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In 1896–97 there were 6 “superior” schools and 67 day schools, with 204 teachers and 9,442 pupils. During the twenty-seven years of its existence the board had expended $1,000,287.
The Protestant Episcopal Church expended $351,514 from 1866 until 1886 in church and school work among the negroes, when the commission for the colored race was established. The main object of the commission was to “provide educated and consecrated ministers" (colored) to labor among their brethren. Of the five chief institutions established by the Episcopal Church through this commission, only two are of the usual type of normal and industrial schools. These had 23 teachers and 500 pupils in 1900, and are of the better class. From 1886 to 1896 $41,494 was expended, making a total of $793,008 for thirty years. In the 15 old slave States and the District of Columbia, with a negro population of 8,000,000, the parochial schools of this church had an average attendance of 4,316 in 1896. There were 61 colored churches and 60 white clergymen engaged in work among the negroes of the South in that year.
The author refers briefly to the early opposition of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, to slavery, and as a result thereof the emigration of large numbers of Friends from slave-holding communities to the free “Northwest” (Ohio and Indiana) in the cighteenth and especially during the nineteenth century. After the close of the civil war cfforts were made to prevent the removal of such a desirable population from the Southern States by the Baltimore Association of Friends, which sent supplies of provisions and money to the South. The denominational schools were rehabilitated in North Carolina, including a normal school. This movement extended to the schools for freedmen. In 1867 there were 6 day and 22 Sunday schools with 1,600 or 2,000 colored pupils. In 1869 the number of schools had increased to 24 day and 35 Sunday schools with 1,707 pupils, and after this the movement for colored schools seems to have declined. In 1869 the Pennsylvania Friends cngaged in the work for freedmen reported 29 day schools, 40 teachers, and 2,000 pupils. The New York and New England Friends established seminaries and colleges for colored students in North Carolina and Tennessee. In 1895 the Friends of North Carolina reported 6 academies with 530 students and an expenditure of $1,776.25, and 14 schools, all preparatory for Guilford College, with an attendance of 6,000.
The Baptist Church began its missionary work in the organization of the Ilome Mission Society in 1832 for the purpose of “preaching the Gospel in destitute regions, more especially in the West," and extended its work to the freedmen in 1861-1865. In 1896 attention is called to the improvement in the provision for educating the colored people in thirty years. These consisted in (1) a system of public
schools from primary to normal supported by taxation, the appropriation for colored schools being 10 per cent of the total amount raised in that way for this purpose; (2) the industrial and normal schools founded by the Peabody, Slater, and Hand funds; (3) the missionary and educational work of the northern churches; (+) the work of the A. B. II. M. Society, which had expended $3,000,000 in teaching and training colored youth.
There are other important observations on the negro which should be brought out because of their authoritative source. Thus the superintendent of the Baptist education work says (1891), “While remarkable progress has been made by a certain portion of the colored people during the past twenty-five years in everything that pertains to mental, intellectual, and moral advancement, it has been confined to a comparatively small number of the 6,741,951 colored population. The masses of these are still in a deplorable condition.” He attributes this to (1) unfavorable conditions; (2) indolent and improvident habits; (3) the one-room cabin; (1) the unkind and often cruel and criminal treatment of the women and children by the men; (5) the comparatively low degree of the social and parental relation, and the presence of ignorant and often unprincipled leaders, ministers and others, who dominate their ignorant fellows; (6) not teaching the subjects best fitted to elevate and instruct the masses of the negroes. The report for 1894 has this to say for competition with the whites, that the negro "must not be handicapped by any inferiority of preparation. Ile must neither ask nor receive any favor on the ground of race or color.” Much of the inefficiency in the colored schools is due to intrusting their administration entirely to the colored members of boards of education. This results in placing the schools under the control of contentious preachers or politicians, and the superintendent is emphatic in saying "no" to the question whether the superintendency and management of colored schools should be intrusted to the colored public school teacher. This course would be retrograde. The weak point of the colored people is their lack of executive capacity and their tendency to jealousy and contention. In 1897 the 29 colored schools of the Baptist denomination were supported at an expense of $108,869.75. They had an attendance of 5,000. The colored people contributed $S1,216.89 to the expenses.
Lars relating to temperance instruction (Chapter VI, pp. 315-338).---The enactment in 1901 by the general assembly of Georgia of a law providing for instruction in the “nature and effects of alcoholic drinks and other narcotics upon the human system” in connection with the study of physiology completes the list of the States and Territories, all of which now have upon their statute books laws of this character more or less rigid in their requirements. The present seems, therefore, an opportune time for reviewing the existing legislation upon
this subject, and I have accordingly caused to be collected and printed in Chapter VI the various State laws requiring this species of instruction.
Necrology.-In Chapter VII (pp. 339–422) are given brief obituary notices of educators, school and college officials, and other persons whose gifts or services in the cause of education deserve a permanent record.
Education in Canadu.-Chapter VIII (pp. 423-463) treats of the conditions of education in Canada, comprising a brief historic outline of the several provincial systems of education, with current and comparative statistics. These Provinces have, like the States of our own Union, independent control of their respective school affairs. Prior to the federation of the Provinces in 1867, education had become a matter of general interest. Both the English and French settlers had brought with them traditional respect for parochial schools and ecclesiastical control of education, but the English settlers were also imbued with the ideas that were tending toward the supremacy of civil authorities in all secular affairs, and the first system of public education organized in the Provinces, namely, that of Ontario, was distinctly a system under public control. With the exception of Quebec, all the Provinces followed more or less closely the lead of Ontario in this respect. The school systems established resemble in many respects those of our own country, but in general they give larger place to central authority. The minister of public instruction in Ontario, for example, is more than the executive head of the system. As a member of the legislature he initiates and largely directs school legislation; he has also extensive power of appointment and important judicial functions. No other Province has given equal authority to its chief officer of education, but all have sought to secure uniformity of school provisions and educational standards by means of the central authority. Ontario is also characterized by very equitable regulations in regard to separate schools for Roman Catholic and Protestant pupils where desired. The latter seldom avail themselves of the provision, only seven separate Protestant schools, with +16 pupils, having been reported in 1900. At the same time there were 355 Roman Catholic separate schools with 42,397 pupils. This Province also has made ample provision and very strict regulations with respect to the training of teachers. Every position, from the lowest in the kindergarten to the highest in a collegiate institute, must be filled by a teacher who has obtained a government certificate. The lowest grade of certificate is valid only for three years, and the holder who during that time fails to meet the requirements for a higher certificate is eliminated from the service. The other Provinces have made great efforts to maintain a high standard of professional qualification on the part of their teachers, but the conditions are not so favorable to this result as in Ontario. The superintendent of education for New Brunswick complains par
ticularly of a scarcity of competent teachers, which he attributes very largely to the more lucrative employments that attract educated and energetic young persons of both sexes. His discussion in his report for 1901 of the possible means of providing salaries which shall attract young people of ability to the service is given in full in Chapter VIII.
The public school systems of the several Provinces are supported by legislative grants and local funds. The latter are derived from two separate sources, municipal appropriations (made by divisions corresponding to counties and townships in the United States) and district taxes (in Quebec school fees also). The relative proportions from the different sources vary greatly in the several Provinces. In Ontario the local sources furnish about 93 per cent of the school income, and the legislative grant a little above 6 per cent. In Nova Scotia the legislative grant furnishes about 30 per cent and in British Columbia about 65 per cent of the entire income (Tables 4 and 5, p. 427). Nearly all the Provinces have adopted legal provisions for making the distribution of the legislative grant dependent in some measure upon the local effort put forth for the support of the schools, as indicated either by the amount of tax raised or by the average school attendance maintained. In Nova Scotia and New Brunswick the legislative grant is apportioned directly to the teachers.
The school system of Quebee differs in essential particulars from those of the other Provinces. The British Government has always shown great tolerance for the religious convictions of the Roman Catholic population, which forms about 86 per cent of the total population of this Province. The public schools are in charge of a council composed of two committees, one intrusted with the interest of the Roman Catholic schools and the other with those of the Protestant schools. The council acts as a whole in respect to all school questions in which the interest of Roman Catholics and Protestants are collectively concerned. School questions pertaining exclusively to the interests of either denomination are decided by that one of the two committees which represents the religious belief of the persons concerned. The executive head of the system is the superintendent of public instruction, who administers the affairs of both classes of schools. He is ex officio a member of the council of public instruction and of each of its two committees, but he may vote only in the committee of the religious faith to which he belongs. By this arrangement the Roman Catholic population virtually have a system of parochial schools under ecclesi. astical control, since the law provides that the Roman Catholic committee of the council shall consist of the bishops and certain subordinate ecclesiastical officials of the Roman Catholic dioceses as ex officio members and an equal number of Roman Catholic laymen appointed by the lieutenant-governor in council. The extent of the elementary school work under this particular committee may be inferred from
statistics given (p. 41). It will be noticed that the elementary schools correspond practically to the first four or six years of the public schools in the United States. In 1900 they enrolled 201,124 pupils, of whom 169,729, or 84 per cent, were in parochial schools under the control of the Roman Catholic committee of the council, 4,884 were in independent Catholic schools, and only 26,511, or 13 per cent, in Protestant public schools. Since 1975, when this particular organization was effected, this system has been found to work very satisfactorily. Quite recently there have been signs of dissatisfaction with the parochial schools, but almost wholly because of their failure to adapt their instruction to modern requirements. Both committees of the council bave, however, shown great interest in increasing the efficiency and elevating the standard of their respective schools. This unique system is described very fully (pp. 438-445), and offers very marked contrast with that of Ontario, which is also described quite fully (pp. 427-438).
The accounts of the public school systems of the separate Provinces contained in Chapter VIII include in each case retrospective tables that enable one to see at a glance the progress that has been made during an extended period. The survey includes also a brief review of higher education, for which provision was begun at an early date and has been continually increased. The preparation for the universities is made either in the high schools, which are especially flourishing in Ontario, or in academies, which generally have a semi-public character, as in Quebec. Under the head of “Higher educational institutions” are included universities that confer degrees, and classical colleges, which are either affiliated with a university or prepare students for matriculation (tables, pp. 460-461). Recently much attention has been given to scientific and technical education. The Ontario Agricultural College, at Guelph, which dates from 1974, is an institution of marked distinction. A special impulse has been given to provision for technical instruction within the last three years through the bequests of Sir William Macdonald, whose liberal benefaction to McGill University, amounting to $2,500,000, was speedily followed by a provision for a central manual training school in each Province, with a fund suficient to maintain the same for three years.
Education in British South africa.-Chapter IX (pp. 465–480) presents a somewhat extended sketch of the history of educational work in the late South African Republic, prepared by Mr. John Robinson, secretary to the director of the council of education, Witwatersraad, a local body formed in 1995 to foster education in the important district mentioned, which includes Johannesburg and the surrounding mining region. The paper is written from a purely English standpoint, but for this reason it has a peculiar historic interest, not only as setting forth the educational needs of the district, but because it