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throws some light on the internal conditions that helped to precipitate the late war and discloses also among the English settlers in the Transvaal that impulse to concerted civic action which is everywhere characteristic of the race.
This paper is preceded by a brief survey of education in the several British colonies of South Africa. Cape Colony, which has a population of 1,527,224, of whom 376,987 are white and 1,150,237 are col. ored, reported in 1899 an enrollment of 147,424 pupils in schools supervised and partly supported by the Government. Of this enrollment 59,825 were white children and 87,599 were colored children; the former comprised 15.8 per cent of the white population and the latter 7.6 per cent of the colored. The schools for the colored children are chiefly mission schools, supported in a great measure by the church. The educational standard of these schools appears to be very low, but recent efforts for the improvement of the teachers and other essential conditions seem to promise better results in the near future. The general condition of the schools for the white children is reported to be very satisfactory. Higher education is fostered by the Government, which apportions grants to six colleges having departments of classics, mathematics, and physical sciences. The University of Cape Colony is merely an examining and degree-conferring body. There is also a Government school of agriculture at Stellenbosh. Among several private seminaries which receive some aid from the public treasury one of the most important is the Huguenot Seminary at Wellington, founded through the efforts of the Rev. Andrew Murray, whose action was inspired by reading the life of Mary Lyon. In response to an earnest appeal for assistance in his enterprise, two graduates of Mount Holyoke went out to the colony in 1874 and took charge of the institution at Wellington, which under their leadership has educated more than 1,000 young women, many of whom have become teachers in colonial schools or missionaries in the surrounding regions.
Since the annexation of the Transvaal by the British Government a system of public education has been organized in that colony, and considering the circumstances remarkable progress has been made in the practical work of establishing new schools and reviving those that had been broken up by the war. It is interesting to note that while according to the statistics of the late Transvaal Government 14,700 children were under instruction at the outbreak of the war, the number under instruction had reached 15,000 early in 1902. A similar work is going on in the Orange River Colony. The director of education for the Transvaal, Mr. E. B. Sargent, has given special attention to devising means for bringing the children living on the isolated farms within reach of educational advantages. For this purpose a particular form of “traveling school” has been adopted (see p. 479). It is purposed
to establish a permanent school in every village, and in every province a school of high grade located in the most important town. Every endeavor is being made to attract university men to the post of provincial headmaster. The salary offered for this position is £500 a year, with a house, together with £250 for an assistant. The system, which has been carefully worked out in all its details, is to be applied alike to the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony.
Early English writers on education (Chapter X, pp. 481-505).--In this interesting chapter Prof. Foster Watson, of University College, Aberystwith, Wales, gives brief biographical notices of the famous pioneers of the new education of the sixteenth century in England, together with some account of their works on education, with extracts. Some of the names of these early educators are not familiar to the ordinary reader, such as those of Lupset, Vivès, and Palsgrave, for example, while Lily's name perhaps may be known to a few as the anthor of the famous Latin grammar which served as a text for Charles Lamb's “Old and New Schoolmaster” in the Essays of Elia, and which was actually authorized by royal proclamation of Henry VIII in 1540 as the only grammar to be used in all England. Roger Ascham's book, the “Scholemaster," however, is a part of English literature, like his “Toxophilus," a treatise on archery, while the name of Sir Thomas More is sacred as that of one of the inartyrs of history anil a noteworthy philosopher of the Platonic type of mind. All these early writers treated education as a sacred subject, almost on a parallel with religion, with which it was associated. A curious historical fact is brought out in Palsgrave's dedication of his translation of a Latin play to Henry VIII. In speaking of the incompetency of schoolmasters, he says that some of them came to the universities from their “native countries” (i. e., different parts of the Kingdom), where the language was rude, and learned to write and speak Latin, but were not conversant with good English, so that when called upon to preach, or “to have other administration requiring their assiduous conversanting” with the King's subjects, they had been forced to read English authors to remedy their imperfections.
Henry VIII showed his appreciation of the importance of education when he said in his proclamation prefixed to and authorizing Lily's grammar: “Among the manifold business and most weighty affairs, appertaining to our regal authority and office, we forget not the tender babes, and the youth of our realm, whose good education and godly bringing up, is a great furniture to the same and cause of much goodness."
The higher education of women in the sixteenth century is illustrated in the often quoted passage from Ascham's account of his visit to the ill-fated Lady Jane Grey. “I came to Brodegate in Leicestershire to take my leave of that noble Lady Jane Grey.
found her in her chamber reading Phaedon Platonis in Greek, and that with as much delight as some gentleman would read a merry talo in Bocase [Boccaccio).
I asked her why she would lose such pastime in the park? Smiling she answered me: “I wisse, all their sport in the park is but a shadow to that pleasure that I find in Plato; alas good folk, they never felt what true pleasure meant.?” Lady Jane Grey could not have been 16 years old at this time.
So of his pupil Queen Elizabeth he wrote, “Yea, I believe, that beside her perfect readiness in Latin, Italian, French, and Spanish, she readeth here now at Windsor more Greek every day than some prebendary of this church doth read Latin in a whole week.” Which statement, allowing for the natural pride of a teacher of so distinguished a pupil, may be taken with some reservation.
The need of public schools for girls was felt and argued by these early agitators on education; the conclusion being that it is expedient that by public authority schools for women-children be erected and set up in every Christian commonweal, and honest, sage, wise, discreet, sober, grave, and learned matrons made rulers and mistresses of the same."
Thomas Lupset (1-495-1530) expresses a truth which has often been repeated since as an argument for reading the classics. After advising his friend to read Aristotle's Ethies, Plato's Republic, certain philosophical works of Cicero, and especially Seneca, he adds: “These books can lift men above the clay of this earth and set them on a hill of high contemplation from whence they shall look down and despise the vanity which foolish men take.
Again, he urges the reading of classical authors for reasons which apply perhaps with even stronger force to the light literature of the present day than to that of four hundred years ago. He says: "And one thing, believe me, that in reading of these old substantial works
shall * gender a certain judgment in you, that you shall never take delight nor pleasure in the triíles and vain inventions that men now days write, to the inquieting of all good order: by reason that the most part of men that read these new flittering works lack perfect judgment to descrive [discriminate) a weighty sentence from a light clause, the which judgment can not be gotten, but by a loug exereising of our wits with the best sort of writers.”
The chapter, as shown from these extracts, is an interesting contribution to the history of education, and gives the needed evidence of the state of schools in the century preceding the English colonial settlements in America, setting at rest many questions as to the schools of the home country in which our forefathers were instructed in their early youth.
Medical inspection of schools abroad.--Chapter XI (pp. 509-526) contains an account of medical inspection of schools abroad. It is taken
from the “Handbuch der Schulhygiene" of Drs. Leo Burgerstein and August Netolitzky, of Vienna. The authors present arguments in favor of medical inspection and are of opinion that teachers should not act as sanitary inspectors, physicians alone being competent. They state the purpose of medical inspection to be the prevention of injurious results from school attendance. In tabulated form they present facts concerning diseases and mortality of children, showing that medical inspection should not only result in keeping sick children away from school, but also in preventing unsanitary influences during school hours. The authors give a brief survey of what has been done in instituting medical inspection in Europe, stating the number of physicians employed and salaries paid in several countries; also the regulations adopted by the authorities for the proper management of this inspection are quoted. It is found that Paris is the city where medical inspection was first established; it there dates back to 1833.
Admission to college on certificate.-Chapter XII (pp. 527-539) deals with the subject of admission to college on the certificate of secondary schools. The first part of the chapter gives the by-laws and rules of the recently organized New England College Entrance Certificate Board, the accrediting systems of different State universities, and a list of the institutions admitting students to the freshman class on the certificate of the principals of certain approved secondary schools. This is followed by an article by Prof. A. S. Whitney, of the University of Michigan, on Methods in Use of Accrediting Schools. Dr. Whitney shows that the accrediting system now in such general use originated at the University of Michigan in 1871, and he gives a short sketch of its origin and progress to the present time.
Miscellaneous educational topics.-In Chapter XIII are treated a variety of topics bearing upon educational history, methods, tendencies, etc.
1. The first American public school (pp. 541-550): The beginnings of our public-school system have been made the subject of considerable debate. Dr. W. A. Mowry has examined the circumstances attending the establishment of various early schools in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New York, and Virginia, and has come to the conclusion that the school founded by the town of Dorchester, Mass., in 1639, can properly lay claim to being the first school designed for the general public and supported by direct taxation, within the present limits of the United States. This school has preserved its identity to the present day and is now in successful operation.
2. School supervision: The State of Massachusetts has developed a complete and effective system of school supervision. The adoption of the system has been heretofore voluntary, the State encouraging it by grants of money, but not requiring it, until it has extended so far as to bring under its influence all but 3 per cent of the school children
of the State. A recent act, however, has made the “employment of superintendents of schools the universal and permanent policy of the State after July 1, 1902.” A statement giving some particulars as to the evolution and nature of the system, the duties and qualifications of superintendents, etc., as set forth in the reports of the secretary of the State board of education, is given on pages 550-556. The subject is further elucidated in an able essay, from the report of C. A. Brodeur, superintendent of the Chicopee (Mass.) schools, reprinted on
3. George Charles Holls: On pages 560-566 are given an account of the life and the labors in the service of philanthropy and education of George Charles Holls, from a memoir by Hon. Henry Barnard. Dr. Holls came to this country from Germany in 1851, at the age of 27. The failure of his attempts to conduct an orphan asylum on the lines to which he had been accustomed in Germany illustrates well the dissimilarity of conditions prevailing in the two countries; subsequently however, under methods of his own devising, he realized more successfully perhaps than ever had been done before the true idea of a home for the unfortunate. His attitude of mind toward the “ GermanAmerican” question is indicated by his dictum, “In my opinion the first mission of the Germans in this country is to become Americans.”
4. The Brothers of the Christian Schools are treated of on pages 566-570. The rise of their schools in this country is set forth, while their methods and the general character of their instruction are recorded with sufficient detail to explain in some degree the success which has attended their efforts, and will be found to afford useful suggestions.
5. “Educational tendencies, desirable and otherwise,” forms the subject of a timely essay by Dr. Andrew S. Draper, president of the University of Illinois (pp. 570-579). Dr. Draper is of the opinion that the educational system, at least in the grades below the college, is undertaking too much; that "research” is attempted where drill is needed; that strength is of more importance than “culture;” that children can not elect studies; that so many schemes have been forced into the elementary schools that the structure is incoherent and unsymmetrical. “We have shaped the work of the lower schools," says he, “ with too much reference to the demands of the advanced schools, and we have exacted too many things for entrance to the colleges and universities.”
6. In an address on rural school libraries Hon. Henry Sabin gives his views as to what such libraries should contain and the purposes they should be made to subserve in rural communities (pp. 579-581).
7. The elaborate programme of the Yale bicentennial celebration in 1901 is reproduced in condensed form on pages 582-583, followed by extracts from some of the addresses made on that occasion.