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8. “The kindergarten ideal of nurture,” a paper read by Susan E. Blow before the International Kindergarten Union in 1900, appears on pages 594-602. It is her belief that the conscious nurture of the free self-activity of childhood is the distinguishing merit of the kindergarten. It is through stimulating and guiding this self-activity that the child begins to discern the lineaments of his ideal selfhood.
9. A biographical notice of Joseph Le Conte (pp. 602-609), taken from a paper read by Prof. S. B. Christy before the American Institute of Mining Engineers, affords some instructive details of the career of this distinguished man of science and educator, whose devotion to his work was so whole-hearted that he could declare, " Although I have gone over my course in geology now fifty times, I am still as interested in it as ever.” Contrary to the view held by some, he was firmly of the opinion that investigation should never be separated from teaching and that each was better for being carried on in connection with the other. He will probably be best remembered for his contributions to the theory of evolution, which he endeavored to show contained no materialistic implication and did not violate fundamental religious beliefs.
10. Those portions of the addresses delivered at the recent Johns Hopkins University celebration that are of general interest, as well as extracts from those delivered at the installation of Dr. Butler as president of Columbia University, are given on pages 609–632. These addresses touch many sides of the problem of the conduct of universities and are of permanent value, containing as they do the wellconsidered views of some of the ablest exponents of higher education in the United States.
11. A collection of statements of city superintendents as to the benefits of and objections to free text-books, followed by a table of the average cost per pupil of free text-books in cities, compiled by State Superintendent J. E. Hammond, of Michigan, is printed on pages 632-6.10.
12. Technical education in Germany, by Professor Alderson, of the Armour Institute in Chicago, and a report by a committee of the Western Drawing Teachers' Association on the teaching of drawing in Western normal schools, conclude Chapter XIII. The committee on drawing finds that drawing is not well taught in these schools and that their graduates are at a disadvantage in not being sufficiently prepared to give instruction in this important branch.
Educational progress in 1901–2.-The survey of the educational progress of the year 1901–2, Chapter XIV (pp. 647–666), is a reprint of an address by Dr. W. R. Harper before the National Educational Association. The review is necessarily limited to events of unusual importance, many of which, for reasons clearly stated in the introductory paragraph, pertain to movements that cover a period of several years.
In the field of elementary education Dr. IIarper notes, as the most significant event of the year reviewed, the death of Col. Francis W. Parker. The loss of the personal guidance and boundless enthusiasın of this leader fell with peculiar force upon the institution which he had founded at the moment of its entrance upon a larger and fuller life. But the special impressiveness of Colonel Parker's death was due to the outburst of appreciation which it excited from every part of the country and which testified to the high estimation which is entertained of his work as a reformer of educational methods. In respect to measures under consideration during the year, Dr. Harper notes that they relate, in the main, to the practical conduct of schools and of school instruction. Among subjects that have excited special discussion are the selection in each department of study of the most important topics for treatment and the unifying of the various departments of study so that each will contribute to the other and that waste shall be reduced to a minimum. Continued interest has been manifested in
the e sthetic training of the young, in efforts for improving the pro'fessional training and the professional status of teachers, and, in par
ticular, in various endeavors for increasing the educational advantages of country districts by centralizing rural schools and by introducing practical instruction in agriculture comparable to the manual training provided in city schools.
With regard to the city of Chicago, Dr. Ilarper notes that after a long period of doubt the position of the kindergarten has been so strongly established that all future budgets must contain liberal provision for this division of educational work.
The work of the Southern Education Board and the organization of the General Education Board in the interests of Southern education mark events of truly national importance.
The address dwells particularly upon movements in the province of secondary education which necessarily affect also the higher province of the college and university.
The tendencies in secondary education which Dr. Harper has specified are as follows: (1) The disposition to give up provision for instruction in Greek to make way for more practical subjects. This he regards as a “movement backward.” (2) The introduction of courses of instruction relating to commercial and industrial subjects, which in his opinion is being pushed forward too hastily for the best results. (3) A tendency which, during the present year, has attracted special attention, namely, the substitution of the certificate system for examinations in connection with college entrance-a practice thoroughly established in the West and apparently now gaining ground in the East. (1) Extension of the elective system in secondary schools. With respect to this tendency Dr. Harper says: “I am strongly of the opinion that unless the choice of subjects in secondary work is practically controlled
by the principal, election will prove injurious rather than helpful.” (5) The increasing demand for university graduates and for trained specialists as teachers in high schools.
The successful inauguration of the college entrance board in the Eastern States has been followed by the establishment on the part of the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools of a commission on accredited schools. The first report of this commission, presented at the annual meeting held in Cleveland March 28, 1902, submits the conditions under which secondary schools shall be accredited, basing its recommendations on the definitions of the College Entrance Examination Board of the Middle States and Maryland, the committee of twelve of the Modern Language Association, the committee of seven of the American Historical Association, and the department of superintendence of the National Educational Association. Thus these seyeral associations tend by their influence to unify educational standards throughout the country.
During the year under review the Chicago Manual Training School, which has exercised a great influence upon secondary education in the West, was associated with the new school of education in the University of Chicago. The opinion is expressed that in this new relation the school will enter upon a higher and broader educational work than is possible to an isolated institution of that character.
Among the many movements pertaining to higher education which are passed in review in this paper perhaps the most significant is the extension of university organizations to include departments or schools of technology, and the still more recent provision for commercial education.
These efforts, as Dr. Ilarper observes, have come from the necessity of adjusting universities more perfectly to the modern environment.
With respect to the very important question of shortening the college course, which is everywhere pressing for attention, Dr. Harper suggests the plan of allowing those who do not contemplate a professional course of study to take the full four years of work in college, and to arrange for the other class to count their early professional work as a part of the work accepted for the bachelor's degree. He notes that a great forward step in the direction of this policy has been taken in the recent action of Yale, and also that this policy has been adopted as the basis for the organization of the schools of medicine and law in the University of Chicago.
Education in France.—Chapter XV (pp. 667–719) treats of education in France, reviewing briefly the progress of the work under the Republic and setting forth in particular the important events which have characterized the present year. Under the fostering care of the Government the national system of education has bad almost phenomenal development in the short period of twenty-five years. Side by
side with this system church schools of all orders have also flourished unrestrained. The latter, however, preserve historic traditions and social ideals whose continued influence has for some time been viewed with uneasiness by the Government. This feeling has led recently to a reversal of the former liberal policy in respect to rival agencies, and the present disposition seems to be to crush out the schools maintained by religious associations. The action gives special interest to the comparative statistics of the State and clerical schools which are set forth in various tables contained in Chapter XV.
By reference to Table III (p. 674) it will be seen'that in 1900 public schools enrolled 75 per cent of all pupils in elementary grades, and private schools the remaining 25 per cent. A few of the public schools for girls still have teachers belonging to religious orders, so that the proportion of secular schools is a little less than the proportion of public schools, viz, 71 per cent instead of 75 per cent.
In the chief cities (Table XI, p. 684) the ratio of public school enrollment is below that for the country at large, ranging from 40 per cent to 67 per cent. The State secondary schools (table on p. 686) enrolled in 1899 less than 50 per cent of secondary pupils, viz, 85,599, against 91,825 in religious schools and 10,812 in private secular schools. It was in particular the predominating influence of the religious associations in the sphere of secondary education that prompted the law of 1901, subordinating the associations to the civil authorities. This measure did not necessarily imply extreme hostility to the religious orders, but the recent vote of the Chamber of Deputies refusing authorization for all the “religious associations” of men engaged in teaching seems to indicate that the Government will no longer tolerate a system whose general influence is regarded as detrimental to the Republic. The law, and more particularly the manner of its enforcement, mark therefore a crisis of deep import in the republican policies of the country.
These measures, whose purpose is to extend the Government control of education, have been accompanied by increased efforts for the improvement of the State schools of all orders. In the department of elementary education, irregular attendance and too early withdrawal from school interfere seriously with the immediate results and the permanent influence of the school training. The minister of public instruction has ordered a special and minute inquiry into the causes of irregular attendance, with a view to devising corrective measures. The item of annual average attendance is not included in the French statisties, but an approximate average is attained by comparing the enrollment for the months of highest and lowest enrollment, viz, December and June, with the total enrollment. The latest estimates upon this basis (for 1897) give for the public schools an enrollment for December equivalent to 87.5 per cent of the annual enrollment and
for June an cnrollment equivalent to 84.6 per cent of the total; the corresponding ratio for private schools was, for both months, 91.1 per cent. These arerages, however, obscure the conditions in the distriets which fall far below the normal. Pending the results of the special inquiry attention is called to the fact that the “ certificate of primary studies," instituted in 1834 and recognized by the law of 1882 as a means of stimulating an interest in elementary study, bas conduced in part to the early withdrawal of pupils from school. The certificate exempts the holder from the ol·ligation to attend school, and the reports show that a large proportion of children who come up to the examination for this award are at the minimum age (11 years) allowed for candidates. For the majority of the successful candidates the examination is the end of school life. One remedy suggested for this evil is that of increasing attendance upon the higher primary schools, which can only be done by increasing the industrial adaptations of their courses of instruction. This is more easily accomplished in the cities than in the agricultural sections, where the evils complained of are excessive. The improvement of rural schools has thus become a problem of great moment in France.
The unsatisfactory financial condition of French primary teachers, which has long been a source of serious anxiety to the Government, has led at last to practical measures for their relief from what had become an intolerable strain. A comprehensive investigation into the matter was undertaken at the instigation of M. F. Buisson and the facts elicited reduced to systematic form under the supervision of M. Levasseur, with the collaboration of the statistical division of the labor bureau. The method and the results of this investigation are set forth in full (pp. 710-719). This is probably the most complete presentation of the living conditions of primary teachers, both actual and as compared with those of persons in other employments, that has ever been made for any country.
The presentation created a profound impression. The public press discussed the situation as a “national peril," and as a measure of temporary relief the Chambers voted an addition of 5,011,200 francs ($1,002,210) to the educational appropriation. Of this amount 3,811,200 francs ($762,240) were to be used to increase the number of higher salaries, thus giving greater chance for immediate promotion, and 1,200,000 franes ($210,000) to increase the number of pensions, thus making way for promotions by the retirement of persons past service. In the meantime several bills have been introduced into the Chamber of Deputies, proposing radical changes in the classification of teachers, the conditions for promotion, and the scale of salaries.
The long-pending efforts for the reform of the secondary schools (lycées and communal colleges) resulted in a decree (May 31, 1902)