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Register of Natural Appearances-continued.
First Snow. 1
Sept. 21. Sept. 25. Nov. 8.
Sept. 15. Sept. 20. Nov. 18. Oct. 12.
Sept. 30. Oct. 1. | Nov. 20. Oct. 2.
Oct. 10. Nov. 10. Oct. 12. 1812. July 8. July 1. Sept. 9.
Oct. 20. Oct. 5. Nov. 30. Nov. 11. 1813. July 4. June 22. Aug. 12. Sept. 9.
Sept. 28. Sept. 30. Nov. 11. Oct. 20. 1814. July 13. July 4. Aug. 21. Sept. 7.
Sept. 23. Sept. 28. Nov. 7.
5. 1815. June 24. June 22. Aug. 9. Aug. 26.
Oct. 9. Oct. 1. Nov. 4. Oct. 20. 1816. July 31. July 14. Aug. 29. Oct. 12.
2. Sept. 14. Nov, 19. Oct. 25. 1817. July 14. June 24. Aug. 15. Sept. 10.
Oct. 8. Oct. 13. Nov. 22. Oct. 20. 1818. June 30. June 8. July 27. Aug. 12.
Aug. 31. Sept. 29. Oct. Oct. 31. | Nov. 20. 1819. July 24. June 19. July 31. Aug. 25.
Oct. 1. Oct. 6. Nov. 19. Oct. 21. 1820. July 31. June 25. Aug. 9. Sept. 13.
Sept. 13. Oct. 2. Oct. 1. | Nov. 6. Nov. 20.
Sept. 10. Sept. 20. Sept, 26. Nov. 8. Nov. 30.
2. Oct. 31. Nov. 3.
Oct. 18. Sept. 27. Nov. 1. Oct. 12. 1825. July 10. June 20. July 22.
Mar. 28. May 4. No Hops, 20th. Oct. 15. Sept. 27. Oct. 26. Oct. 26.
Oct. 4. Sept. 20. Nov. 3. Nov. 7.
June 24. Aug. 4. Sept. 6. April 4. June 10. Sept. 21. Oct. 12. Sept. 1. Oct. 31. Oct. 7.
Oct. 6. Sept. 17. Oct. 27. Oct. 27. 1831. July 27. June 16. July 29. Aug. 22. Mar. 22.
Oct. 15. Sept. 20. Nov. Nov. 10. 1832.
1808. June 29. June 24. Ang
5. Aug. 26.
On the 19th of April 1808 there was a heavy fall of snow for four hours.
1808.—A fine productive harvest, and but little blight.
Last week in April 1809, very cold, wet, frosty, and unpleasant weather.
May 1809 came in very fine and hot.
1813.-An immensely productive harvest, and a general thanksgiving for it.
January 4th 1814, the deepest snow that has been known for 40 years began, and it continued on the ground for five weeks: at some places the drifts were 15 feet high. The frost continued 12 weeks to March 20. 1814.
1816.-From April 12th to 15th snow remained on the ground, and the weather was exceedingly cold and frosty.
1816.—September 3d, a hard frost which produced ice.
1817.—The month of August very wet, succeeded in September by fine harvest weather till November.
1818.—May 8th, a deluge of rain fell, after which no more rain fell at Treveroux or near, till September 5th, 17 weeks and one day, and all vegetation was completely burnt up.
1819.-October 22d, Snow six inches deep.
1822.—No rain from May 2d to July 5th, nine weeks of very hot days.
1823.-Rain little or much every day from June 29th to August 15th.-47 days.
1824.-A very wet summer, but not cold ; crops of corn slight of hay heavy.
1825.-Sold the produce of 12 acres of hops for 5s. 1826 and 1827.-Two fine summers.
1828.- Very heavy rain every day from July 6th to August 14th.
1829.— Though the 9th of April is stated as the day on which oat-sowing was finished, yet an experiment was tried, by sowing wbite gate field with black Tartar oats, on the third of May. The weather was much against them at first, but they turned out very well, and were carried in on the 7th of October.
Rained more or less every day from the 16th of June to 20th September, except on four days, the 23 and 24th of July, and the 3d and 4th of September.
The season was not particularly cold, but was the wettest in my recollection.
1830.-Opened with a severe frost till February, followed by a warm dry March, without a storm or a shower. April 1st, a fall of snow till noon, whilst a swallow was seen flying about at Trevereux.
1831.-On the 6th of May occurred a most severe frost, the young shoots and leaves of the oak and ash were destroyed, fruit-trees of all sorts were greatly injured, and even the grass was checked to such a degree, that it never recovered from its effects.
Ice was nearly half an inch thick on the ponds on the com
A severe frost, but inferior to the last described in its effects, occurred on the night of the 28th May 1818.
Earliest Knowledge of Gold and Silver.-Hesiod.-Scandina
vian Museum.--The Patriarchs-The Book of Job.---Accumulation of Wealth with the Hebrew Nation.--Accumulations in Syria and Persia; in Greece ; in Rome.
In the earliest stages of society, so many and such great difficulties were opposed to the use of all metallic substances, that the discovery and application of them to the purposes of social life must have been slow and gradual.
The most ancient records of our race, the Sacred Writings, as well as the works of the earliest profane authors, have, however, communicated such intimations of the knowledge and adaptation of the more precious metals to the use of mankind, as tends to excite curiosity and to attract attention to the subject.
The general voice of antiquity affirms, that gold, silver, and copper, or brass (aes), were the first metals discovered ; and that they were used partly as ornaments, and partly as instruments of war or of industry; for though, from their softness, they were not the best calculated for the latter purposes, they were better adapted to them than those implements of flint or other hard stones or hard wood, which had been before used by
the most ancient tribes, and which were also found anıong the savage people inhabiting Australia, who were discovered in the middle of the last century.
A well-known passage in Hesiod affirms, that, in remote ages, “ The earth was worked with brass, because iron had not been discovered ;” and Lucretius bears testimony to the same purport, in book 5. I. 1286:
“ Et prior aeris erat, quam ferri, cognitus usus.” This is confirmed by the implements of copper found in the ancient mines, which will be hereafter noticed, in Siberia'and Nubia; whose working must have ceased some thousand years ago.
When Brazil was first discovered by the Portuguese, the rude inhabitants used fish-hooks of gold, but had not iron, though their soil abounded in that metal. The people in Hispaniola and Mexico were, in like manner, unacquainted with iron when first visited by the Spaniards ; though they had both ornaments and implements of gold, and weapons of copper, which latter, as we learn from the analysis of Humboldt, they had acquired the art of hardening by an alloy of tin.
This subject has been illustrated in Denmark, by opening many Scandinavian tumuli of very remote ages, from which have been collected specimens of knives, daggers, swords, and implements of industry, which are preserved and arranged in the Museum of Copenhagen. There are tools of various kinds formed of Aint or other hard stone, in shapes resembling our wedges, axes, chisels, hammers, and knives, which are presumed to be those first invented. There are swords, daggers, and knives, the blades of which are of gold, whilst an edge of iron is formed for the purpose of cutting. Some of the tools and weapons are formed principally of copper, with edges of iron; and in many of the implements, the profuse application of copper and gold, when contrasted with the parsimony evident in the expenditure of iron, seems to prove, that, at the unknown period, and among the unknown people who raised the tumuli, which antiquarian research has lately explored, gold, as well as copper, were much more abundant products than iron.
Copper, in the more remote ages, was not only commonly,
but in some, if not in all, exclusively used for money, and at these periods may be viewed as one of the precious metals; yet the changes that have since taken place have rendered gold and silver more entitled to that name, and will be so considered in the farther progress of this inquiry.
Some of the earliest notices which have reached the present day of the estimation of gold and silver, are in the account of the condition of Abraham, the progenitor of the Hebrew people, supposed to have lived two thousand years before our Christian era. We read, “ that he was rich in cattle, and in silver, and in gold*.” On the death of his wife, he purchased a field for a burying-place, the payment for which was made with four hundred shekels of silver, which he delivered not in coin, but “ by weight, according to the currency of merchantst."
Joseph, the great grandson of Abraham, was sold by his brethren to a caravan of Arabs, travelling towards Egypt with the productions of their country, for twenty pieces of silver i. Afterwards, when established in Egypt as minister of the king of that country, his brothers brought “ silver in their sacks’ mouths,” to purchase corn during a season of scarcity in their native land. In the interesting sequel of the history of Joseph, when making himself known to his family, he presented to his younger and favourite brother three hundred pieces of silver .
Though gold was known at that early period, and its value. highly estimated, we find no intimation which can lead to the inference, that it performed the function of money, either by being used as the common measure of value for other commodities, or by being employed as the medium for exchanging one kind of goods for another.
The author of the Book of Job, whether, as some have supposed, a cotemporary of Abraham, or, as others have thought, of a date some hundred years later, is one of the oldest writers vhose works have been transmitted entire to the present day: He was not only acquainted with gold and silver, but was accurately informed of the manner in which they were procured.
Surely,” says he, “ there is a vein for the silver, and a place for the gold where they fine it.” He farther states, “ that the * Genesis xli. 2.
+ Genesis xxiii. 14, 15, and 16. # Genesis xxxviii. 29.
$ Genesis xlv, 22.