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past year was 1,032 days for each individual of the population. This table takes into account public and private schooling of whatever grade.
The following table, IVb, gives the same item, taking into account only the schooling furnished in elementary and secondary schools supported by public taxes. It seems that the past year shows a rate of instruction which if continued for the school age would give 930 days instruction in public schools to each individual of the population.
TABLE IV a.-Iverage number of years of schooling (of 200 days each) that each indirid
ual of the population received at the different dates specified in the table, taking into account all public and private schooling of whatever grade.
"ABLE IV 1.- The same, taking into account only the schooling furnished by public ele
mentary and secondary schools.
1870. 1880. 1890. 1894. 1895. 1996. 1897. 1898. 1899. 1900. a 1901. a 1902.
In my last Report I called attention to certain estimates which I have made on the entire amount of schooling in former epochs, which are briefly suunmarized as follows:
The average amount of schooling to each individual of the population did not exceed in
420 1890 1860 434 1902
1,032 Laos relatiny to agricultural and mechanical colleges.-In Chapter I is given the first installment of a compilation of the general laws relating to the colleges established under the acts of Congress of July 2, 1862, and August 30, 1890, for the establishment and for the more complete endowment and support of colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The chapter opens with the acts of
Congress relating to these institutions and is followed by the State legislation in the following-named States: Alabama, Arizona, Arkan sas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Iliinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, and Louisiana. The legislative provisions given have been taken from the revised statutes or codes of the several States, except in the case of Idaho, and include only such laws as are now in force. It is hoped that the legislative provisions of the other States will be published in future Reports.
Franklin's influence in education.--In Chapter II (pp. 91-190) Professor Thorpe, of the University of Pennsylvania, has given the results of a long study devoted to the life and work of Dr. Franklin. While Thomas Jefferson stood for the political point of view of American affairs, Dr. Franklin stood for its economical point of view. His mind was bent upon seeing the conduct of life from the point of the social and industrial individual. Ilis chief interest was the selfhelp of the individual, especially in the making of a fortune by industry and economy. Ile anticipates this age in the great interest which he felt in experimental natural science. The article has been prepared by its author to show Franklin's influence in American education, and the glimpses given of the ideas of Franklin's contemporaries on the subject of education add value to this study and give point to the presentation made of Franklin's ideals.
The college-bred negro (Chapter III, pp. 191-229).- A number of institutions for the higher education of the negro have united, under the lead of Atlanta University, in the investigation of certain phases of the “negro problem," and have held five annual conferences in connection with this movement. A concerted inquiry of this character, made by members of the race in question, should result in the collection of much valuable material, a study of which may be expected to throw light on existing conditions. Indeed, a considerable body of statistical and other data has already been gathered relating to the mortality and general condition of negroes in cities, the success of negroes in business and in promoting their social betterment, and kindred topics. The fifth conference, held at Atlanta in May, 1900, was devoted to an inquiry regarding college-bred negroes, their number, distribution, occupations, and success in life. A report on this subject was made to the conference by Prof. W. E. Burghardt Du Bois, of Atlanta University, a considerable part of which is reprinted in Chapter III. The report was based on a study of 2,331 graduates, of whom 1,941 were from negro and 390 from white colleges.
A considerable number of unsolicited statements by college authorities are given by Professor Du Bois, tending to show that the standing and character of negro students in Northern white colleges are at
least as good as those of the arerage white student. The chosen field of the college-bred negro would seem to be in the South. Nearly 90 per cent of the Southern-born graduates remained in the South, while of the Northern born about 50 per cent went South.
A large number of brief statements by the graduates show the character of their early life and training, their struggles and ambitions. These narratives possess great human interest and are well calculated to awaken sympathy; that there are so many earnest spirits among the youth of the race is an encouraging sign.
Of the 1,312 graduates reporting their occupations, over one-half are teachers, one-sixth are preachers, and one-ninth lawyers or doctors; about 4 per cent are in business, and less than 3 per cent are farmers or artisans. Statements by a number of lawyers and doctors as to their practice and treatment by the community are given. The assessed value of real estate owned by 557 negro college graduates is shown in a table. Only 23 had real estate to the value of $10,000 or over. The average was $2,411. About one-fourth of the whole owned between $1,000 and $2,000 worth of this kind of property.
Not the least valuable are the numerous replies to the questions, “Are you hopeful for the future of the negro in this country?” and “Have you any suggestions?” This unique collection of views and opinions, apparently for the most part expressed with great candor, exposes the underlying currents of thought in the minds of educated begroes as to the needs and prospects of their race.
As summed up by Professor Du Bois, of 733 answers received 641 were hopeful, 40 were doubtful, and 52 were not hopeful. As to what the race most needed, 125 suggested college and industrial training, 49 an accumulation of land and wealth, 47 better-trained leaders, 34 more unity among themselves, 17 a more friendly feeling between the races, 8 better sexual morals, 8 keeping out of politics, 7 the emigration of some, 6 economy.
Francis W. Parker (Chapter IV, pp. 231-283). — The recent death of Francis W. Parker has recalled attention to his work as school superintendent in Quincy, Mass., from 1878 to 1880, and subsequently as principal of the Cook County Normal School, in Illinois. In Chapter IV are collected a number of papers, memorial and other addresses, etc., in which the work of Colonel Parker as an educator is reviewed and summed up, and estimates are given of the value of what has come to be known as the “Quincy method.” An account of the work of the Cook County and Chicago Normal School from 1883 to 1899 by Colonel Parker himself is included, presenting the successive steps by which that school was brought to realize in a high degree his ideal.
The northern churches and the freedmen.-In Chapter V (pp. 285–314) Rev. A. D. Mayo records the history of the missionary and educational efforts of certain northern churches in behalf of the freedmen of the
Southern States. This intervention began with the missionary activity of the American Missionary Association, a strict antislavery organization, in 1861 among the “contrabands" at Hampton, Va. Between 1866 and 1870 this association received $213,753.22, during which time its sphere of action had vastly extended. The Freedman's Bureau turned over a large sum of money to it, which was expended in building: for schools at Hampton, Va., Nashville, Tenn., Charleston, S. C., New Orleans, LA., and elsewhere. It is estimated that the people of Great Britain contributed not less than $1,000,000 in money and clothing for the colored people during these years. Many rural schools for negroes were also founded in the Southern States by the association in these early years. The author speaks of the ridicule excited by the exalted titles of the schools established during this period, and gives details of the founding of a number of institutions which have since become more worthy of the name of colleges and universities. In 1970 the American Missionary Association was giving instruction to 21,810 pupils. The Freedman's Bureau withdrew its aid at this time, after having disbursed $213,000 for Southern education through this agency. The teachers sent to the slave States as a rule “were not received in any proper social or even religious fellowship by the white people among whom they came to serve," from easily understood reasons, although, adds the author, “there was no considerable portion of the superior people of the South who ever showed any persistent and public hostility to this work.” By 1880 the association had 8 chartered "institutions of the higher education under the titles of college, university, and institute; 111 high and normal and 35 common schools, instructed by 230 teachers and missionaries." In 1886 it began founding schools among the 2,000,000 white mountaineers in the Southern Appalachians, who were largely illiterate. In 1896 the receipts of the association were $340,798.65 and expenditures $311,223.35, with a debt of $66,000. It had expended $11,610,000 from 1860 to 1896. This association has, niore than other church organizations, “ discouraged the mischievous habit of ingrafting the old-time parochial school” on the churches it has developed. In 1891 it reported 8 higher and secondary schools, 4 seminaries for the mountain whites in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and 93 normal, industrial, and graded schools. The association is under the auspices of the Congregational Church.
As early as 1862-63 the churches of the various denominations took steps to aid the negroes, and it was decided in 1863 that the chief need was schools and teachers. Teachers were sent to the seaboard in 1862 and up the Mississippi in 1863, i. e., even during the civil war. It was, however, decided by the various churches that the educational workers among the negroes must be church members, a decision which
prevented cooperation between the different denominations, and which rendered the secularizing of the schools for negroes impossible for a number of years. The Methodist Episcopal Church organized the Freedmen's Aid Society in 1866. By March 1, 1868, notwithstanding the financial depression of the country, $58,477.69 (65+,231.73 in cash) had been collected, of which $35,815.83 was expended in 9 States. There were 59 schools, with 124 teachers and 7,000 pupils. A large number of the teachers were ministers of the gospel, who labored both in church and school, and they all taught in the Sunday school. The superintendent spoke especially of the work of the schools in promoting the morals of the pupils. By 1878 the school work (leaving out of account the great church work in the South) showed 5 chartered institutions, 3 theological schools, 2 medical colleges, 10 academies, with an attendance of 2,010 students, 1,000 of whom were normal, in 11 States. Of the 6,000,000 colored people it was estimated that 64 per cent were "in the darkness of ignorance.” The Freedmen's Aid Society's school work was distinguished by the attention given to industrial training. During the first thirty years of its existence the society expended more than $6,000,000. In 1901 it had 47 institutions " of Christian learning," about equally divided between negroes and poor whites, in all the former slave States, with lands and buildings worth $2,165,000. The number of students in all the industrial schools was 2,906 in 1901. Of the $90,625 annual appropriation $79,975 was for institutions for colored students, consisting of 1 theological school, 2 medical schools, 10 colleges or universities (so entitled), and 10 academies. There were also 3 universities and 22 academies for white students. It expended $171,773.01 for colored schools during the
The author ascribes the want of success in raising funds in the North for educational propaganda among the negroes in the South largely to the fact that the denominations persisted in adhering to the parochial school—“the old European method of education":-while the majority of the people had become familiar with the public school system. He says that after thirty years of effort more than 50 per cent of the colored people of the South over 10 years of age can neither read nor write. The Presbyterian Church (North) in 1865 had declared in favor of special efforts in behalf of the freedmen. The report of its committee on missions for the freedmen in 1971 showed an indebtedness of $17,789.15. There were then tu parochial schools, with 58 teachers and 4,530 pupils, besides a theological and 2 normal schools, an academy, and a seminary for colored girls. In 1833 the annual income of the board had risen to $108,120.53, the number of schools (parochial) to (5, with 6,995 pupils and 129 teachers. The board stated that 76 per cent of the freedmen were illiterate.