Imágenes de páginas

to press a frond of each, and number it, tying a tag with the corresponding number to the specimen itself. When this is done, all the packages should be arranged with the fronds lying in the same direction, and a number of fresh fronds should be collected and tied around the fronds of the ferns to be carried home. Then the whole may be rolled up firmly into a bundle, covered with several thicknesses of stout manila paper and tied securely. The package is now ready to place in a trunk to deliver to the expressman or carry under the arm. Unless it is exposed to the sun, or in a very dry place, this bundle will not suffer in vitality or health for two or three weeks. At the journey's end the ferns must be carefully unwrapped and firmly planted in a good light soil, whether out of doors or in the fernery. At first nearly all the fronds will lie quite prostrate on the ground, but if they are frequently sprinkled on both sides and their roots kept only damp, the plants will establish themselves and reward the pains bestowed upon them by a fine healthy growth the next season."



For collecting specimens to press, the happy device of the "Field Portfolio serves excellently. This is a portfolio made to carry conveniently on the arm, furnished with sheets of blotting paper, between which to place the ferns or plants, and by which the moisture is soon absorbed and the specimens quickly dried, and with strips of gummed paper by which to fasten them to the sheets.

Camping Out.

THERE is a good deal of camping out going on just now. The average American has seized the idea that it is a sign of culture and artistic aspiration to turn his face to Nature once a year, for a week, or ten days, or as long as he can get away from the shop or office. Also, that to do this in a tent will put an end to his lumbago, dyspepsia, or whatever other ailment afflicts him. So he hires a tent, borrows Smith's breechloader and Jones' rod, and flees and hies him to repose on the bosom of Mother Earth. On the aforesaid bosom he fights with spiders, gnats, and mosquitoes all night, and arises from dreams of spring mattresses to find a garter snake in the coffee pot, the bread swarming with ants, and the matches forgotten. Ten to one it has rained in torrents, and his wife and the girls have laid in a puddle all night. Smith's breech-loader is ruined, the camp-fire mud. Before noon they strike their tents, like the Arabs, and as silently steal away to the nearest boarding-house.

Yet, in spite of all this, camping out is by all odds the most comfortable, cheapest, and healthfullest way of spending the vacation; bit you can't camp out without learning how, any more than you can preach a sermon or cook an oyster. In the first place, don't buy a cheap outfit; you want a tent that will keep out the rain, the best quality of rubber blankets, etc., etc. They will serve you for years. Next, hunt up the nearest neighbor who served in the Shenandoah or the Mud Campaign, and get from him some practical hints as to pitching your tent, trenches, hemlock-beds, cookery, etc., etc. Thirdly, take things leisurely; have patience with your legs and arms. They are more used to tramping up Broadway than to ice-cold

trout streams, and to pens than axes; if

they twinge and grumble it is not the fault of stream or axe. Lastly, lay in a good stock of dry old clothes, black coffee in lieu of whiskey, patience and good humor, and our word for it, the camp will be a success.-From the N. Y. Tribune.

Collect the wits of your party at leisure before the eventful day of starting arrives, and make a com- EXPLORATIONS. (Scribplete list of the articles ner's Monthly.) which you will be likely to absolutely need. It is awkward to get all settled in camp and find the frying pan, tea, or some other indispensable thing missing. Avoid all useless luggage. Carry all camp equipage with you, tent-poles, tent-stakes, etc., included. Always, if possible, ask permission of the owner of the land to pitch your tent in his domain, and in any case avoid committing trespass, such as cutting green timber or even shrubs, injuring crops, etc.; just as strictly respecting the rights of private property-holders even in uninhabited parts as if you were in the most valuable improved grounds. You will always find plenty of excellent fuel on the beach, near which you will camp, if wise. Use the smallest quantity of fuel-a handful of dry bits of bark will suffice to boil your tea-kettle or potatoes. Avoid blazing camp-fires, especially in a dry time, and always be sure to pour water on the fire before leaving the camp alone, until you are sure every smouldering spark is extinguished. Never pitch a tent in a hollow where it will be flooded in case of rain, and ditch around it if necessary.

Burn up all waste scraps of food; they will soon attract vermin. Do your fishing near sunrise and sunset, and lay off during the heat of the day. Always use bathing-dresses when bathing near inhabited points or where parties are liable to pass. Treat all with whom you come in contact with courtesy; the good-will of a dog is better than his ill-will. Leave all chronic grumblers, and those who are not willing to make the best of everything, at home. Exception-one such in a party will be found endurable as a butt. These suggestions are offered by an old camper, who hopes you may have a pleasant party and good weather, and take great comfort and much fysshe."From the Plattsburgh (V't.) Republican.

Some Conditions of Camping.


THERE are certain requisites of happiness in camping out which must not be ignored by one who would be happy in his camp experiences, and it may not be amiss in the interest of the general reader if the author of this article should enumerate them. Here, then, are the conditions of a happy camping experience, especially on the shores of the inland lakes and streams, in relation to which most of our experience has been:

[ocr errors]

Condition No. 1. If you wish to escape all inconvenience and deprivations, don't go at all. I do not know what a supernal campingground would be; but I never saw a terrestrial camping-ground that did not have in it more or less trouble and inconvenience. Heaven can't be found in New York state; at least, not while Albany stands and the legislature meets. these could be eliminated it would undoubtedly make a vast difference with the moral condition of the Empire State, and the happiness of those within its borders. But unfortunately we must treat of things as they are. And so I say, with solemn deliberation, that while things are as they are heaven in New York state is an impossibility. Nor do I believe that New York. ers are sinners above all other sinners; and hence I dare say the prediction is a safe one, that perfect peace and happiness can't be found by camping out anywhere else-no, not even in the state of Maine, although I am fully aware there isn't a Maine man that would agree with me. In respect to this I used to be very positive; but I received an argument to the contrary from Maine last week in the form of a seven-pound brook trout that Providence, through some angling angel, sent, which I must confess has opened the whole question anew. I declare myself at the present writing open to conviction, and if there are four or five more trout of the same size swimming about in any pond or lake in the Pine Tree State I am rather inclined to confess that on that lake, about the hour of four in the morning, a man with a comfortable conscience, a good fly-rod, and nobody within ten miles of him, might find perfect happiness. But with this possible exception, it is safe to say that no one will ever find perfect happiness in camping out.

No. 2. None but good-natured people should camp out. A cross man can't live in camp, and he ought not to live anywhere else, and a cross woman in camp is ten times worse than a cross man. This is one of those ultimate conclusions that should be accepted as a fact is in a court of law. No beauty of surroundings, no abundance of game and sport, no sweetness of companionship, no restoratives to health which nature ministers to those who put themselves into her care, can make good the loss of peace, quiet, and happiness that one peevish, sour, "disgruntled" person brings to a camp. Civilization in its amusements, in its diversions, and even in its employments, has recompense for such an affliction; but camp life has none. A sour face at the bark table spoils the venison and takes the charm from the pancakes.

No. 3. The third condition, and the last I shall mention, is this: If you are going into camp, go in light," as the phrase is; don't take the kitchen or parlor with you-a grocery or a dry-goods store. Especially, don't carry

[blocks in formation]

Down falls the sun; the dusky mountains gloom ;
Beside the water's edge we lay us down
Upon the bosom of the grateful earth.
Each with his oar, upon the dry sea sand
We rest our bodies here and there, while sleep
Bedews our weary limbs. Yet scarce the night,

Chased by the hours, mid-heaven doth climb, when up
Springs wary Palinurus from his bed,

Sniffs at the wind, and leans his ear to catch

Its breath. He notes each star that trembles down

The silent sky, Arcturus, the Two Bears,
The rainy Hyades, takes a good look
Next at Orion with his golden sword,
And finding all is calm, the sky serene,
Blows from the stern a ringing bugle-call.
We strike our camp, pull out to sea, and spread
Our sails like wings.

Scarce fled the stars or blushed
The dawn, when we beheld the hazy line
Of distant hills, low-lying Italy,
Achates first cries, "ITALY!" the men
With glad huzza greet ITALY. With flowers
Father Anchises wreathes a mighty cup,
Fills it with wine, and standing high astern
Invokes the gods: "Ye gods, sovereigns o'er sea
And land and sky, let the wind blow to speed
Our way, and breathe ye kindly on our voyage!"
Freshens the grateful breeze, still nearer lifts
The port, and Pallas' temple looms aloft.
The sailors reef the sails, and turn the prows
To shore. The harbor, curving like a bow
To hold the tide inflowing from the east,
The salt spray dashing 'gainst its rocky sides,
Itself lies out of sight. The towering cliffs
Send out their spurs like arms on either hand:
The temple seems receding from the shore.

-From Virgil's Eneid, translated by John D. Long (Lockwood, Brooks & Co.).

Advice to Bathers.

WITH a view of diminishing the loss of life which annually occurs from drowning, the Royal Humane Society of England issues the following important advice to bathers: "Avoid bathing within two hours after a meal, or when exhausted by fatigue or from any other cause, or when the body is cooling after perspiration, and avoid bathing altogether in the open air if, after being a short time in the water, there is a sense of chilliness, with numbness of the hands and feet, but bathe when the body is warm, provided no time is lost in getting into the water. Avoid chilling the body by sitting or standing undressed on the banks or in boats, after having been in the water, or remaining too long in the water, but leave the water immediately there is the slightest feeling of chilliness. The vigorous and strong may bathe early in the morning on an empty stomach, but the young and those who are weak had better bathe two or three hours after a meal; the best time for such is from two to three hours after breakfast. Those who are subject to attacks of giddiness or faintness, and who suffer from palpitation and other sense of discomfort at the heart, should not bathe without first consulting their medical adviser."


ALONG THE SHORE: ORIENT. (Harper's Monthly.)

[blocks in formation]

If the sail is loose, and the boom, or lower leach of the sail, as the case may be, can move in a direction parallel to the wind, or in the "wind's eye" as sailors would say, the boat cannot be upset by an ordinary gust of wind.

In other words, in all fore-and-aft sails, such as are used almost the world over for small sailboats, the sheet, or rope that confines the afterpart of the sail to the stern-part of the boat, is the key to the whole science of boat-sailing.

If one knows how to use the sheet properly, one knows how to sail a boat with comparative safety. Of course it is supposed that he should also understand flaws of wind and their effects.

It is the flaws of wind caught by the sailmore than it can bear-that capsize a boat; and, if the wind that has force enough to do this could be "spilled" out of the sail, the boat would be immediately relieved.

Therefore to insure safety, the person steering a boat should never belay the sheet, but keep it in hand, so as to be able to slack it off gradually, or cast it off entirely at a moment's notice. To do this, only one turn should be taken round the cleat; so that the sheet will slip under the force of a gust of wind, when the hand retaining it in place slackens it in the slightest degree.

If the whole sail points towards the wind's eye, it no longer has any effect upon the boat. The sail then shakes in the wind exactly as a flag does from the top of a flag-staff, the wind passing by on both sides. Should the sheet be hauled aft, the sail would be filled with wind upon one side, and if the wind had strength to overcome the gravity of the boat, capsize her.

Or if the boat is so heavy ballasted that its gravity cannot be readily overcome, the mast or sail are liable to be carried away, and danger incurred on account of the towing mast and sail. These would most likely draw the boat into the trough of the sea, where she would be swamped almost instantly.

It does not follow, because the slacking of the sheet is a safe thing to do, that it should always be done. With boatmen who are thoroughly practised it seldom is done; for they can obtain the same result with the rudder by

[ocr errors]

bringing the boat into the wind until the sail shakes, with the sheet still fast. This gives more control of the boat than would be the case if the boom were out to leeward, perhaps dragging in the water, on account of the pressure of the wind upon the hull and mast.

The very best thing to do in a sudden squall is to use a modification of both these methods i.e., slack off the sheet for a foot or two, so the sail, before it can fill with wind, will be at such an angle with the hull that the shock upon the latter cannot be great. This gives one more command of the boat, and insures quicker movement of the hull, and hence quicker obedience to the helm, should a sudden change occur. This slacking of the sheet also prevents the boat from going about on the other tack, should she be brought too suddenly to the wind.

With an experienced hand at the helm, unless the squall is very severe, there is no need of luffing so as to shake the sail to any great degree. The slightest movement of the tiller will keep the sail just quivering in the wind, the boat still advancing, so that she will not lose steerage-way; thus enabling one to at once luff up nearer to the wind, or change the boat's position rapidly, should the wind, which is often the case, shift its direction suddenly.

Nothing is of more importance than to keep steerage-way on the boat, as it is only in the utmost emergency that the sheet should be slacked wholly off, and the headway lost.

If the boat is well under command when the squall is seen advancing, then the method of steering into the wind's eye may be safely adopted, and is, in fact, the better and more seamanlike method.

In small sail-boats on ponds, or arms of the sea, when a thunder-shower is coming upwhich can always be seen in time-it is, as a rule, much the safest plan to take the boat as quickly as possible towards the nearest harbor or land, unless rocky, inaccessible, or dangerous; in which case, furl all sail and let go an anchor, paying out such a scope of cable that the boat will ride easily. Then wait for the coming blast.

However severe it may be, the thunder-gust can then do no harm. With an oar you can head the boat towards the coming blast, so that she will feel but little of its force, and prevent the dragging of the anchor.


Thunder-showers are particularly dangerous, however, from the fact that they almost always make their way directly against the prevailing wind. When the two winds meet, and one finds one's self in the vortex between them, it is very difficult to command a boat. wind, fighting for the supremacy, will fill the sails with gusts, for which one does not more than have time to prepare before a counter-gust will throw them aback, or violently to the opposite side of the boat. Often, in fact, the wind, blowing a gale all the time, will in less than five minutes have visited every point of the compass. An anchor down and a furled sail are the best for all small, open, or half-decked boats or yachts in such an emergency.

Boats are often capsized by persons on board suddenly scrambling to the windward, or upper side, when a squall buries the lee gunwale in the water. Should the boat at this moment be taken aback by a counter squall or flaw, she will almost surely capsize, for in one moment the windward side becomes the leeward side; and the mass of weight hanging to what was, a moment before, the weather-side, will carry the boat over. It is too late to try and struggle back again the bodies are all in the wrong position to be able to turn around inboard towards the centre of the boat. In their help. less postures they face the waves that are ready to devour them.

The safest position in an open boat, when preparing for an approaching squall, is for all except the helmsman to sit down in the bottom of the boat, as near the centre as possible, thus being safe from any blows from the boom of the sail, and increasing the steadiness of the boat in a marked degree. Here they act as ballast and do much good in keeping the boat upright, To the above knowledge should be added also the science of reefing the sails of a boat quickly and neatly, so that she will stand up under a great pressure of wind.

The mistake most frequently made is to neglect to reef till it is too late. Landsmen scarcely ever calculate how quickly wind moves, and how suddenly a change in the weather takes place. It is easy to reef while there is time, but sometimes almost impossible if too long delayed. Reefing saves one from much anxiety. The boat that with her whole sail would be cranky and dangerous plunges along buoyantly through the summer gale when her sails are properly reefed.

With a thorough knowledge of the sheet and rudder, and how to reef a sail, there ought to be no accidents, even in very small boats; but the trouble is that too many tyros are allowed to invite unsuspecting ladies and young girls into their boats, they not understanding the first rudiments of a real nautical knowledge of how to manage a craft in times of danger.

A boat is like a good horse-it will always do the best it can. It will not capsize if it can help it; but, if mismanaged in time of emergency, it is a dangerous plaything. Properly handled, it is amazing, almost incredible, what can be done with a small open boat, with a common lug-sail, and what weather it will live through.

But without knowledge, and knowing just what to do in dangerous times, this pleasant summer sail is a treacherous pastime.-From Practical Boat-Sailing," by Gen. Douglas Frasar (Lee and Shepard).


About Archery.

ARCHERY, as a modern amusement, has only been fashionable in America for the past two years. It was being played in England before that, but we did not take hold of it until some time later. Mr. Maurice Thompson was the first to call attention to the sport. By his articles in various magazines, and later by his book, The Witchery of Archery," he aroused enthusiasm all over the country for the game.

[ocr errors]

From Cupid to Robin Hood the ladies have admired bow shooting, and it is no wonder that as soon as it was introduced as a pastime they became its most ardent adherents. Croquet was the entering wedge that opened outdoor sports to women, and for that they cannot be too grateful. Archery is, of all games, perhaps the best for girls. In the first place, it is performed in an erect attitude; it calls into action both hands and arms, the muscles of the shoulders and back, the chest and legs. There is no overstrain on either. In the second place, when one braces himself to pull the bowstring he is sure to draw a full, deep breath, thus filling his lungs with pure, fresh air. A thoroughly trained archer is a perfectly built athlete. Another thing that should recommend archery to ladies is its exquisite grace. See yonder lady with bow in hand; she braces herself firmly upon the lawn, raises the bow to the proper angle, measures the distance with her eye, and the feather-tipped messenger flies through the air and pierces the gold. No modern patent has done this. It is all her own strength and skill. A child may pull a trigger and hit the bull's-eye, but it takes strength to pull the bow.


Bows are of various "weights." By weight is meant the number of pounds in strength required to draw the bow-not the weight of the bow literally. A lady should begin with a twenty-pound bow. At the end of a month she may use one with a stronger resistance. Few ladies, however, pull over fifty pounds; their average is between thirty and forty. man's average is fifty pounds, while some pull as high as seventy-five, but these are exceptional cases and they have to have bows especially prepared. The regulation length of a man's bow is six feet from tip to tip, and the "draw" of the arrow twenty-eight inches. Bows should always be bent flat side out. The proper length for a lady's bow is five feet six inches.

Good well-finished bows of second-growth ash and other American woods will this season be sold at from one dollar to three dollars, or even more, according to size. Bows of lancewood, snakewood, yew, and other foreign woods cost from two to eight dollars. Target arrows will range, according to their length, from two dollars and a half to five dollars per dozen. Hunting arrows. with barbed piles, for large game, are still higher in price; while light birding arrows, with pewter heads, are cheaper. Bowstrings come at twenty, twenty-five, and up to sixty cents each, and targets range in price from one dollar to six dollars. Quivers (with belt) made of tin, and covered with light leather, cost from one dollar to two dollars and a half each. But for hunting excursions, quivers made of stiff harness leather, capable of holding two or three dozen arrows, are best. Of course, bows, arrows, etc., can be made at home, but

it is poor satisfaction to use cheap tackle if you have the money to buy the best.

Expert bowmen are very proud of their implements and keep them with great care. Bows should be kept in a dry room but not too near the fire. After using and just before putting away the bow should be rubbed with a woollen rag saturated with boiled linseed oil, mixed with a little beeswax. The arrow is an important consideration. For target arrows, hardseasoned pine or old deal is the best wood. For hunting arrows, hickory, ash, elm, and pine are preferable. The shaft, or wooden part, of the arrow is called the stele, and this must be perfectly straight and even. Next in importance to the stele is the feathering. For longrange shooting the feather should be narrow. They are generally taken from a goose-quill.

[ocr errors]

"In preparing to shoot," says Mr. Thompson, place your targets on their stands ten feet farther apart than the length of the range to be shot, and facing each other. Place a mark, as a standing point from which to shoot, ten feet from the face of each target. Now carefully brace your bow as heretofore directed. Put the arrow-nock on the string, at the place marked for it, with the cock-feather out to the left. This is done with your right hand, whilst your left tightly grasps the handle of the bow, holding it nearly horizontal. Now with the nock thus on the string, hook the first, second, and third fingers under the string, taking the

skirt for ladies, with dark blue blouse belted in; for men, white trousers and the same style of blouse. The blouse for both should be cut high on the shoulder to give the arm full play. A pretty uniform and quite inexpensive is made of unbleached muslin, with belt or sash of Turkey red.

Mr. Thompson also believes in the bow as a weapon of defence. A lady walking through the fields or on unfrequented roads is well protected if she be an expert archer, for a thirtypound bow will put an arrow through the stoutest tramp.-Compiled from "The Witchery of Archery” (Scribner) and other sources.

[blocks in formation]

ter wait till ten o'clock.
Morning rains are usually short-lived. Bet-

When the clouds are chilled, they turn blue and rise up.

When the fog leaves the mountains, reaching upward, as if afraid of being left behind, the fair weather is near.

Shoddy clouds are of little account, and soon fall to pieces. Have your clouds show a good strong fibre, and have them lined-not with silver, but with other clouds of a finer tex

arrow between the first and second. Turn the bow to the left with the left hand until it stands nearly vertically in front of you, your left_arm extended towards the gold of the target. Draw with your right, and push firmly with your left ture, and have them wadded. It wants two or hand until your arrow's head rests on the low-cially, unless you have that cloud-mother, that three thicknesses to get up a good rain. Espeest joint of your left forefinger. Your right dim, filmy, nebulous mass that has its root in hand will now touch your right ear. Look straight and hard at the centre of the target's the higher regions of the air, and is the source gold, but do not even glance at your arrow. and backing of all storms-your rain will be Blindly direct your arrow by your sense of feel- light indeed.-From "Locusts and Wild Honey," ing. Let go the string. by John Burroughs (Houghton, Osgood & Co.).

'There is no such thing as 'taking aim' with an arrow. He is a bungling archer who attempts it. Shoot from the first by your sense of direction and elevation, It will surprise you at first to see how far you will miss, but soon you will begin to close in with your arrows towards the gold.

"When at the full draw, the bow should not be held more than a second. Feel for the gold quickly, and let go the string smoothly and smartly. The quicker shot you are, the better for you; but be careful not to make a little 'snatch and jerk' when you loose the string.

[ocr errors]

The position, in shooting, should be graceful, easy, and firm. To this end, advance the left foot a half-pace, the toe turned towards the target, the knee of the left leg slightly bent. Fix the right foot nearly at right angles with the left, the right leg straight. Look directly over the left shoulder at the target. This position is called 'putting the body into the bow,' and will lead to powerful shooting."

It is pleasant to organize archery clubs. The club should have but three officers-a president or master bowman, who should be the best shot of the band, a secretary, and a treasurer. At each shooting the archer making the highest score is entitled to the honorary title of captain of the target. In the matter of uniform the club must exercise its own taste., A very neat and pretty uniform is made of flannel. A white

[ocr errors]

Seeing Stars.

"PEOPLE who don't know," says the Detroit Tribune, never having lost any stars, may think it is easy to find them. Popular ignorance may even suppose that the easiest way to find stars is to let 'em alone, and they'll come home, bringing their tails behind 'em in the form of comets. But this plan will not answer. Even if an intelligent person unskilled in astronomy were given a fine telescope, he would be unable, without instruction, to find any particular star at any particular hour, except a few of the most conspicuous and popularly known stars and constellations." An ingenious instrument to help out star-gazers, called “The Astronomical Lantern," has been invented by Rev. Dr. Jas. Freeman Clarke, the well-known Unitarian cleygyman of Boston, who has also prepared a manual to accompany it called 'How to Find the Stars." The face of the lantern is of ground glass, behind which are placed slides of semi-transparent card-board, in which stars of four magnitudes are represented by perforations of the corresponding size. There are thirty-two of these, representing the leading constellations. Dr. Clarke himself prepared the maps. The lantern is meant to be used out-of-doors, and is a most ingenious help for amateur astronomers.

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinuar »