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-“Wasteful, forth
Walks the dire power of pestilent disease.
A thousand bideous fiends her course attend,
Sick nature blasting, and to heartless woe
And feeblo desolation, casting down
The towering hopes, and all the pride of man."

- The Seasons.

The African traveller, in this sec- and the conduct of a caravan, rather tion of the nineteenth century, is an than the study of infusoria and baroanimal overworked. Formerly the meters. The sight of an instrument reading public was satisfied with dry convinces barbarians that the stranger details of mere discovery-was de- is bringing down the sun, stopping lighted with a few latitudes and lon- rain, causing death, and bewitching gitudes. Of late, in this, as in other the land for ages. Amidst utter sapursuits, the standard has been raised. vagery such operations are someWhilst marching so many miles per times possible; amongst the semidiem, and watching a certain number civilised they end badly. The climate of hours per noctem, the traveller, also robs man of energy as well as who is in fact his own general, adju- health. He cannot, if he would, coltant, quarter-master, and executive, lect ticks and beetles. The simplest is expected to survey and observe- geodesical labours, as these pages will to record meteorology, hygrometry, prove, are unadvisable. My compaand hypsometry—to shoot and stuff nion has twice suffered from taking birds and beasts, to collect geological an altitude. Why is not a party of specimens, to gather political and physicists sent out to swallow the commercial information, to advance dose prescribed by them to their the infant study ethnology, to keep army of martyrs ? accounts, to sketch, to indite a co- The rainy monsoon had set in at pious legible journal, to collect gram- Fuga. Heavy clouds rolled up from mars and vocabularies, and frequently the south-west, and during our two to forward long reports which shall days and nights upon the hills the prevent the Royal Geographical So- weather was a succession of drip, ciety napping through evening meet- drizzle, and drench.

In vain we ings. It is right, I own, to estab- looked for a star; even the sun could lish a high standard which insures not disperse the thick raw vapours some work being done; but explora- that rose from the steamy earth. tions should be distinguished from We did not dare to linger upon the railway journeys, and a broad liue mountains. Our Belochies were not drawn between the feasible and clad to resist the temperature—here the impossible. The unconscionable 12° lower than on the coast; the rain physicist now deems it his right to would make the lowlands a hotbed complain, because the explorer has of sickness, and we daily expected not used his theodolite in the temple the inevitable" seasoning.fever.” In of Mecca, and introduced his sympi- the dry monsoon this route might be osometer within the walls of Harar. made practicable to Chbaga and KiAn ardent gentleman once requested limanjaro. With an escort of a hunme to collect beetles, and another sent dred musketeers, and at an expense me excellent recipes for preserving of £600, the invalid who desires to ticks.

avail himself of this “ sanitarium," These African explorations are as it is now called by the Indian small campaigns, in which the tra- papers, may, if perfectly sound in veller, unaided by discipline, is beset wind, limb, and digestion, reach the by all the troubles, hardships, and snowy region, if it exist, after ten perils of savage war. He must de- mountain-marches, which will not vote himself to feeding, drilling, and occupy more than a month. directing his men to the use of arms Finding an impossibility of geo

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graphical study in Usumbara, we ap- tunity of seeing, the very“ ministers" plied ourselves to gathering general dare not openly receive presents. In a information. Sultan Kimwere, I was land where beads are small change, told, is the fourth of a dynasty of and sheeting and “ domestics” form Tondeurs and Ecorcheurs, originally the higher specie, revenue is thus from Nguru, a hilly region south of collected. Cattle-breeders offer the the river. His father, Shabugah, first fruits of flocks and herds ; elepushed the Usumbara frontier from phant-hunters every second tusk; and Pare to the sea, and the division traders a portion of their merchanof his dominions caused bloodshed dise. Cultivators are rated annually amongst his successors. Kimwere, at ten measures of grain. This acin youth a warrior of fame, ranked counts for the exportation from Tanga in the triumvirate of mountain-kings and Pangany to Zanzibar, and even above Bana Rongua of Chhaga, and Arabia. The lion's share is reserved Bana Kizunga of the Wakuafy. In for the royal family; the crumbs are age he has lost ground. His sister's distributed to the councillors and the sons, chiefs of Msihi, a hilly province

Waengrezy, north-east from Fuya, rebelled, de- The headquarter village of Usumstroyed his hosts by rolling down bara is Fuga, a heap of some 500 huts, stones, and were reduced only by the containing, I was told, 3000 souls. aid of twenty Belocbies.

He has a It is defenceless, and composed of body-guard of four hundred mus- the circular abodes common from keteers, whom he calls hisWaengrezy, Harar to Timbuctoo. Frameworks or Englishmen. They are dispersed of concentric wattles, wrapped with among the villages, for now the oryx- plantain-leaves, are fastened to little horn is silent, and the watch-fire is uprights, and plastered internally never extinguished upon the moun- with mud. A luw solid door acts tain-pass. This “ Lion of the Lord,” also as a window, and the conical in these days, asserts kinghood but roof is supported by a single central in one point : he has three hundred tree. A fireplace of stones in the wives, each surrounded by slaves, and middle_distributes smoke as well as portioned with a hut and a planta- heat. In some homesteads the semition. His little family amounts to circle farther from the entrance is between eighty and ninety sons, some filled by a raised framework of planks, of whom have Islamised, whilst their forming a family bedstead, and a few sire remains a “ pragmatical pagan.' bave over it a kind of second halfThe Lion's person is sacred ; even a story, like a magnified bunk. runaway slave saves life by touching The population of Usumbara is royalty. Presently he will die, be abundantly leavened with Arab wrapped up in matting, and placed blood; it thrives, to judge from the sitting-wise under his deserted'hut, a lodges capping every hill, and from stick denoting the spot. Dogs will the children, who apparently form be slaughtered for the funeral-feast, more than the normal fifth. The and Muigni Khatib will rule in his snowy heads of the elders


that stead, and put to death all who dare, we are still in the land of Macrobian during the two months of mourning, Ethiopians-men who die of old age ! to travel


the king's high way: The Wasumbara, who, though of Meanwhile Sultan Kimwere rules light-brown colour, are short, stout, at home like a right kingly African and plain, file ther teeth to points, king, by selling his subjects-men, and brand a circular beauty-spot in women, and children, young and old, the mid-forehead ; their heads are gentle and simple, individually, or, shaven, their feet bare, and, except when need lays down the law, by talismans round the neck, wrists, and families and by villages. Death, ankles, their only wear is a sheet over imprisonment, and mutilation are the shoulders, and a rag or hide round foreign pieces of state machinery, the loins. A knife is stuck in the and rare.

Confiscation and sale are waist-cord, and men walk abroad with indigenous and frequent. None hold pipe, bow, and quiverless arrows. property without this despot's per- The women are adorned with charmmission; and, as we had an oppor- bags, and collars of white beads

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now in fashion throughout this re- without even claiming their hire. gion -- from three to four pounds None of Sultan Kimwere's men dared weight, encumber the shoulders of a to face the terrible Wazegura. The

distinguished person.” Their body- Belochies had gorged themselves faint dress is the African sheet bound tight with beef ; and the hide, the horns, ly under the arms, and falling to the and collops of the raw meat were ankles. The Wasumbara of both sexes added to the slaves' loads. We deare comparatively industrious. The scended the hills in a Scotch mist husband and children work in the and drizzle, veiling every object from fields, or graze their cattle when the view. It deepened into a large-dropsun has dried up the dew. Toward ped shower upon the fetid low-lands. evening, they are penned in the yard, That night we slept at Pasunga ; the and the younglings are stowed away next at Msiky Mguru ; and the third, within the hut. Sometimes they after marching seventeen miles-our employ themselves in running down greatest distance--at Kohoday. The the little deer, and throwing sticks graceless Momba received us scurvily. at the guinea-fowls. To the good- We had neither caps nor muslins, wife's share fall the labours of clean- consequently the village-boat remaining the pen, fetching wood and wa- ed under its cadjan cover, and we ter, pounding maize in a large tree- were punted over by a slave on a mortar, baking plantain-bread, and bundle of coco fronds, to the immicarrying the baby. Meat is consi- nent peril of our chronometers. dered a luxury. The cattle want the We now resolved to skirt the river enlarged udder, that unerring sign of downwards, and to ascertain the truth bestial civilisation. An English cow concerning its Falls and Rapids. At will produce as much as half-a-dozen dawn, Wazira came from our party, of them. This deficiency of milk in who had halted on the other side of pastoral lands often excites the tra- the stream, and warned us that it veller's wonder. At times he drinks was time to march; yet 9 A.M. passit gratis by pailfuls, generally he can- ed by before the ragged line began to not buy a drop, even for medicine.” stretch over the plain. Our Belochies Neither barbarians nor their cattle declared the rate of marching excescan attain regularity of supply, which sive ; and Hamdan, who personified is perhaps the best test of refinement. “Master Shoetie, the great traveller," With quiet consciences and plenty of averred that he had twice visited the good tobacco, the Wasumbara are yet Lakes, but had never seen such harda moody, melancholy race; the effect, ships in his dreams. probably, of their cold mountain air. Our route lay along the alluvial A timid, dismal, and ignoble race are plain before travelled over. Instead, these “ children of the mist ;" as, in- however, of turning towards the red deed, are for the most part those waste, we pursued the river's left savages who have changed pastoral bank, and presently entered familiar for agricultural pursuits.

land—broken ground, rough with On Monday, the 16th February, stones and thorns. Wazira declared we took leave of, and were duly dis- his life forfeited if seen by a Mzegura. missed by, Sultan Kimwere. The old With some toil, however, we coaxed man, however, was mortified that our him into courage, and joined on the rambles had not produced a plant of way a small party bound for Pansovereign virtue against the last evil gany. At 1 P.M. we halted to bathe of life. He had long expected a white and drink, as it would be some time mganga, and now two had visited before we should_again sight the him, to depart without even a trial! winding stream. During the storm I felt sad to see the wistful lingering of thunder and lightning which enlook with which he accompanied sued, I. observed that our savage “kuahery"-farewell! But his case companions, like the Thracians of old was far beyond my skill.

Herodotus, and the Bheels and CoolWith infinite trouble we set out at ies of modern India, shot their iron7 A.M. on the next day. The three tipped arrows in the air. Such, perporters whom we had engaged, char- haps, is the primitive paratonnerre, acteristically futile, had run away preserved traditionally from ages, long

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forgotten by man, when Franklin money for rice and ghee. No protaught him to disarm the artillery of vision, however, was procurable. heaven. Through rain and sleet and Our escort went to bed suppernumbing wind, we threaded by a less ; Haidan cursing this “ Safar goat-path the dripping jungle, and kháis” - Anglice, rotten journey ; about 4 P.M. found ourselves opposite Rahmat beweeping his twisted musKizanga, a large Wazegura village taches; and Shaaban smoking like on the right bank of the river. The the chimney of a Hammam. Murad inhabitants crossed over their bridge Ali had remained at Msiky Mguru with muskets and bows, and squat- to purchase a slave without our ted down to feast their eyes. All, knowledge. A novice in such mathowever, were civil, and readily ters, he neglected to tie the man's changed cocos for tobacco. Here the thumb, and had the exquisite misery Pangany is a strong stream, flowing to see, in the evening after the sale, rapidly through a rocky trough, be- his dollars bolting at a pace that tween high curtains of trees and un- baffled pursuit. We should have derwood. On both sides the hilly fared meagrely had not one of the roots of Mount Tongway approach elders brought, after dark, a handful the bed, leaving narrow ledges, slip- of red rice and an aged hen. This pery with ooze and mire, overgrown provant was easily despatched by with sedge and spear-grass, and three hungry men, of whom one was sprinkled with troublesome thorn- a Portuguese cook. We then placed

a trees. From Kizanga we followed our weapons handy, and were soon the river hy a vile footpath. The air lulled to sleer, despite smoke, wet was dank and oppressive ; the clouds beds, and other plagues, by the blusseemed to settle upon earth, and the tering wind and the continuous patdecayed vegetation exhaled a feverish tering of rain. fetor. As we advanced, the roar of At sunrise on Friday, the 20th the swollen stream told of rapids, February, we were aroused by the whilst an occasional glimpse through guide; and, after various delays, found its green veil showed a reefous sur- ourselves on the road about 7 A.M. face, tecked with white froth. Heavy This day was the reflection of the nimbi purpled the western skies, and la t march. Hills still girt the river, we began to inquire of Wazira whe- with black soil in the lower, and red ther a village was at hand.

clay in the upper, levels. The path About sunset, after marching was a mere line, foot-worn through fifteen miles, we suddenly saw tall thickety torrent - beds, thorny juncocos—in these lands the “ traveller's gles, and tall grasses. At 9 A.M. joy” -- waving their feathery heads we stood upon a distant eminence against the blue eastern firmament. to admire the Falls of the Pangany Presently crossing a branch of the River. Here the stream, emerging river by a long bridge, made rickety from a dense dark growth of tropical for ready defence, we entered, with forest, hurls itself in three huge a flock of homeward - bound goats, sheets, fringed with flashing foam, Kizungu, an_island - settlement of down a rugged wall of brown rock. Wazegura. The headmen, assem- Half-way the fall is broken by a bling, received us with some cere- ledge, whence a second leap precipimony; introduced us into an emptied tates the waters into the mist-veiled hut; and, placing cartels upon the basin of stone below.

These casground outside, sat down, ringed by a cades must be grand during the noisy crowd for the customary pala- monsoon, when the river, forming a ver. This village, being upon the single horse-shoe, acquires a volume confines of civilisation, and excited and momentum sufficient to clear by wars and rumours of wars, sug- the step which divides the shrunken gested treachery to experienced tra- stream. Of all natural objects, the vellers. My companion and I fired cataract rost requires that first our revolvers into trees, and carefully element of sublimity-size. Yet, as reloaded them for the public benefit. it was, this fall, with the white spray The sensation was such that we and bright mist, set off by black seized the opportunity of offering jungle, and a framework of slaty rain




c!oad, formed a picture sufficiently caped with a few sick headaches, effective to surprise us.

and we found his confrère free from As we journeyed onwards, the heat Pangany fever. After spending a became intense. The nimbi hugged day upon the coast, we returned, the mountain - tops. There it was provided with munitions de bouche, winter; but the sun, whose beams and other necessaries, to Chogway, shot stingingly through translucent and settled old scores with our air, parched the summer plains. At escort. * Then, as the vessel in 10 A.m. our Belochies, clean worn out which we were to cruise southward by famine and fatigue, tbrew them- was not expected from Zanzibar till selves upon the bank of a broad and the 1st March, and we had a week deep ravine, in whose sedgy bed a to spare, it was resolved to try a fall little water still lingered. Wild with Behemoth. bees had built upon the trees, but The hippopotamus, called by the none courted the fate of plundering Sawahilis “kiboko,”and by the Arabs bears. The jungle was rich in Abu “bakar el khor," or the creek-bullock, Jahl's melon, the colocynth; and resembles a mammoth pig with the slaves gnawed the dried cala- equine head, rather than horse or bash pith. Half an hour's rest, a

He loves the rivers and coco-nut each, a pipe, and, above all inlets where fresh-water mingles with things, the spes finis, restored their the briny tide. At dawn, retiring vigour. We resumed our march from land, he takes shelter in the over a rolling waste of green, en- deep pools, succeeding one another livened by occasional glimpses of the chaplet-wise in the streams. Some river, whose very aspect cooled the such place is termed by the natives gazer. Villages became frequent as his "house.” This, in the presence we advanced, far distancing our of man, he will not leave, fearing to Belochies. At 3 P.M., after march- expose his person while passing over ing fourteen miles, we sighted the the dividing sand-ridges. When unsnake-fence and the pent-houses of disturbed, he may be seen plunging friendly Chogway.

porpoise-like against the stream, or The jemadar and his garrison re- basking iu shallow water, and upon ceived us with all the honours of tra- the soft miry bank, or cooling himvel, and admired our speedy return self under dense mangroves, from Fuga. As at Harar, a visitor singly and in groups, with his heavy can never calculate upon prompt box-head resting upon

a friend's dismissal. We were too strong for broad stern. I have come upon him force, but Sultan Kimwere has de- in these positions within sight of tained Arab and other strangers for timber-boats, and women and chila fort-night before his Mganga fixed dren will bathe but a few yards from a fit time for audience. Moreover, his haunts. Dozing by day, at night these walking journeys are danger- he wriggles up, one of the many runs ous in one point: the least accident on the river-side, and wanders far to disables a party, and accidents will graze upon fat rich grass, and to happen to the best-regulated expedi- plunder plantations of their grain. tions.

He is easily killed by the puny arrow Our feet were cut by boots and on terra firma ; in the water he is shoes, and we had lost “ leather" by difficult to shoot, and scarcely poschafing and sunburns. A few days' sible to bag. He exposes only his rest removed these inconveniences. eyes above the surface, and after a Our first visit was paid to Pangany, shot, will raise for hours nothing but where Said bin Salim, who had a nostril, slipping down the moment watched his charge with the fidelity He sights the enemy. Receiving a of a shepherd's dog, received us with deathblow, he clings to the bottom, joyous demonstrations. The Portu- and reappears only when blown up guese boy, our companion, had es- by incipient decomposition. Without

* The jemadar, in consideration of his two slaves, received twenty dollars ; the hard-working portion of our Belochies five ; and the drones-old Shaaban and the Rhamat-respectively four and three.

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