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NOTES TO VOL. XLIII

(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages

of English text.)

1 (p. 31). — This nun was Françoise Giffard, aged twenty-three years (Quebec ed. of Journal, p. 207, note).

2 (p. 35). — Pierre Duval, born in 1604, came to Canada with his family, including his wife and six children; of these, two were drowned, and one slain by the Iroquois. The date of his death is not recorded.

3 (p. 35). — Regarding this voyage of Bourdon, see vol. xi., note 11. Its date has been given by various writers as 1656; but the statement of the Journal in our text, with other evidence, corrects that error. The subject has been carefully investigated by J. E. Roy; see his excellent paper in Bulletin des Recherches Historiques, vol. ii. (1896), pp. 2-9, 21-23 — also published in separate form (Lévis, Que., 1896)

4 (p. 37). — Pierre Miville (as the name is given in the NôtreDame registers), a native of La Rochelle, brought his family to Canada before 1640; he died at Quebec in October, 1669. Tanguay mentions him as captain (presumably of militia) of Côte Lauson.

5 (p. 41). — Jean Lemire, born in 1626, near Rouen, married (October, 1653) at Quebec, Louise, daughter of Nicolas Marsolet (vol. v., note 35); she was then thirteen years old; they had sixteen children. Lemire was elected syndic of Quebec, in 1664, and again in 1667; he died in October, 1684.

6 (p. 41). — “After this phrase, in the original, a space of four or five lines is left blank. Father de Quen doubtless intended to insert therein the Huron's reply, and the signification of his two presents."- Quebec ed. of Journal, p. 212, note.

7 (P. 43).- De Mores is but a variant of Du Maure, the seigniorial title of Jean Juchereau (vol. xxvii., note 15).

8 (p. 51).- Batiscan (Baptiskam) is the name of a river travers. ing Champlain County, Quebec, and discharging into the St. Lawrence; it gives name to the town of Batiscan, 57 miles west of Quebec. The seigniory of Batiscan was granted to the Jesuits in

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March, 1639, by Abbé de la Ferté of Chateaudun, France; see terms of that concession in Sulte's Canad.- Français, t. ii., p. 69.

9 (p. 53). — Gabriel, abbé de Queylus (Kélus), had been an associate of Olier at Vaugirard (vol. xxi., p. 312) and became a promi. nent member of the Sulpitian community, founded by Olier. He did much to improve its discipline, also to establish ecclesiastical reform in various parts of Languedoc. The Associates of Montreal desired his appointment as bishop of Canada; but the greater influence of the Jesuits secured that dignity for Laval. The Associates also preferred a secular clergy at Montreal, and obtained from Olier four Sulpitians, of whom De Queylus was appointed superior. Just before their departure for Canada, Olier died (Apr. 2, 1657). They asked, and obtained, from the archbishop of Rouen the powers and authority commonly granted to missionaries in Canada; but he also appointed De Queylus his representative and grand vicar for all New France. The abbé's attempt to enforce the authority thus granted occasioned, of course, much dissatisfaction to the Jesuits; and the relations between them and the Sulpitians were, in consequence, long unfriendly. For a minute account of this whole affair, see Faillon's Col. Fran., t. ii., pp. 270-282; and Rochemonteix's Jésuites, t. ii., pp. 189-231, 277-305. Cf. vol. xvi. of this series, note 5. De Queylus went to France in 1671, intending to return next year to Canada; but his health gave way, and he was obliged to retire from active life. His death occurred at the Sulpi. tian seminary in Paris, March 20, 1677.

10 (p. 57).- From this point to the end of the next paragraph (September 2-6), the handwriting is that of Druillettes; thereafter, the record is kept by De Quen.

11 (p. 63). — Lambert Closse, a native of Touraine, had come to Montreal with Maisonneuve (1641), and was next to the latter in command of the garrison there, bearing the title of major or sergeant-major. In August, 1657, he married Elizabeth Moyen, by whom he had two daughters, but one of whom survived infancy. Closse received a grant of land at Montreal in 1650. In February, 1662, he was slain by the Iroquois, while aiding some Frenchmen whom they had attacked. He is described by contemporary writers as a man of great uprightness and piety, and a fearless and gallant soldier; his bravery, it was thought, had saved the infant colony of Montreal from destruction by the savages.

12 (p. 67). — “That is, his servant- who, according to the registers of Notre-Dame of Montreal, was called Jacques Noël” (Quebec ed. of Journal, p. 224, note 1).

Nicolas Godet, born (1581) in Perche, was one of the first settlers

at Montreal (1641); he brought with him his wife (née Françoise Gadois), and four children. Lands were granted him in 1650. His youngest daughter, Mathurine, at the age of fourteen married (1651) Jean St. Père (St. Pair), a notary, who came to Montreal two years after Godet. Grants of land were made to him in 1650, 1651, and 1654. At his death, he left two young children; a year later, his widow married Jacques Lemoine. Dollier de Casson, in his Histoire du Montréal (Quebec ed., 1871), p. 68, praises St. Père as a man of excellent character, intelligence, and judgment.

13 (p. 69).— Jean de Lauson, governor of Canada, resigned that post before his term of office expired, and, in the autumn of 1656, returned to France. He left the charge of affairs to his son Charles (vol. xxxvii., note 6); but the latter grew weary of such responsibility, and, in September, 1657, sailed for France, leaving the government of the country to Louis d'Ailleboust (vol. xxiii., note 16), Jean de Lauson's predecessor. In place of the last named, the Viscount d'Argenson was appointed by the king (January, 1657); but he did not arrive at Quebec until July, 1658, until which time D'Ailleboust was acting governor.

It may be added here, that the contention of P. G. Roy in regard to D'Ailleboust's daughter, mentioned in vol. xxxii., note 18, is sustained by M. Ernest Myrand, in Bull. Rech. Hist., February, 1899, pp. 43-51. He cites documents which show that D'Ailleboust had no children; Tanguay consequently errs in saying that his daughter married De Lauson.

14 (p. 73).— Jean Levasseur (also named Lavigne), born in 1622, came from Rouen to Canada. In 1648, he married Marguerite Richard, by whom he had twelve children. He is mentioned in the text as a sergeant; by Tanguay, as a bailiff. In January, 1664, he and two other Montreal habitants obtained from De Lauson the island of St. Paul, near Montreal. Soon afterward, this concession was equally divided between the three; but, in 1669, Lavigne gave his fief to Marie Le Ber. He died in August, 1686.

15 (p. 73). — François d'Allet, who probably acted as the secretary of De Queylus, was one of the four Sulpitians who arrived in Canada in 1657. He remained there until 1671, when he returned with De Queylus to France.

Louis Théandre Chartier de Lotbinière was born in 1612, of a noble family in Paris. Tanguay traces this family line to the early part of the fourteenth century; there is, he says, no other Canadian stock which can be traced back so far as this one. Louis married (1641) Marie Elizabeth, sister of Mathieu d'Amours (vol. xxx., note 14), by whom he had two children. He was one of the Tadoussac

trading company in 1663; and, in the following year, was appointed procuror-general by De Mézy. He is also mentioned in the census of 1667 as lieutenant-general, civil and criminal, for the seneschal of Quebec. Chartier was granted lands in 1662, 1672, and 1685. The first of these concessions was a part of the lands donated to the Récollet missionaries in 1620, located on the St. Charles River (vol. iv., note 22). Upon the return of that order to Canada (1670), Chartier restored to them his share of their lands. It was at his house that “the first ball in Canada " was given, as noted by the Journal (February, 1667). He died in September, 1690.

16 (p. 73). — “ The Jesuits, having been given the choice, in 1645, of accepting 6,000 livres, for building a clergy-house upon the church lands (see vol. xlii. of this series, note 28), or of building with their own funds and handing over that amount to the Community of Habitants, preferred the latter alternative; and they did, in fact, pay the 6,000 livres (1655) to the treasurer of the Community. On his arrival, Monsieur the abbé de Queylus, now curé of Quebec, finding himself without a clergy-house, brought suit against the Jesuit Fathers, to compel them to give up to the parish the new dwelling which they had just built, or to pay it the 6,000 livres. They were notified of the interlocutory mandate of the seneschal, as the Journal here indicates, Nov. 22, 1657; and four months later, March 23, 1658, the governor, M. d'Ailleboust, rendered a definite judgment. By it he declared that the Community of Habitants was duly made responsible for paying, in release and acquittal of the said Jesuit Fathers, the said sum of six thousand livres; and the agent of the said Community, M. Jean Gloria, was sentenced to pay, in preference to other debts of the said Community, the said sum of six thousand livres, to be employed in the erection of the said clergy-house.'” - Quebec ed. of Journal, p. 226, note.

17 (p. 143).— Zacharie Dupuis, the leader of this expedition, was a native (1608) of Rieux, France. It is not known when he came to Canada. Previous to his departure for Onondaga, he was commandant of the fort at Quebec; in 1670, he was major of the Montreal garrison; and, in 1672, he obtained from the Sulpitians a grant of land below Lachine. He died at Montreal, in June, 1676. In 1668, he had married Jeanne Groisat; there is no record of her death, or of children born to them.

18 (p. 147).- Atoka (atoca, ataca; toca, Sagard): the common cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Gray), still known to the French Canadians by its Indian name. It is figured and described by Charlevoix (Plantes Amer., p. 39). Cf. the cerises sans noyau, "cherries without stones," on page 257 of this volume.

19 (p. 257).— The nuts here mentioned are doubtless those of the hickory (Carya, Nutt.).— the “shell-bark" variety (C. alba), or the “pig-nut" (C. glabra), which are sweet; and the “bitternut" or swamp hickory (C. amara), the nuts of which, although intensely bitter, yield excellent oil. See Charlevoix's description of these (Journ. Hist., p. 162). The Indians pounded the kernels to a paste, which they boiled in water; the oil, rising to the top, was skimmed off, and preserved in gourds or in vessels of bark; it was used to enrich and flavor the sagamité and other foods. The sunflower (Helianthus) was prized by the natives for the oil obtained from its seeds, “though among the Northern tribes the oil made from it was not eaten, but was used on the hair."-Carr's “Food of Amer. Indians,” Amer. Antiq. Soc. Proc., vol. x., part 1. pp. 171, 172.

20 (p. 259).-The “cherries without stones” refer to the cran. berry (note 18, ante). The fruit resembling an apricot is probably the May-apple (Podophyllum peltatum); cf. vol. xiii., note 3. The "apples shaped like a goose's egg" are the fruits of the papaw (Asimina triloba).

The “universal plant" mentioned in our text has not yet been, so far as known, identified; and it seems to have escaped the notice of most botanical writers. The description given in this Relation would indicate, however, the common sassafras (Laurus Sassafras, Linn.; Sassafras officinale, Nees. ; Sassafras Sassafras, Karsten, and in U. S. Pharmacopeia). It is indigenous in America from Canada to Brazil; in southern latitudes it becomes a tree 30 to 50 feet high, but north of 40° N. lat. it is found as a low shrub, three to five feet high. This consideration will account for the Father's mention of it as “a plant.” The sassafras has always been prized for its medicinal virtues: it had been long used by the natives of Florida before the Spanish conquest; upon its discovery by white men, it speedily became a valued drug in Europe, and an important article of commerce from America; and it is still employed to a considerable extent, especially in domestic medicine in the United States. Every part of the tree is used medicinally; for list of these uses, see Rafinesque's Medical Flora (Phila., 1830), vol. ii., p. 235. The bark affords a dye for a handsome and permanent orange color. See the admirable monograph, historical, bibliograpical, and practical, on “Sassafras," by Prof. John U. Lloyd, in Pharmaceutical Review, Dec., 1898, pp. 450-459. The sassafras is figured and described by Charlevoix, in Plantes Amer., pp. 9, 10. Thanks are due Prof. L. S. Cheney and Dr. Rodney True, of the University of Wisconsin, for information and suggestions regarding this subject.

21 (p. 261).— In regard to the mineral springs mentioned in the text, the first one has never been exactly identified. By land, it

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