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This is a letter of Paul le Jeune, ended in March, 1657 (no place given, but doubtless Paris), to the mother superior of the Hôtel-Dieu at Quebec. The original MS. rests in the archives of St. Mary's College, Montreal; and this we follow in the present publication.


For bibliography of the Journal des Jésuites, see our Vol. XXVII.


In reprinting the Relation of 1656-57 (Paris, 1658), we follow a copy of the original Cramoisy edition in the Lenox Library. This volume was edited by Paul le Jeune. In his preliminary epistle he says that Jean de Quen, as superior of the New France missions, had sent over an annual report; but that the vessel which bore it was captured by the Spaniards, who threw overboard all the letters they found. Le Jeune, however, had previously had some advance sheets from De Quen. He, therefore, collected as much of the materials as he could recover, which, with the addition of some other unpublished memoirs of the previous year, form the contents of the present Relation.

Le Jeune's editorial letter to the Provincial, Louis Cellot, is dated “ Au College de Clermont ce 1. de Decembre 1657.The “ Privilege” for the volume was “ Donné à Paris le 3. Decembre 1657;” and the “ Permiffion" was issued “A Paris, le 28. Decembre 1656," though in reality only repeating the date of the permission of the preceding annual. Chapter xxi. contains a letter from François le Mercier to the Provincial, dated “ A Monreal ce 6. Iuin 1656,” which was, in fact, a belated part of the preceding year's report. Chap. xxii. contains a letter from Paul Ragueneau, dated on p. 202, “ Du chemin de Kebec à Onontaghé ce 9. d'Aoust 1657." This latter piece was received while the last sheet of the Relation was in press. The volume is mentioned in no. 110 of Harrisse's Notes.

Collation: Title, with verso blank, I leaf; Le Jeune's editorial letter, pp. (6); Table des Chapitres," pp. (2); “ Privilege," with “ Permiffion” on the verso, i leaf; text, pp. 1-211, with the verso of p. 211 blank. Signatures: å in four, ē in two, A-N in eights, O in two. No mispaging.

Copies of this Relation are in the following libraries: Lenox, Harvard, New York State Library, Brown (private), Ayer (private), Library of Parliament (Ottawa), Laval University (Quebec), British Museum, and Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris). It has been sold or priced as follows: Harrassowitz (1882), no. 39, priced at 125 marks; O'Callaghan (1882), no. 1238, sold for $50, and had cost him $32.50 in gold; Barlow (1890), nos. 1306 and 1307, sold for $12 and $9, respectively; and Dufossé, priced in 1891 and 1892 at 150 and 190 francs.


(Figures in parentheses, following number of note, refer to pages

of English text.)

1 (p. 31). — This nun was Françoise Giffard, aged twenty-three years (Quebec ed. of Journal, p. 207, note).

2 (p. 35). — Pierre Duval, born in 1604, came to Canada with his family, including his wife and six children; of these, two were drowned, and one slain by the Iroquois. The date of his death is not recorded.

3 (p. 35). — Regarding this voyage of Bourdon, see vol. xi., note 11. Its date has been given by various writers as 1656; but the statement of the Journal in our text, with other evidence, corrects that error. The subject has been carefully investigated by J. E. Roy; see his excellent paper in Bulletin des Recherches Historiques, vol. ii. (1896), pp. 2-9, 21-23 — also published in separate form (Lévis, Que., 1896)

4 (p. 37). — Pierre Miville (as the name is given in the NôtreDame registers), a native of La Rochelle, brought his family to Canada before 1640; he died at Quebec in October, 1669. Tanguay mentions him as captain (presumably of militia) of Côte Lauson.

5 (p. 41). — Jean Lemire, born in 1626, near Rouen, married (October, 1653) at Quebec, Louise, daughter of Nicolas Marsolet (vol. v., note 35); she was then thirteen years old; they had sixteen children. Lemire was elected syndic of Quebec, in 1664, and again in 1667; he died in October, 1684.

6 (p. 41). — “After this phrase, in the original, a space of four or five lines is left blank. Father de Quen doubtless intended to insert therein the Huron's reply, and the signification of his two presents."- Quebec ed. of Journal, p. 212, note.

7 (P. 43).- De Mores is but a variant of Du Maure, the seigniorial title of Jean Juchereau (vol. xxvii., note 15).

8 (p. 51).- Batiscan (Baptiskam) is the name of a river travers. ing Champlain County, Quebec, and discharging into the St. Lawrence; it gives name to the town of Batiscan, 57 miles west of Quebec. The seigniory of Batiscan was granted to the Jesuits in


March, 1639, by Abbé de la Ferté of Chateaudun, France; see terms of that concession in Sulte's Canad.-Français, t. ii., p. 69.

9 (p. 53).— Gabriel, abbé de Queylus (Kélus), had been an associate of Olier at Vaugirard (vol. xxi., p. 312) and became a promi. nent member of the Sulpitian community, founded by Olier. He did much to improve its discipline, also to establish ecclesiastical reform in various parts of Languedoc. The Associates of Montreal desired his appointment as bishop of Canada; but the greater influence of the Jesuits secured that dignity for Laval. The Associates also preferred a secular clergy at Montreal, and obtained from Olier four Sulpitians, of whom De Queylus was appointed superior. Just before their departure for Canada, Olier died (Apr. 2, 1657). They asked, and obtained, from the archbishop of Rouen the powers and authority commonly granted to missionaries in Canada; but he also appointed De Queylus his representative and grand vicar for all New France. The abbé's attempt to enforce the authority thus granted occasioned, of course, much dissatisfaction to the Jesuits; and the relations between them and the Sulpitians were, in consequence, long unfriendly. For a minute account of this whole affair, see Faillon's Col. Fran., t. ii., pp. 270-282; and Rochemonteix's Jésuites, t. ii., pp. 189-231, 277-305. Cf. vol. xvi. of this series, note 5. De Queylus went to France in 1671, intending to return next year to Canada; but his health gave way, and he was obliged to retire from active life. His death occurred at the Sulpi. tian seminary in Paris, March 20, 1677.

10 (p. 57).- From this point to the end of the next paragraph (September 2-6), the handwriting is that of Druillettes; thereafter, the record is kept by De Quen.

11 (p. 63). — Lambert Closse, a native of Touraine, had come to Montreal with Maisonneuve (1641), and was next to the latter in command of the garrison there, bearing the title of major or sergeant-major. In August, 1657, he married Elizabeth Moyen, by whom he had two daughters, but one of whom survived infancy. Closse received a grant of land at Montreal in 1650. In February, 1662, he was slain by the Iroquois, while aiding some Frenchmen whom they had attacked. He is described by contemporary writers as a man of great uprightness and piety, and a fearless and gallant soldier; his bravery, it was thought, had saved the infant colony of Montreal from destruction by the savages.

12 (p. 67).-" That is, his servant - who, according to the regis. ters of Notre-Dame of Montreal, was called Jacques Noël” (Quebec ed. of Journal, p. 224, note 1).

Nicolas Godet, born (1581) in Perche, was one of the first settlers

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