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the bonds which paid for the waterworks. The actual cost of sinking wells or the actual labor of bringing the water in buckets from a muddy river is an immensely greater tax measured in terms of money or daily labor. Builders of works of public hygiene make it possible to begin now to stamp out fever and pestilence and those dangers to public health to such a degree as to reduce the death rate to half its normal standard under conditions prevailing in the eighteenth century--a generation earlier than would be possible were the enterprise left to the borderland people. English capital, prompted by a prudent philanthropy, has reduced the death rate of London to the annual average of 20 deaths in each 1,000 of the population.
The estimate of the annual income from capital invested outside of Great Britain exceeds half a billion of dollars, or $12 apiece for each man, woman, and child in Great Britain and Ireland. These investments in financial undertakings in all parts of the world carry with them opportunity not only for the lower ranks of the British population, but also for all ranks of people in the countries benefited by these outlays of capital.
The Established Church as an educational power in England.--The English act appropriating £30,000 for education, was passed in 1838 about the time Horace Mann was beginning his gigantic efforts for the improvement of the common schools of Massachusetts. The church had in charge the education of the English people up to this time, and it was the church in all countries that had looked after education through the centuries up to the time that Frederick the Great first moved in the matter of people's schools. In England, as, indeed, in all European countries, the idea of caste is firmly established. Education seeks to adapt the individual for his station in life. Each caste seeks to establish its class privileges and defend itself against the castes above and the castes below it. But from the beginning the church has trained for its sacred offices men from the lowest ranks equally with the highest, and persons of the humblest birth have been able to mount to the highest ecclesiastical places. This is the democracy of the church. But this is more characteristic of the Catholic Church than of the English Established Church. While the firstborn of the nobility and of the gentry inherit the rank, titles, and wealth of their station, the younger brothers find places in the army or positions in the Government at home or abroad, and many of the younger sons enter the church. The endowments of the church have come in past times from those who owned the wealth of Great Britain, and the livings created by these endowments go mostly to younger sons and younger branches of the aristocratic families. This is the aristocracy of the church.
While the Established Church is sacred and treated with deference, having its adequate representation in the Upper House of Parliament,
the dissenters are tolerated merely, but not tolerated because of their deserts and the respectability of their cause, but by reason of the strength which they show politically. As they have to be reckoned with, they command a certain degree of tolerance and respect. But as to his cause the dissenter is regarded by official respectability as not only in error but as in some degree sinful and as manifesting a reprobate perverseness which he has to answer for in the sight of Heaven.
There is progress from age to age in this matter of toleration, but it is siow; indeed, it appears exasperatingly slow to the dissenters them selves in England and to people of the same views residing in the British colonies or in the United States.
The English Church furnished the old education according to caste, teaching to each child the manners and aspirations to fit him for his caste, teaching to everyone the Christian view of the world and appealing powerfully to the religious sense of all by its ritual, its music, and its solemn festivals and significant ceremonial. The church education in religion and manners was so important that the proposed secular school education in arithmetie, geography, history, reading and writing, and in the select specimens from the richest literature in the world did not seem to have any attraction for the majority of the nation. The school education proposed was looked upon as a godless education, not needed by the lower castes, a barren intellectual repast, not to be compared with the education given by the church in religious duties and the catechism.
Meanwhile science has arisen in the opposite camp, the camp of the dissenters, and has attacked the basis of all this teaching, beautiful as it is, given by the church.
Free thought or investigation has invented what it is pleased to call “the higher criticism” and has attacked the doctrine of the inspiration of the Bible. The force of Bible language and of Bible modes of viewing the world when they are set apart and consecrated, as it were, for the use of the church has been and is one of the most important “evidences of Christianity.” But all this is very much weakened when the Bible is reduced to the common order of secular experience, for it deprives the church of its chief instrument in addressing the religious sense.
Natural science and philology come as reenforcements to the dissenter in England who attacks the church as the possessor of the sole right to the education of the people.
This explains the educational struggles that have gone on for more than half a century in England. It has been the struggle on the one hand of the dissenters, who are especially numerous in cities, to get the control of their own schools, and on the other hand the struggle of the Established Church, with all the prestige it has, to hold secure possession of its inestimable right of educating the entire people in its parochial schools.
In other countries of Europe there come violent upheavals of public opinion, cataclysms which shatter the defenses of time-honored authority and prestige. These upheavals are more or less modeled on the French Revolution. But in England there are no revolutions of this kind, for the conservative forces yield slowly to the pressure when it becomes irresistible and manage to bring forward the reform measures contended for by the opposite camp. The new reform measures are thus administered by the conservative parties, who manage in this way to retain control. It follows as a matter of course that the victory gained becomes more or less of a defeat in the subsequent administration of the reform.
Hence there are no Waterloo defeats in Great Britain. The contest is settled step by step with such small advances and such modifications as arise from yielding on both sides what seems to be least important or too extreme to command a political majority of votes in the parish, in the county, in the city, or in Parliament. The church will hold its own, but it will do it by permitting and acknowledging from time to time a triumph of the opposing party and then converting to its purpose the new measure as much as possible by compromise.
Perhaps the most important instrumentality of the conservative classes in Great Britain is their constant effort to proselyte to their way of thinking the fringe of the dissenting party that can be converted to Toryism. The old and established order wields great power to attract and captivate by personal attentions and social recognition the rising young men of the commons, and the education of the youth of all well-to-do people at Oxford and Cambridge conduces to the same result.
Correspondence schools (Chapter XXVI). — The first regularly organized system of correspondence instruction in the United States appears to have been that of Chautauqua, dating from about the year 1830. It had its origin in the desire of the students of the Chautauqua Summer School, particularly the students of foreign languages, to continue their studies at their homes after they and their instructors had dispersed at the close of the summer session. For this purpose graded series of lessons in each subject were prepared, which were inailed periodically by the teachers to the pupils, who in their turn sent back in due course their exercises or recitation papers for examination. This work grew in volume until it led to the incorporation of the Chautauqua University in 1883, an institution empowered to grant degrees, though all of the work of the students was done by correspondence, except in the case of those who passed a few weeks of the summer at Chautauqua in personal contact with the teachers.
The correspondence work of Chautauqua University was profitable financially, and was discontinued in 1900. In the meantime, however, the method had been adopted by a number of colleges and
other institutions to meet the case of students who were not able to pass in residence the full period necessary for obtaining a degree; and the fact that certain well-defined portions of the work were permitted to be done by correspondence made a college degree possible to many worthy and aspiring students who would have been otherwise unable to obtain it. A noteworthy example of this class of institutions is the University of Chicago, which offers a great variety of correspondence courses. These courses are hedged about with all the conditions requisite to insure careful and thorough work. It is the opinion of President Harper that the best students do even better work in some subjects by correspondence than in the class ro011), though the institution requires every candidate for a degree to spend at least one year in resident study and secure a certain number of credits for resident work. Many details regarding the correspondence courses at Chicago University are given on pages 1080-1090.
But correspondence instruction has received its greatest development in the form of private schools employing solely this method of teaching, particularly schools preparing for special occupations. It has been found that such schools may be conducted so as to be profitable business ventures, and they have accordingly multiplied on every hand in recent years. Their students are drawn largely from the ranks of young persons engaged in active employment as clerks, apprentices in various trades and industries, etc., who desire to prepare themselves for higher positions in the line of their actual occupations or for some more remunerative calling. That the number of such aspiring youths is very large is shown by the success which these schools have met with. Doubtless many who would have remained in the lower ranks in the commercial and industrial world have been stimulated by the promises and inducements held out by these schools to prepare themselves for higher positions.
It is probable that some of the numerous “correspondence schools advertised in the periodicals of the day, and professing to teach a multitude of arts and sciences, do not or can not fulfill the promises so alluringly held out. The financial profit that has been shown to be possible in conducting this class of schools has attracted a following of incompetent imitators, and apparently even of unprincipled adventurers, who have engaged in this form of business solely for the purpose of gathering in a harvest of students' fees, rendering in return only some nominal service, such as sending a few pages of printed matter of insignificant value. A knowledge that such impositions are practiced should suggest caution and discrimination on the part of those who contemplate taking a course of correspondence instruction.
Universities, colleges, and schools of technology.—Chapter XXXV gives the statistics of 638 universities, colleges, and schools of technology. Of the total number of institutions, 131 admit women only,
130) admit only men to the undergraduate departments, while 357 are open to both men and women. Omitting the students included in Division B of the table of colleges for women, there were enrolled in the remaining 520 institutions 107,391 students in undergraduate and resident graduate departments, an increase of 4,040 students over the number for the preceding year. The number of such students from 1889-90 to 1901-2 is as follows:
Panbers of undergraduate and resident graduate students in universities, colleges, and
schools of technology, from 1889–90 to 1901-9.
The value of all property of these institutions is reported as $117.205,234, of which amount $185,944,668 are reported as endowment funds. An analysis of the statistics concerning endowments shows that of 464 universities and colleges for men and for both sexes 117 bave no endowment funds and must depend entirely upon students' fees and voluntary contributions for their support, while 141 others hare endowments of less than $100,000 each. The benefactions for the year amounted to $17,039,967.
In this chapter is given a compilation showing the composition, methods of selection, and tenure of office of the governing boards of State institutions. In several States, namely, Colorado, Illinois, Michigan, Nebraska, and Nevada, the members of the boards controlling the State universities are elected by popular vote, but in the great majority of cases they are appointed by the governor of the State by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.
Notice has been given before of the change in the admission requirements to the United States Military Academy and of the largely increased number of cadets authorized at that institution as well as at the U'nited States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md. The rules governing the appointment and admission of candidates to those institutions and the courses of study to be pursued therein are printed in