that prescribed to Cartier by the ruler of Hochelaga, for the plague of scurvy,‚—see Brief Récit (Tross ed., 1863), fol. 38: "Then Dom Agaya sent two women in search of it; they brought nine or ten boughs thereof, and made us understand that we must strip off the bark and leaves of this tree, and boil the whole in water; that then we must drink of this water for two days, and put the pulp upon the swollen and inflamed limbs; and that this tree would cure all disease. They call this tree, in their language, Ameda.”

Laverdière, Ferland, and others regard this tree as probably epinette blanche, or hemlock spruce (Abies canadensis, Mich.), indigenous to Northeastern America.

Josselyn also mentions (N. Eng. Rarities, p. 64) the medicinal properties of spruce: "The tops of green spruce-boughs, boiled in bear, and drunk, is assuredly one of the best remedies for the scurvy, restoring the infected party in a short time. They also make a lotion of some of the decoction; adding honey and allum. The Indians break and heal their swellings and sores with it; boyling the inner bark of young hemlock very well; then knocking of it betwixt two stones to a playster; and, annointing or soaking it in soyls' oil, they apply it to the sore. It will break a sore swelling speedily."

2 (p. 27).—The symbolization of lightning by the serpent, occasioned by obvious resemblances,-in sinuous motion, celerity of action, and fatal stroke,—is as old and as extensive as the human race; to it is due, in the opinion of many writers, the genesis of the Old-World legends of Osiris, Indras, Perseus, and Beowulf. Huitzipochtli, the war god of the Aztecs, was called "the Hurler," as hurling the lightning serpent against his enemies; and other Central American tribes worshiped Mixcoatl, the "cloud serpent, a personification of the tornado; while the Ojibwas, the Illinois, and many other Northern tribes relate legends of the serpents (lightnings) that are the food of the thunder-birds"-this last perhaps the most general of our aboriginal myths concerning the phenomena

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of the thunderstorm (vol. x., note 3). See Jones's Ojebway Indians (London, n.d.), pp. 85-87; and Dorman's Origin of Primitive Superstitions (Phila., 1881), pp. 271-276. In all these myths, the serpent is symbolical, in its turn, of the waters, and of the unceasing conflict of the elements.

3 (p. 33).—Michtabouchiou: the same as Michabou or Manabozho (vol. v., note 41). Cf. Squier's "Manabozho and the Great Serpent," in Amer. Review, vol. ii. (N. Y., 1845), pp. 392-398; chapter on 'Manabozho" in Emerson's Indian Myths (Boston, 1884), pp. 336-371; and Hoffman's collection of Menomonee myths relating to this personage, in Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1892–93, pp. 161–209.


4 (p. 37). Other versions of this legend appear in the myths of various tribes. The Ojibwas relate that a boy, enraged because the heat of the sun had singed his birdskin coat, contrived a snare with which he caught the sun “at the moment of its rising above the earth's disk;" the dormouse-"then the largest animal in the world"-set the sun free by cutting the snare with its teeth; but the sun's intense heat so burned the dormouse's body that it was reduced to its present small size.— Schoolcraft's Hiawatha (Phila., 1856), pp. 239–242.

The Menomonees have a similar tale, in which the cord is cut by a mouse (Bur. Ethnol. Rep., 1892–93, pp. 181, 182).

An Omaha legend, secured by Dorsey, relates that the rabbit, vexed that his morning hunt was always anticipated by the Sun, resolved to catch the latter in a snare. Having done this, but obliged himself to cut the cord, the rabbit's hair between the shoulders was scorched yellow by the sun's heat, which mark is still visible.- Contributions to N. Amer. Ethnology (U. S. Geog. and Geol. Survey), vol. vi., pp. 14, 15.

The story of Tchakabech's ascent to the sky suggests the nursery tale of "Jack and the Beanstalk." It is also akin to a tradition among the Minnetarees that in former times all the tribes of their stock lived underground, but that two boys among them climbed upward, by the roots of a great vine, to the surface of the earth; finding there a rich and beautiful country, they returned below, and persuaded their people to migrate to this new land.— Jones's Traditions of N. Amer. Indians (London, 1830), vol. i., pp. xix.,


Ojibwa and Menomonee legends of Manabush say that he caused the pine tree to grow to several times the original size, that he might rise above the earth (Jour. Amer. Folk-Lore, vol. iv., pp. 202, 212).

5 (p. 73).-The notion of a turtle upholding the earth is prominent in the Huron story of creation as given by Brébeuf in Relation

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