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reorganizing both the internal régime and the curriculum of the schools in question. The new plan of studies is set forth in full, with explanations of its characteristic features (pp. 687-693). The nature of the changes is further emphasized by comparison with previous programmes, which are included in this chapter. These are the programme authorized by decree of 1890, annulled by the new order, and the still earlier programme of 1865, drawn up by Minister Duruy, who was the first to formulate a comprehensive measure for the adjustment of the curriculum of the classical schools of France to modern conditions. His scheme was soon modified, but it has furnished a basis for all subsequent efforts in the same direction.
The chief features of the new programme are the division of the whole course of study into two cycles-the first comprising four years, the second three years. The first cyele offers two parallel courses of study-one including Latin and optional Greek, the other without Latin or Greek. At the end of this cycle students must pass an examination which entitles one to a certificate of secondary studies. This certificate it is believed will have a certain value for the holder who enters at this point upon a practical career.
The second cycle offers a choice between four groups of studies: (a) Latin with Greek; (b) Latin with extended study of modern languages; (e) Latin with fuller study of the sciences; (d) modern languages and sciences with Latin. All four courses lead to the examination for the bachelor's degree. Thus, so far as official recognition goes, the nonclassical course is at last put upon the same footing as the classical.
The historic progress of the movement to secure equal recognition for classical and for nonclassical courses of study, which dates from 1795, is indicated by a chronological table (pp. 697, 698), showing the alternate stages of defeat and triumph through which the endeavor has persisted for over a century.
The department of higher education includes the State universities and a group of special schools of university rank which have combined with the Sorbonne to make Paris a distinguished center of learning
The chief event in the recent history of this department is the law of 1896, which restored to the isolated groups of State faculties the legal title and the organic unity of universities. In view of the great importance of this change a special report has been issued by M. Liard, director of the department of higher education, reviewing its history and the development of the fifteen universities already organized. This report (which is summarized on pp. 699-704) affords striking proof of the fact that universities can not fulfill their mission as regards either the investigation or the dissemination of truth when
servilely subject to external control. “Civil life,” in the words of VI. Liard, “is the means of scientific life.” The report shows also how profoundly the scientific movement has affected the conception of university education. One of the reasons advanced in favor of the creation of universities is “the daily increase of relations, many and vital, between the different sciences, and the appearance of new sciences, as yet scarcely defined, upon the contines of the older sciences.” Inspired by this consciousness, the newly organized universities are multiplying chairs for special sciences and rapidly increasing their scientific equipment, and in this work they are heartily supported by the local authorities in their respective districts. Full particulars of the additional professorships and courses of study which have arisen from this scientific impulse are cited from a special report by M. Maurice Faure, which is an interesting supplement to the more comprehensive report of M. Liard.
From the tabulated statistics (p. 699), it appears that the number of students in the State universities rose from 17,605 in 1887–88 to 28,782 in 1897–98, and to 29,931 in 1901. The specialized character of the universities is indicated by the distribution of their students. In 1901 law claimed 10,152 and medicine 8,627, or both together 62 per cent of the total number. The students in the faculty of sciences exceeded the number in letters, their registration being, respectively, 3,910 and 3.723.
The specialized character of higher education in France is further illustrated by the maintenance of State technical schools of a high order, which register about 3,500 students. These schools are intended to provide trained experts for the public service. The students are selected by rigid examination, the number in each school being strictly limited.
The comprehensive system of public instruction is supported largely by State appropriations, which in 1901 were nearly ten times the amount allowed for this interest in 1870. The total amount for the latter year was 206,906,483 francs ($41,381,296), of which 76 per cent was for the primary schools.
The total current expenditure upon public primary schools in 1896– 97, the last year for which the analyzed accounts are reported, was 214,015,250 francs ($12,803,050). Of this amount 67 per cent was met by the State appropriations and 33 per cent by the communes. The expenditure was equivalent to $9.20 per capita of the enrollment in the public primary schools; this was very nearly double the per capita in 1877. Since 1897 the current expenditure has increased still more. There has also been a noticeable advance since 1877 in the proportion of the expenditures for primary instruction borne by the central Gorernment, i. e., from 25 to 67 per cent of the total. The suppression
of the schools of the religious orders and the proposed increase of teachers' salaries will materially increase this proportion.
Chapter XVI (pp. 721-740) comprises a translation of the closing lecture of the course in pedagogy, delivered at the Sorbonne June 22, 1899, by Prof. Ferdinand Buisson, who, after twenty years' distinguished service as chief of the national department of primary education, was appointed to the chair of pedagogy in the University of Paris.
As we learn from this condensed summary of a season's lectures upon the education of the will, it was Professor Buisson's purpose to make the pedagogy of the will conform to its physiological and psychological growth. He traces the history of the will from its beginnings in the earliest reflex and instinctive movements up to its highest function in self-control and choice. He points out that the will is not a separate mental faculty, but is, in a sense, placed over all the intellectual, moral, and physical actions of the individual, and he draws therefrom general rules for guidance in pedagogy. He draws a striking parallel between the effort of the will in the large scale, in history, and its exercise by the individual. The reasoning leads to the conclusion that personal responsibility follows directly from freedom of choice and constant exercise thereof on successively higher and higher planes.
Education in Italy (Chapter XVII, pp. 741-787).-In this paper, by Dr. Tullio de Suzzara-Verdi, K. C. I., the author points out the necessity of knowing the history of a country before estimating its progress in education, and the difficulty a young nation, with few obstacles to overcome, finds in appreciating the prejudices in the way of the reformer in an old country like Italy, which has been torn by wars and revolutions, and been subject to invasions and political dissensions for centuries. No other country presents such alternations from the highest position in science, art, and philosophy to one of intellectual subordination as Italy has experienced in her history. The modern spirit has, however, been felt in Italy and has aroused there, especially since 1870, the solicitude of patriotic statesmen for public instruction, with the result that education, formerly the privilege of the few, is now made compulsory for the many.
The education department of Italy is organized throughout the Kingdom under one head, the minister of education, who is a cabinet officer. The system is uniform, so that a student from one university or school would find his grade unchanged in any other in the Kingdom.
The minister proposes to Parliament laws relating to education and is the executive officer of these laws as well, issuing decrees and rules for the administration of the schools. Under him are prefects of provinces, who are general supervisors of the schools of the provinces, and superintendents and inspectors.
Since 1898 great attention has been paid to school hygiene, the reports of the inspectors at that time showing the utmost neglect of the most ordinary regard for hygiene in many communes. ent, however, in erecting new buildings or improving old ones, all the modern requirements of hygiene have been insisted upon.
As in France, the political aciministrative unit in Italy is the commune, which is the smallest division of land having a local government, the latter consisting of a mayor and a council, both elective. A province is a larger division of land comprising several communes. The governor of the province (prefetto) is appointed by the National Government. The commune and province perform the functions of public instruction in common.
Beginning at the lowest grade of instruction, in 1898–99 there were 3,205 kindergartens with an attendance of 546,837 (176,545 males and 170,292 females), a gain over the statistics of 1895-96 of 392 schools and 29,720 pupils. Of these schools 537 follow Froebel's method, 134 Aporti's, and 2,534 a combination of both. The funds for the support of these schools are derived from the State, the provinces, the communes, and from private and religious sources. The income from these sources in 1901 was $1,469,553, and the expenditures for the schools $1,374,061. The average attendance was about 108 pupils to a school, and the expense $3.98 per pupil. Benevolent associations have been formed to assist the children of the very poor with school books, clothing, and food. Out of 8,260 communes 2,051 have adopted these infant schools, or 25 per cent of the whole number. The teachers numbered 7,370 (108 males, 7,262 females).
The primary school includes a course of five years of elementary studies, subdivided into two portions, one of three years, called the lower primary grade, in which attendance is obligatory upon every child over 6 years of age; the other, called the higher primary, is of two years and, while a continuation and progressive complement of the former, is not compulsory.
The course of studies in the primary grade includes Italian, practical arithmetic, rudiments of Italian history, geography, reading and writing, rights and duties of a citizen, the metric system, elementary gymnasties, and in rural districts elements of agriculture. The enrollment in the public schools was 2,444,288 (in a population of about 32,000,000) in 1898-99, against 2,379,319 in 1895–96. Including private schools, the number of primary schools in 1898–99 was 60,483, and of teachers 62,638. Enrollment (public and private) was 2,636,957. The effect of compulsory elementary education is shown by the decrease in illiteracy since 1871, when it was 73 per cent, against 42.92 per cent in 1898-99. In the latter year there were 220 complementary schools for girls, with an attendance of 7,459 pupils. These schools furnish instruction which is complementary to that given in the superior
primary and includes drawing, foreign languages, pedagogy, hygiene, and gymnastics. Graduates of these schools are fitted to enter the normal schools or take positions in the commercial or industrial world. There were 38 normal schools for males and 118 for females, with an attendance of 1,454 males and 20,034 females in 1898–99. The normal schools for males are decreasing rapidly, as it is generally conceded that the office of teacher in elementary schools is better adapted to women than inen.
The communes are compelled by law to maintain elementary schools in number depending on the population. Besides, they contribute largely to the support of the kindergartens. In 1898–99 the communes expended for public elementary instruction of all kinds the sum of 66,302,966 lire, or $12,796,472. This makes the annual expense for instruction for each pupil of the obligatory primary grade, paid by the communes, amount to $5.25 (about 42 cents for each inhabitant of the Kingdom). Adding to this outlay by the communes the contribution from the provinces and the State, the total expense for public elementary instruction 1898–99 was 74,398,629 lire, or $14,358,935. It is estimated that the total annual public expenditure for education, aggregating that of the communes, the provinces, and the national treasury, is about 115,000,000 lire, or nearly $23,000,000.
Besides public instruction Italy is abundantly supplied with private schools, which are required by aristocratic tastes and are encouraged by the church.
Instruction in agriculture has taken a new start in Italy since the ministry of Dr. Guido Baccelli. Under his recommendations thousands of landed proprietors have given gratis small parcels of land to the schools for practical instruction in agriculture. This kind of instruction is given in the elementary rural schools, and teachers who have no practical knowledge of the subject are prepared to give the proper instruction by attending lectures by experts. In 1899, 1,802 such lectures were given to 15,000 teachers. Agriculture is taught also in the normal schools. This instruction is aside from that given in regular agricultural schools.
Industrial schools are under the charge of the minister of agriculture and commerce, and are supported by the communes, the provinees, and the State. There are industrial schools of art and trade in 58 cities, in which are taught the elements of science and technics applied to the various trades. There are also 12 inferior commercial schools, which prepare pupils for clerkships, minor mercantile pursuits, telegraph and railroad employment, etc., and 103 schools of art as applied to industries. There are, besides, 15 industrial and commereial schools for girls, in which handiwork suitable for females is taught.
Superior technical instruction is given in State technical institutes,