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and immediately pass the door at which we sat, followed by his audacious pursuers, who were but a few yards in his rear.Iinmense numbers of deer are killed every year by our hunters, who take them for their hams and skins alone, throwing away the rest of the carcass. Venison hams and hides are important articles of export: the former are purchased from the hunters at 25 cents a pair, the latter at 20 cents a pound. In our villages we purchase for our tables the saddle of venison, with the hams attached, for 371 cents, which would be something like 1 cent a pound. There are several ways of hunting deer, all of which are equally simple. Most generally the hunter proceeds to the woods on horseback, in the day-time, selecting particularly certain hours, which are thought to be most favourable. It is said, that, during the season when the pastures are green, this animal rises from his lair precisely at the rising of the moon, whether in the day or night; and I suppose the fact to be so, because such is the testimony of experienced hunters. If it be true, it is certainly a curious display of animal instinct. This hour is therefore always kept in view by the hunter, as he rides slowly through the forest, with his rifle on his shoulder, while his keen eye penetrates the surrounding shades. On beholding a deer, the hunter slides from his horse, and, while the deer is observing the latter, creeps upon him, keeping the largest trees between himself and the object of pursuit, until he gets near enough to fire. An expert woodsman seldom fails to hit his game. It is extremely dangerous to approach a wounded deer. Timid and harmless as this animal is, at other times, he no sooner finds himself deprived of the power of flight, than he becomes furious, and rushes upon his enemy, making desperate plunges with his sharp horns, and striking and trampling furiously with his fore-legs, which, being extremely muscular, and armed with sharp hoofs, are capable of inflicting very severe wounds. Aware of this circumstance, the hunter approaches him with caution, and either secures his prey by a second shot, where the first has been but partially successful, or, as is more frequently the case, causes his dog to seize the wounded animal, while he watches his own opportunity to stab him with his hunting-knife. Sometimes where a noble buck is the victim, and the hunter is impatient or inexperienced, terrible conflicts ensue on such occasions.—Another mode, is to watch at night, in the neighbourhood of the salt-licks. These are spots where the earth is impregnated with saline particles, or where the saltwater oozes through the soil. Deer and other grazing animals frequent such places, and remain for hours licking the earth. The hunter secrets himself here, either in the thick top of a tree, or most generally in a screen erected for the purpose, and artfully concealed, like a mask-battery, with logs or green boughs. This practice is pursued only in the summer, or early in the autumn, in cloudless nights, when the moon shines brilliantly, and objects may be readily discovered. At the rising of the moon, or shortly after, the deer having risen from their beds, approach the lick. Such places are generally denuded of timber, but surrounded by it; and as the animal is about to emerge from the shade into the clear moon light, he stops, looks cautiously around, and snuffs the air. Then he advances a few steps, and stops again, smells the ground, or raises his expanded nostrils, as if he “snuffed the approach of danger in every tainted breeze.” The hunter sits motionless, and most breathless, waiting until the animal shall get within rifle-shot, and until its position, in relation to the hunter and the light, shall be favourable, when he fires with an unerring aim. A few deer only can be thus taken in one night, and after a few nights these timorous animals are driven from the haunts which are thus disturbed.-Another practice is called driving, and is only practised in those parts of the country where this kind of game is scarce, and where hunting is pursued as an amusement. A large party is made up, and the hunters ride forth with their dogs. The hunting ground is selected, and, as it is pretty well known what tracts are usually taken by the deer when started, an individual is placed at each of those passages, to intercept the retreating animal. The scene of action being, in some measure, surrounded, small parties advance with the dogs from different directions, and the startled deer, in flying, most generally pass some of the persons who are concealed, and who fire at them as they pass. The elk has disappeared. A few have been seen of late years, and some taken ; but it is not known that any remain at this time, within the limits of the State.The bear is seldom seen. This animal inhabits those parts of the country that are thickly wooded, and delights particularly in cane-brakes, where it feeds in the winter on the tender shoots of the young cane.
The meat is tender and finely flavoured, and is esteemed a great delicacy. Wolves are very numerous in every part of the state. There are two kinds: the common or black wolf, and the prairie wolf. The former is a large fierce animal, and very destructive to sheep, pigs, calves, poultry, and even young colts. They hunt in large packs, and after using every stratagem to circumvent their prey, attack it with remarkable forocity. Like the Indian, they always endeavour to surprise their victim, and strike the mortal blow without exposing themselves to danger. They seldom attack man except when asleep or wounded. The largest animals, when wounded, entangled, or otherwise disabled, become their prey, but in general they only attack such as are incapable of resistance. They have been known to lie in wait upon the bank of a stream, which the buffaloes were in the habit of crossing, and, when one of those unwieldy animals was so unfortunate as to sink in the mire, spring suddenly upon it, and worry it to death, while thus disabled from resistance. Their most common prey is the deer, which they hunt regularly ; but all defenceless animals are alike acceptable to their ravenous appetites. When tempted by hunger, they approach the farm-houses in the night, and snatch their prey from under the very eye of the farmer ; and when the latter is absent with his dogs, the wolf is sometimes seen by the females lurking about in mid-day, as if aware of the unprotected state of the family, Our heroic females have sometimes shot them under such circumstances. The smell of burning assafoetida has a remarkable effect upon this animal. If a fire be made in the woods, and a portion of this drug thrown into it, so as to saturate the atmosphere with the odour, the wolves, if any are within reach of the scent, immediately assemble around, howling in the most mournful manner; and such is the remarkable fascination under which they seem to labour, that they will often suffer themselves to be shot down rather than quit the spot. Of the very few instances of their attacking human beings of which we have heard, the following may serve to give some idea of their habits : In very early times, a Negro man was passing in the night, in the lower part of Kentucky,
from one settlement to another. The distance was several miles, and the country over which he travelled entirely unsettled. In the morning his carcass was found entirely stripped of flesh. Near it lay his axe, covered with blood, and all around, the bushes were beat down, the ground trodden, and the number of foot-tracts so great, as to show that the unfortunate victim had fought long and manfully. On pursuing his track, it appeared that the wolves had pursued him for a considerable distance, he had often turned upon them and driven them back. Several times they had attacked him, and been repelled, as appeared by the blood and tracks. He had killed some of them before the final onset, and in the last conflict had destroyed several; his axe was his only weapon. The prairie-wolf is a smaller species, which takes its name from its habits, or residing entirely upon the open plains. Even when hunted with dogs, it will make circuit after circuit round the prairie, carefully avoiding the forest, or only dashing into it occasionally when hard pressed, and then returning to the plain. In size and appearance this animal is midway between the wolf and the fox, and in colour it resembles the latter, being of a very light red. poultry, rabbits, young pigs, calves, &c. The most friendly relations subsist between this animal and the common wolf, and they constantly hunt in packs together. Nothing is more common than to see a large black wolf in company with several prairie-wolves. I am well satisfied that the latter is the jackal of Asia. Several years ago, an agricultural society, which was established at the seat of government, offered a large premium to the person who should kill the greatest number of wolves in one year. The legislature at the same time offered a bounty for each wolf-scalp that should be taken. The consequence was, that the expenditure for wolf-scalps became so great, as to render it necessary to repeal the law. These animals, although still numerous and troublesome to the farmer, are greatly decreased in number, and are no longer dangerous to man. We know of no instances in late years of a human being having been attacked by them.-Featherstonehaugh's Journal.
5. Entomology in Scotland. The great attention which has been bestowed for many years on the Entomology of England, where there is scarcely a single city without one or more assi
It preys upon
duous collectors, renders the fact the more remarkable, that, in the northern portion of the island, this delightful study should have made so slight a progress. This may be in some manner owing to the want of a proper elementary work, of a sufficiently compendious nature, to guide the student through the intricacies of a subject somewhat encumbered by an unsettled system of nomenclature and arrangement. We are therefore happy to have it in our power to announce that the first volume is in a forward state of preparation, of a work entitled Entomologia Edinensis, or a description and history of the Insects indigenous to the neighbourhood of Edinburgh, by Mr James Wilson, F. R. S. E., &c. and Mr James Duncan. This volume is intended to contain the generic characters and specific descriptions of the coleopterous insects found in the district just named, combined with a general history of their localities, economy, and metamorphoses. An introductory essay will present a general view of the Class Insecta,-pointing out its distinctive attributes and relations to the other great divisions of the animal kingdom, and including an account of the anatomical structure, physiology, geographical distribution, &c. of the extensive order, to a portion of which the descriptive part of the forthcoming volume exclusively relates.
6. Heights of Mountains and Lakes in North America :
Long's Peak Chippeweyan, or Rocky Mountains, ... 15,000 feet. Mount Washington, N. Hampshire, *
6,234 Mansfield Mountain, N. Peak, Vermont,
4,279 Catskill Mountains, Round Top, N. York,
3,800 Black Hills, Lat. 40. NW. of Missouri,
3,500 Alleghany Mountains, in Virginia,
3,100 Ozarc Mountains, west of Mississippi,
2,250 Wisconsan Hills, S. of Lake Superior,
2,250 Catskill Mountainhouse, N. York,
2,214 Sources of streams tributary to Lakes Winnepec and Superior,
1,200 Head waters of the Mississippi,
1,200 Break Neck, near West Point Foundery,
1,187 Rainy Lake, SE. of the Lake of the Woods, 1,100 Tourn Mountain, Rammapoo, N. Jersey,...... 1,067
* This is the loftiest of the White Mountains.