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Lake of the Woods.

1,040 Dog Lake,......

1,000 Source of the Miami,

964 Source of the Sciota,

919 Sources of the St Peter and Red Rivers,...

830 Mouth of the Platte, Missouri,.

680 Mouth of the St Peter, Mississippi,

630 Lake Winnepec,

595 Lake Superior,

571 Lakes Huron and Michigan,

571 Ohio, near Wheeling, Virginia,..

565 Lake Erie,..........

565 Ohio, at Cincinnati,

414 Point Levi, opposite Quebec,

310 Mouth of the Ohio,

300 Lake Ontario,

231 Featherstonehaugh's American Journal of Geology.

MINERALOGY.

7. On the Gold, Silver, and Platina of Russia.--The annual produce of silver in the Russias, is estimated at about 1000 pouds, of forty pounds each ; but what, after all, is this 1000 pouds, or 40,000 pounds, to the produce of the Valenciana mine in Mexico, which for many long years produced its millions of dollars annually ? “ Young Demidoff had not yet returned from Italy ; from his relation and agent Daniloff, I met with every attention. His cabinet contained many beautiful specimens of platina, most of which were designed as presents to the crowned heads of Europe. Although some single masses of platina weighed seven or eight pounds, none could be compared to those in the cabinet of the mining corps, one of which weighed about 27 pounds. My own specimens, which were presented to me by Zobolefsky, although weighing 800 grains each, and of which I had been not a little proud, dwindled away in the view of the great varieties lying in profusion in Demidoff's cabinet. Owner of the most celebrated platina deposits, and goldwashings, he had had many opportunities, in the course of a few years, of selecting and putting aside not only large massive lumps of gold and platina, but what was yet more interesting, a great variety of most beautiful and perfect crystals of gold. The mass of platina before alluded to, as weighing 27 pounds, was found completely isolated, and at nearly 60 versts from the usual deposits of platina, in a bed of red clay, where some slaves were employed in making bricks. Those streams in the beds and on the banks of which the gold deposits are met with, contain more of gold, and less platina, on the European than those on the Asiatic side of the Ural Mountains. The amount of gold obtained from these washings, had amounted for the year 1830, to nearly half a million sterling. It may be well imagined to what an extent their operations must be extended, when the 100 pouds, or 4000 pounds weight of soil, seldom yield above 65 grains of gold, and varies from 65 to 120 grains, --which is there considered rich,-to the 100 pouds. Nevertheless, their mining operations are conducted with such skill and success, as even to obtain, of this limited quantity, nearly the whole amount; and that, too, with such little cost, as to have been, indeed, far beneath my expectation. Of the simple and yet beautiful processes made use of in the gold-washings of the Ural Mountains, I shall speak hereafter, well convinced of the great utility and service which they would be of, if made known to the mining regions of other countries. The Demidoffs, Davidoffs, and many other Russian families, are acquiring princely revenues from the employment of their slaves in these goldwashings; but it is not alone the gold,--the platina itself is another great source of their prosperity; more especially since all the platina is now coined at the imperial mint, and established as part of the current coin of the realm. The coins made of platina are beautiful; those large pieces with the head of the Emperor are the best, and show better the effect and polish which coins of this metal can take. Though many hundred pounds weight of platina are coined monthly, into pieces of 11 and 22 rubles, they disappear rapidly from the circulation. They may be met with occasionally, and a few at a time, in the hands of the brokers. I consider their price much above the London price of malleable platina, which is at present about 25 shillings English per ounce : considering that the crude platina is the produce of the country, the Russian price for malleable platina, which is about 28s., is too extravagant; and yet this does not arise from the expense of manufacturing, but from the cost of the material itself, which is far higher than the platina of South America. The cause of this is the monopoly and easy disposal of it, at a high price, through the coinage.-Featherstonehaugh's Journal, September 1831.

BOTANY.

8 Zygophyllum arboreum of Jacquin.—This species of the Guayacan or Bean-caper tree, is a common native of the province of Carthagena in South America. It grows to the beight of 40 feet, and the wood is remarkably dense and heavy, being of greater specific gravity than the inost compact oak. The Spanish settlers speak with enthusiasm of its durability. It has been found by experience to be so lasting, when driven as piles into the ground, that they often give it the name of imperishable wood. As it does not contain any gallic acid or tannin, iron-fastenings do not act injuriously upon it. This timber, it is believed, might easily be procured ; and it might be worth while to try some piles of it in our sea-piers, in the hope that it would resist the attacks of the minute but very destructive marine insect (Lemnoria terebrans of Leach), the ravages of which have hitherto baffled the ingenuity of our engineers.

List of Patents granted in England, from 2d August to 30th in metallic mills for grinding coffee, corn, drugs, paints, and va.

August 1831. 1831. Aug. 2. To Sir J. C. ANDERSON, Bart. Bultenant Castle, county of Cork,

“ for certain improved machinery for propelling vessels on water,

which machinery is applicable to other useful purposes." 3. To J. Hall, younger, Dartford, engineer, “ for an improvement

in machinery used in the manufacture of paper.” Communicated

by a foreigner. 10. To J. M. E. Ardit, Newman Street, Oxford Street, printer, “ for

a machine or apparatus for drawing, and for copying and redu. cing drawings and other objects or subjects, and for taking panoramas.” Communicated by a foreigner. To A. COCHRANE, Esq. Norton Street, Great Portland Street, “ for certain improvements in machinery for propelling or moving locomotive carriages, and giving motion to mills and other machinery." To W. Mason, London, patent axle-tree maker, " for certain im.

provements in the construction of wheeled carriages.” 11. To D. SELDEN, Liverpool, merchant, “ for certain improvements

rious other materials.” Communicated by a foreigner. Aug. 13. To A. W. GILLET, Birmingham, “ for a new or improved machine

or instrument to measure, beat, and give the accents in all the different moods of time, with any degree of velocity required, ap

plicable to the teaching of music.” Communicated by a foreigner. 27. TO J. PERKINS, Fleet Street, engineer, “ for his improvement on

his former patent, dated July 2. 1831 ; making the same applica

ble to the evaporating and boiling of fluids for certain purposes.” 30. To B. Aingworth, Birmingham, button-maker, “ for an improve.

ment in the making and constructing of buttons.”

List of Patents granted in Scotland from 15th to 28th March

1832. 1832. March 15. To Joel BENEDICT Nort of Liverpool, Esq. in consequence of

a communication made to him by a certain foreigner residing abroad, and invention by himself, for “ certain improvements in the construction of a furnace or furnaces for generating heat, and in the apparatus for the application of heat to various useful purposes,” being farther improvements upon a patent ob

tained by him, dated the 4th day of November 1830. To John ERICSSon of Liverpool, in the county palatine of Lan

caster, civil engineer, for an invention of “ an improved engine

for communicating power to mechanical purposes." 21. To James Thomson of Gorbals, city of Glasgow, and county of

Lanark, distiller, for an invention of “ an improvement on the construction of distilling apparatus, and particularly of the con

denser or worm.” 28. To Peter Young of Fenchurch Street, rope and sail maker, in

consequence of a communication made to him by a certain foreigner residing abroad, for a new mode of “ manufacturing mangel wurzel, for the purpose of producing various known ar

ticles of commerce." To ELIJAH GALLOWAY of Carter Street, Walworth, in the county

of Surrey, engineer, for an invention of “ certain improvements

on paddle-wheels.” To HENRY WARNER of Loughborough, in the county of Leices

ter, hosier, CHARLES Hood of the same place, frame smith and setter up, and BENJAMIN ABBOT, also of the same place, frame-work knitter, for an invention of " certain improvements upon the machinery now in use for making or manufacturing stockings, stocking-web, or frame-work, knitting-warp web, warp-net, and point-net."

3

THE

EDINBURGH NEW

PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL.

Memoir of William Roscoe, Esq. By Dr THOMAS STEWART

Traill, F.R.S.E., &c. Communicated by the Author.

« Clarorum Virorum facta moresque posteris tradere antiquitus usita.

tum, ne nostris quidem temporibus, quanquam incuriosa suorum ätas omisit, quotiens magna aliqua ac nobilis virtus vicit ac supergressa est vitium, parvis magnisque Civitatibus commune, ignorantiam recti et invidiam."-TACITI Vita Agricolæ.

In the sentence now quoted, Tacitus has justly indicated the true objects of biography; and, although in this humble notice of our late illustrious President *, I do not profess the intention of handing down his character and virtues to posterity (a task fortunately confided to abler hands t), yet I feel satisfied, that this attempt will not be displeasing to a Society of which he was at once the ornament and the head. As our age cannot be justly accused of want of curiosity respecting our contemporaries, it does not deserve to be characterized as ignorant or envious of merit. If, in tracing the career of Mr Roscoe, we find him ris

* Read before the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool in October 1831.

+ The public will soon have the satisfaction of receiving from the pen of Henry Roscoe, Esq. barrister-at-law, a life of his father, illustrated by selections from an extensive and interesting correspondence with many distinguished characters of his age.

vol. XIII. NO, XXVI.---OCTOBER 1832.

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