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fired at random on the fortifications power or authority in this realm of of Romanism, inveighing against pe- England, should, by our practice, culiar errors and doctrines, such as keep in countenance that very instiPurgatory, Pardons, Worship of Im- tution which is the main-stay of the ages, and such like. All their artil- Roman power. Celibacy ought to lery ought to have been concentrated be looked upon, not as a thing deon the one institution of the celibacy sirable in itself, but an inconvenience of the clergy. If this rule had once forced on men by occasional and exbeen broken down in the several ceptional circumstances. Churches, each Church for itself would CELEBS.—I confess that puts the have asserted its independence of the matter before me in a new light. I Pope, and most advisable reforms in give up the principle, but the exdoctrine and practice would have pediency of the continuance of the followed as a matter of course. Old practice may still be open to discusGregory the Seventh, and those who sion. As a matter of fact, Fellows helped him in establishing the spiri- of Colleges are generally able to marry tual dominion of Rome, well under- as soon as other men in the same stood the only means of doing it. rank of life, who have not the same They promulgated the virtue of ab- advantage or disadvantage-as soon, staining from marriage, and canon- for instance, as barristers or medical ised virginity in the person of our Lord's mother, knowing that this CELSUS.—That these men are not idea was the corner-stone of their able to marry earlier is the fault of ecclesiastical fabric. The novel doc- the artificial state of society in which trine of the Immaculate Conception we live. A London man must be of Saint Mary herself has furnished able to keep a brougham, and a them with an additional bulwark, certain establishment, and a certain unless, indeed, the bulwark is so staff of female servants and flunkies. rudely placed as in the end to ruin He does not really enjoy any of these the old wall. Hence sprung an things, but he does them for the organised society, the individuals of sake of his neighbours, in most cases, which have no ties of country, be- and the effect is simply to make his cause they have no homes or families. neighbours break the tenth commandThey are subjects of the Pope, not ment. His work in life would be done of Victoria or Napoleon. Their reli- better if he were more anxious to gious tyranny is founded on a politi- consult his own internal happiness, cal usurpation; and it is that politi- without thinking what men thought cal usurpation which ought to have of him, or women said of him. Such been pointedly protested against as men as Lord Stowell, who bravely the only sure means of sapping the re- roughed it at first, have generally ligious tyranny. It is astonishing to got on quite as well as those who think how little would have sufficed. worked with greater caution. BeHad the Reformers even allowed the sides, even supposing that there were seniority of the Bishop of Rome while some insuperable impediments to the they denied his supremacy and de- early marriages of doctors and barrisstroyed the celibacy of the clergy, ters, I do not see why Fellows of the Reformation would in all proba- Colleges should be obliged to sail in bility have worked its way to a very the same boat. Their Fellowships, wholesome end, the great countries with some certain work added to would have enjoyed a spiritual eman- them, would enable them to commit cipation, and the flagrant anomaly, wedlock gently and easily. Because which displays imperial countries the duties of a soldier force him to like France and Austria in bondage live in a camp and bivouac in the to a decayed fragment of Italy, would open air, there is no reason why have been effectually obviated. It those left at home should leave their has pleased Heaven to decree other- four-posters and lie among the cabwise; but surely it is inexpedient bages of their kitchen-gardens. Bethat we in Oxford, who take such sides, those professions are progrestremendous oaths against the notion sive; the literary profession-I do of the Bishop of Rome possessing any not intend a pun—is stationary ; its
culminating point is soon reached; well and good. He may, and proits prizes, when they are gained, are bably will emancipate you. But I less lucrative than those of other pro- should think you had had enough of fessions. There is no object in the waiting.. I would advise you to take waiting.
your choice now, Wait and wither, or CELEBS.—It strikes me, now, that do and dare. there is a certain inconsistency in your
CELEBS.-I will write to Patience arguments. You are arguing that Fel- Hope to-night, and beg her to name lows of Colleges ought to be allowed the day. to marry on their Fellowships ; and CELSUS.-Do, my dear fellow, and yet, as I interpret it, you are urging God speed you. I abominate the me to cut the matter short, and very name of Celibacy. Not only is marry without a Fellowship. Why the idea a negative one, as far as should I not wait for the change? good is concerned, but implies posi
CELSUS.—Because you might just tive evil. That Celibacy has ever wait till the Greek Calends. There been held in any estimation at all, is a mighty conservatism of evil in is simply owing to the contrivances this country, which, under the long of the See of Rome. It was a disdomination of the Whigs, has become grace among the ancient Greeks and part of its nature in place of the con- Romans--a
disgrace among the Jews, servatism of good. The attention of or Jepthah's daughter would not have the nation has been directed to get- spoken of bewailing her virginity. ting rid of the motes in the vision of Its worst objection is that it throws political administration, while it has discredit on the holy institution of remained blind to the beams in the matrimony by assuming a moral eyesight of the body social. We superiority, and assimilates marriage hope matters may change now; but to a less authorised kind of connecwhen Whigs are in office, no benefit tion. Thus the very idea is of imwill accrue to any members of the moral tendency. In a Protestant community who do not belong to their University it is also, as I have shown, narrow and selfish cabal. If Fellows extremely impolitic to retain it, as of Colleges had been generally Whigs, it is the main-stay of the domination and connected with the mushroom of Rome -- a domination which is aristocracy of liberalism, it would inconsistent with obedience to all have been otherwise, but as it is, they established governments; and, sethave naturally enough_been left in ting all religious objections aside, the lurch. As far as I can see, it tends to make the subjects and citiwill take some time for Lord Derby zens of all other states but its own to clean out the Augean mess his disloyal and unpatriotic. Yes, write predecessors have left him. If you to Patience Hope by all means, and like to wait till then, on the strength have done with it, while the wine of of belief in his remaining in office, life is not yet drained to the lees.
ZANZIBAR; AND TWO MONTHS IN EAST AFRICA.
BY CAPTAIN BURTON.
CHAPTER VI.-THE MARCH TO FUGA.
“Es gibt in Central Afrika Paradiese, die mit den Zeit die Civilisation aussuchen wird zum Besten der Menschheit."-J, von Müller.
On the 10th of February, after a toiling up the stony dirty track over night of desert-silence, we arose be- a series of wearisome monotonous times, and applied ourselves to the slopes, which no sea-breeze work' of porterage. Our luggage reach, I could not but admire the again suffered reduction.* It was, novel aspect of the land. The ground however, past 6 A.M. when, forming was brick-red, and this colour exIndian file, we began to descend the tended half-way up the tree-bores, thorn-clad goat-track, which spans
which the ants had streaked with the north-east spur of Mount Tong- ascending and descending galleries. way. Wazira, as usual in times of Over head floated a filmy canopy of difficulty, disappeared—we bad heard sea-green verdure, pierced by myriads the groans of a lion. At length, by of sunbeams, whilst the azure effuldint of wandering through rush and gence above, purified, as with fire, tiger-grass, we struck into the Pan- from mist and vapour, set the picgany Road. After three hours' hard ture in a frame of gold and ultrawalking, we rested at some fetid marine. Painful splendours! The pools in a reedy finmara. The sun men began to drop off. None but began to blister, and we had already Hamdan had brought a calabash. occupied the shadow of a tall rock, Shaaban clamoured for water. Waintending to doze till the afternoon, zira and the four slave-boys retired to when Wazira, for reasons of his own, some puddle, a discovery which they induced us to advance by promising wisely kept to themselves, leaving better water. The path ran over the rest of the party to throw thenstony ground, with frequent thorny selves under tree and bush upon the ridges, and narrow green dales or hot ground. rather ravines, bordered with lovely As the sun sank westward, Wazira amphitheatres of lofty and feathery joined us with a mouthful of lies, and tropical trees, showing signs of inun- the straggling line advanced. Our dation during the rains. But the purblind guide once more lagged in kizkazy (north-east monsoon) had rear, yielding the lead to old Shaa
the marrow of the earth, and, ban. This worthy, whose five wits though we searched as for treasure, were absorbed in visions of drink, we found no water.
strode blunderingly ahead, over the Noon came, and the sun towered hills and far away. My companion, in his pride of place. Even whilst Captain S- keeping him in sight,
* The following list inay be useful to our successors. For observations, we had two chronometers and watch, a sextant strapped to the Portuguese boy's back, horizon, pocket-pedometer, two compasses and stand, a common and a B. P. thermometer, horn lantern, policeman's bull's eye, and wax candles for night-work ; a polished leather-bag contained ink, journals, drawing materials, and lunar tables. Our arms were two daggers, two clasp-knives, 3 swords, a six-shooter each, a Colt's rifle, a Buchse by Nevotery of Vienna, and a shot gun-in fact, fighting kit. A solid leather portinanteau was stuffed with a change of clothes and the present for Sultan Kimwere, before described. We took also a few extra caps and muslins to buy provisions (beads and domestics would have been far better), and a few dollars, which were
less. small travelling canteen carried tea and sugar, salt, and tobacco ; and a patent digester and a bottle of cognac were not forgotten. Our beds were rolled up in painted waterproofs, which by day served as tents, and they were well supplied with blankets and the invaluable caoutchouc rugs.
and I in rear of both, missed the secured, as extra porters, five wild road. Shortly after sunset we three men, habited in primitive attire. Their reached a narrow finmara, where only garment was a kilt of dried and stood, delightful sight! some puddles split rushes or grass, with the upper bright with chickweed, and black ends woven into a cord of the same with the mire below. We quenched material. This thatch, fastened round our thirst, and bathed our swollen the waist, extends to mid-thigh. It is feet, and patted, and felt, and handled clean, cool, and certainly as decent as the water as though we loved it. the garb of the Gael. All had bows But even this charming occupation and poisoned arrows except one, who had an end. Evidently we had lost boasted a miserable musket, and liteour way. Our shots and shouts re- rally a powder-horn, the vast spoils mained unanswered. It would have of a cow. The wretches were lean as been folly to thread the thorny jungle wintry wolves, and not less ravenous. by the dubious light of a young We fed them with rice and ghee. moon: we therefore kindled a fire, Of course they asked for more-till looked to our arms, lay down upon a their stomachs, before like shrunken soft sandy place, and, certain that bladders, stood out in the shape of Shaaban would be watchful as a ves- little round bumps from the hooptal virgin, were soon lulled to sleep work of ribs. We had neglected to by the music of the night breeze, and take their arms. After feeding, they by the frogs chanting their ancient arose, and with small beady eyes, querele upon the miry margins of the twinkling with glee, bade us farewell. pools. That day's work had been Though starving, they would not little more than five leagues. But work. A few hours afterwards, how“ These high wild hills, and rough uneven ever, they found a hippopotamus in ways,
the open ; killed it with their arrows, Draw out the miles."
and soon left nothing but a heap of It seemed as though we had marched bones and a broad stain of blood upon doubly as much; a circumstance which the ground. the African geographer would do well Having rested till 3.15 P.M., we to note.
persuaded, with the usual difficulty, At dawn after our bivouac, we re- our human cattle to load one another, traced our steps, and soon came upon and advanced over a path dented by our people. They had followed the the wild buffalo's hoof. The rolling upper or northern path, and had ground was a straggling thorn-jungle, nighted near the higher bed of the studded with bright flowers. In places finmara which gave us hospitality. "black-jacks” were scattered about a The “Myuzi” is a rocky line about plain fired to promote the growth of 20 feet broad, edged with thick fodder; and ant hills, like Irish “fairytrees, gummy acacias, wild mulber- mounts,” rose regularly as if disposed ries, and wood-apples, and bearing by the hand of art. Khombora's cone traces of violent periodical torrents. fell far behind. The walls of SagaEven in the driest season the sole pre- ma, whose peaks, smoking by day serves pools, sometimes 100 feet and burning at night, resembled vollong; and by digging in the mud, canoes, changed their blue tints, first water is always procurable. Thé for brown, and then for distinct green. banks conceal various antelopes and At length, emerging from the wood, birds, especially doves, kites, and we entered an alluvial plain, and curlews, whilst around the water sighted the welcome river, flashing iguanas congregate to dine upon the bright through its setting of emerald small fish-fry which lie expiring with trees, as it mirrored the westering orb heat in the shallows.
of day. Traversing the tall rushes, After shaking hands all round and young trees, and thick underwood of settling small disputes, we spread our the bank, we found ourselves about beds in the grateful shade, and solaced 'sunset opposite Kohoday, the village the past with tea and tobacco. Dur- of a friendly Mzegura chief. “Sultan ing the day our Belochies shaved one Momba” having recognised the Beloanother's heads, and plaited sawás or chies, forthwith donned his scarlet sandals of palm-leaves. Our guide coat, superintended the launching of the village boat from its cadjan cover, Sultan Momba once visited Zanstood surrounded by the elders watch- zibar, where his eyes were opened to ing our transit, and, as we landed, Keranie truth, by the healing hand wrung our hands with rollicking of the Kazi Mukij el din. This disgreetings, and those immoderate ex- tinguished Sawahili D. D. conferred plusive laughings which render the upon the neophyte the name of AbAfrican family to all appearance so dullah, and called him son. But the “ jolly” a race.
old Momba returned strong upon The Thursday was a halt at Koho: Abdullah when he sniffed once more day. It is the normal cultivators' his native air. He fell from prayer village of these regions, built upon the and ablution to the more congenial high and stiff clay bank of the Pan- practices of highwaying and hard gany river, here called the Lufu, or drinking. He is a stout, jolly, beardRufu. From without it has a charm- less young black, with a boatswain's ing look of seclusion and rural com- voice, an infinite power of surprise, fort. Rendered invisible, till near, and an inveterate itching for beggary. by bosoming tree, bush, and spear- This graceless youth inspected our grass, it is protected by a stout pali- weapons for hours, and sat with us sade of trunks. When foes and beasts half the day. At one time he begged abound, this defence is doubled and for the Colt; at another for a barrel of trebled. The entrances in the shape gunpowder; now he wanted to barter of low triangles, formed by inclining slaves for ammunition ; and when the posts en chevron, lead to a heap night fell, he privily sent Hamdan to of wattle and dab-thatched huts; here request a bottle of brandy. All these square, there round; generally hud- things were refused, and Sultan dsed together; but if space allow, Momba was fain to be content with scattered over a few hundred yards. two caps, a pair of muslins, and a Goats, sheep, and cows—they thrive cotton shawl. He seriously advised beyond the coast-are stalled near us to return with twenty barrels of or inside the human habitations. gunpowder, which, as the article was From the deep strong stream, red in demand, would bring, he assured with hill-loam, and here about 80 us, excellent business. Our parting yards wide, a bathing-place is staked was pathetic. He swore he loved us, off against the alligator and the hippo- and promised, on our return, the boat potamus. Our Belochies, who, like to conduct us down the river ; but all Orientals, believe that drinking when we appeared with empty hands, the element at night weakens diges- he told the truth, namely, that it is a tion, make of this an exception; and succession of Falls and Rapids. my companion, an old Himalayan, After a night in which the cimex thought that he could detect in it thé betularius had by a long chalk the peculiar rough smack of snow-water. advantage of the drowsy god, on the
These villagers are cultivators. 13th of February we were ferried Formerly tame, harmless, heathen to across the stream, attended by divers all but one another, they have become guides from Sultan Momba’s village. masters of muskets, which they use, At 7 A.M., emerging from the thicket, to spoil and oppress those who have we fell into the beaten track over the them not. We were shown, on the alluvial plain, which here, as at Chogmountain - pass of Usumbara, the way, must, during rains, be a sheet of watch-fire which is never extinguish- water. We crossed the Luangua, a ed ; and the Mzegura chief, when sup- deep silent affluent of the Lufu river, plying us with a bullock, poked bis by a bridge composed of a fallen tree. thumb back towards the hills, and Then stretching over the grassy exsaid, with a roar of laughter, that panse, we skirted two small cones, already we had become the king's **Ngua,” the roots of the high Vingiri guests. Our Beloch guard applaud- range. Like Sagama, this bulwark of ed this kindred soul, patted him upon Usumbara is a mural precipice, with the shoulder, and declared that, with bluff sides of rock, well wooded on a score of men of war like themselves, the summit, and looking a proper he might soon become lord of all the place for ibex. It forms the rammountains.
part or escarpment separating the