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banner, or to defend one, were often the subjects of a particular vow among the sons of chivalry. Until some distinguishing exploit of this nature, a young knight was not said to have won his spurs; and, upon some occasions, he was obliged to bear, as a mark of thraldom, a chain upon his arm, which was removed with great ceremony, when his merit became conspicuous. These chains are noticed in the romance of Jehan de Santré. In the language of German chivalry, they were called Ketten des Gelubdes (fetters of duty.) Lord Herbert of Cherbury informs us, that the Knights of the Bath were obliged to wear certain strings, of silk and gold, upon their left arm, until they had achieved some noble deed of arms. When Edward III. commenced his French wars, many of the young bachelors of England bound up one of their eyes with a silk ribbon, and swore, before the peacock and the ladies, that they would not see with both eyes until they had accomplished certain deeds of arms in France.-FROISSART, cap. 28.
A remarkable instance of this chivalrous frenzy occurred during the expedition of Sir Robert Knowles, who, in 1370, marched through France, and laid waste the country, up to the very gates of Paris. "There was a knight, in their companye, had made a vowe, the day before, that he wolde ryde to the walles or gates of Parys, and stryke at the barryers with his speare. And, for the fournyshing of his vowe, he departed fro his companye, his speare in his fyst, his shelde about his neck, armed at all pecesse, on a good horsse, his squyer on another, behind him, with his bassenet. And whan he approached near to Parys, he toke and dyde on his helme, and left his squyre behind hym, and dashed his spurres to his horsse, and came gallopynge to the barryers, the whiche as then were opyn; and the lordes, that were there, had wened he wolde have entred into the towne; but that was not his mynde; for when he hadde stryken at the barryers, as he had before avowed, he towrned his reyne, and drue back agayne, and departed. Then the knightes of France, that sawe hym depart, sayd to him, ' Go your waye; you have ryghte well acquitted yourself.' I can nat tell you what was thys knyghtes name, nor of what contre; but the blazure of his armes was, goules, two fesses sable, a border sable. Howbeit. in the subbarbes, he had a sore encontre: for
as he passed on the pavement, he founde before hym a bocher, a bigge man, who had well sene this knighte pass by. And he helde in his handes a sharpe heavy axe, with a long poynt; and as the knight returned agayne, and toke no hede, this bocher came on his side, and gave the knyght such a stroke, betwene the neck and the shulders, that he reversed forwarde heedlynge, to the neck of his horsse, and yet he recovered agayne. And then the bocher strake hym agayne, so that the axe entered into his body, so that, for payne, the knyghte fell to the earthe, and his horsse ran away, and came to the squyer, who abode for his mayster at the stretes ende. And so, the squyer toke the horsse, and had gret marveyle what was become of his mayster; for he had well sene him ryde to the barryers, and stryke thereat with his glayve, and retourne agayne. Thanne he rode a lytell forthe, thyderwarde, and anone he saw where his master layn upon the erthe, bytwene foure men, layenge on him strokes, as they wolde have stryken on a stethey (anvil); and than the squyer was so affreyed, that he durst go no farther: for he sawe well he could nat help his mayster. Therefore he retourned as fast as he myght: so there the sayd knyghte was slayne. And the knyghtes, that were at the gate, caused hym to be buried in holy ground."-FROISSART, ch. 281.
A similar instance of a military jeopardy occurs in the same author, ch. 364. It happened before the gates of Troyes. "There was an Englyshe squyre, borne in the bishopryke of Lincolne, an expert man of arms; I can nat say whyder he could se or nat; but he spurred his horse, his speare in his hande, and his targe about his necke; his horse came rushyng downe the waye, and lept clene over the barres of the baryers, and so galoped to the gate, where as the Duke of Burgoyne and the other lordes of France were, who reputed that dede for a great enterprise. The squyre thoughte to have returned, but he could nat; for his horse was stryken with speares, and beaten downe, and the squyr slain; wherewith the Duke of Burgoyne was right sore displeased.
Wilt thou lend me our King's standard,
In all ages, and in almost all countries, the military standards have been objects of respect to the soldiery, whose duty it is to range beneath them, and, if necessary, to die in their defence. In the ages of chivalry, these ensigns were distinguished by their shape, and by the various names of banners, pennons, penoncelles, &c., according to the number of men who were to fight under them. They were displayed in the day of battle, with singular solemnity, and consigned to the charge only of such as were thought willing and able to defend them to the uttermost. When the army of Edward the Black Prince was drawn up against that of Henry the Bastard, King of Castile, "Than Sir Johan Chandos brought his baner, rolled up togyder, to the Prince, and said, 'Sir, behold, here is my baner. I requyre you display it abrode, and give me leave this daye to raise it; for, sir, I thanke God and you, I have land and heritage sufficiente to maynteyne it withal.' Than the Prince, and King Dampeter (Don Pedro), toke the baner betwene their hands, and spred it abrode, the which was of sylver, a sharp pyle gaules, and delyvered it to hym, and said, 'Sir Johan, behold here youre baner; God sende you joye and honour thereof!" Than Sir Johan Chandos bare his baner to his owne companye, and sayde, 'Sirs, beholde here my baner, and youres; kepe it as your owne.' And they toke it, and were right joyful thereof, and sayd, that by the pleasure of God, and Saint George, they would kepe and defend it to the best of their powers. And so the baner abode in the handes of a good English squyer, called William Alery, who bare it that day, and acquaytted himself right nobly."-FROISSART, vol. i. ch. 237. The loss of a banner was not only great dishonour, but an infinite disadvantage. At the battle of Cocherel, in Normandy, the flower of the combatants, on each side, were engaged in the attack and defence of the banner of the captall of Buche, the English leader. It was planted amid a bush of thorns, and
guarded by sixty men at arms, who defended it gallantly. "There were many rescues, and many a one hurt and cast to the earth, and many feates of armes done, and many gret strokes given, with good axes of steel, that it was wonder to behold." The battle did not cease until the captall's standard was taken and torn to pieces.
We learn, from the following passage in STOWE'S Chronicle, that the standard of Edward I. was a golden dragon. "The King entered Wales with an army, appointing the footmen to occupie the enemies in fight, whiles his horsemen, in a wing, set on the rere battell himselfe, with a power, kept his place, where he pight his golden dragon, unto whiche, as to a castle, the wounded and wearied might repair."
"Where wast thou bred? where wast thou born?
Where, or in what countrie ?"—
"In north of England I was born;"
STRATAGEMS, such as that of Maitland, were frequently prac tised with success, in consequence of the complete armour worn by the knights of the middle ages. In 1359, Edward III. entered France, to improve the success of the battle of Poictiers. Two French knights, Sir Galahaut of Rybamont, and Sir Roger of Cologne, rode forth, with their followers, to survey the English host, and, in short, to seek adventures. It chanced that they met a foraging party of Germans, retained in King Edward's service, under the command of Reynold of Boulant, a knight of that nation. By the counsel of a squire of his retinue, Sir Galahaut joined company with the German knight, under the assumed character of Bartholomew de Bonne, Reynold's countryman and fellow-soldier in the English service. The French knights "were a 70 men of armes, and Sir Renolde had not past a 30; and, whan Sir Renolde saw theym, he displayed his baner befor hym, and came softely rydynge towarde theym, wenyng to him that they had been Eng
lyshemen. Whan he approached, he lyft up hys vyser, and saluted Sir Galahaut, in the name of Sir Bartylmewe de Bonnes. Sir Galahaut helde himselfe styll secrete, and answered but fayntly, and sayd, Let us ryde forth;' and so rode on, and hys men, on the one syde, and the Almaygnes on the other. Whan Sir Renolde of Boulant saw theyr maner, and how Sir Galahaut rode sometyme by hym, and spake no word, than he begane to suspecte. And he had not so ryden, the space of a quarter of an hour, but he stode styll, under his baner, among his men, and sayd, 'Sir, I have doubt what knyght ye be I thinke ye be nat Sir Bartylmewe, for I knowe him well: and I see well that yt ys nat you. I woll ye tell me your name, or I ryde any farther in your company.' Therewith Sir Galahaut lyft up hys vyser, and rode towards the knyght to have taken hym by the raynse of his brydell, and cryed, 'Our Ladye of Rybamont!' Than Sir Roger of Coloyne said, 'Coloyne to the rescue!'1 Whan Sir Renolde of Boulant sawe what case he was in, he was nat greatly afrayd, but drewe out his sworde; and, as Sir Galahaut wolde have taken hym by the brydell, Sir Reynolde put his sworde clene through hym, and drue agayne hys sworde out of him, and toke his horse, with the spurres, and left Sir Galahaut sore hurt. And, whan Sir Galahautes men sawe theyr master in that case, they were sore dyspleased, and set on Sir Renoldes men; theyre were many caste to the yerth, but as sone as Sir Renolde had given Sir Galahaut that stroke, he strak his horse with the spurres, and toke the feldes. Than certayne of Galahautes squyers chasyd hym, and, whan he sawe that they followed hym so nere, that he muste other tourne agayne, or els be shamed, lyke a hardy knyghte he tourned, and abode the foremost, and gave hym such a stroke, that he had no more lyste to folwe him. And thus, as he rede on, he served three of theym, that folowed hym, and wounded them sore; if a good axe had been in hys hand, at every stroke he had slayne a man. He dyd so muche, that he was out of danger of the Frenchmen, and saved himselfe without any hurte; the whyche hys enemyes reputed for a grete prowess, and so dyd all other that harde thereof; but hys men
1 The war-cries of their families.