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the fallacious test of averages, the duties and virulence was not directed against the actually received in these eightecn weeks are Government—its neglect of, and even its nearly a fourth part of the duties received coutempt for, the comforts and happiness in the whole of the last fourteen years. So of the people? In the recent disturb. that we are,
for the present at least, enjoy- ances we have hardly traced a word or a ing the three greatest advantages that any thought of this tendency. In vain did the state of the corn-market can produce, real instigators of the mischief endeavour advantages hitherto supposed to be incom- to give it a political and seditious characpatible, namely,
ter--in vain did the Chartists brawl for the 1. A great supply of food for the people, rights of man, and the Anti-Corn-Law without
League preach a cheap-bread crusade 2.—any serious injury to the farmer; and against property: the masses, retaimug, 3 — with a vast addition to the revenue. even in their excitement, a degree of saga
These results are for so short a period city and good sense that is really very surand so unexpectedly favourable to our prising, rejected all such provocations, and view, that we do not venture to rely upon confined their irregularities to the siugle their continuance in the same satisfactory point on which they had originally turned degree, but they are very encouraging, and out, the amount of wages. We deeply they at least negative some of the sinister regret that these poor people should have anticipations which the enemies of the new been driven or deluded into those violent corn-law foreboded.
and criminal excesses, of which the most We do not pretend to say that times and serious portion of the injury must fall upon circumstances may not hereafter affect it, themselves; but we must repeat our satisas they have done its predecessors ; but we faction at such unexampled forbearance do
say that it seems io offer the best com- from political offences, which we can atıribination and adjustment of all interests that bute to nothing but the force of public our position admits, and the fairest promise opinion created by the previously anof permanent protection to the farmer, and nounced measures of the Government-permanent plenty to the people :-we in measures that, hy a combination of foresist on the expression permanent in both sight and good fortune, ,were--may we cases—for we are convinced that exorbi. venture to say ?-providentially calculated tant protection would soon be swept away, to meet the emergency. Sir Robert Peel leaving the farmer to hopeless ruin, while had stated in a few plain but potent words the abolition of all protection would give the principle of his policy :- I will tax the people a temporary glut, to be griev- the rich, and spare the poor-I will enously expiated by early and frequent vicis. deavour to cheapen the price of food to the situdes of scarcity and starvation.
whole population, and to assist especially Concurring, as we did, from their first the working classes by placing more plenannouncement, in the general and, we tifully within their reach the materials of might say, abstract policy of Sir Robert industry, and, of course, the sources of Peel's measures, we confess that recent comfort and content.' We are as thoroughly events have stamped them with a character convinced as we can be of any moral proof more immediate and practical utility blem that these disturbances were created than we had anticipated. The-extensive by those on whose own heads the explosion insurrections which have recently taken will ultimately recoil-the anti-corn-law place in the manufacturing districts, so leaguers; and that the deep-laid schemes alarming in their aspect, but hitherto so of these greedy incendiaries bave been easily repressed-can any one venture to hitherto defeated solely by the common say to what more lamentable extent and sense of the people themselves, awakened excesses they might have suddenly pro- by their knowledge of and their confidence ceeded if the sympathising and paternal in the wise and benevolent policy of their feelings of the Government towards the Government. manufacturing classes had not been ex We know not how long these salutary impressed so early in the session in those pressions may last. We are well aware powerful addresses of Sir Robert Peel-ihat such scenos as have afflicted the North not more powerful- not perhaps so power- must entail on the working classes addiful-in ivfluencing the legislature, as in tional misery and consequent liability to conciliating the feelings, encouraging the further disturbance. The sacrifices that hopes, and fortifying the patience of a these misguided people have been comdeeply distressed working population ? pelled to make, the dissipation of their litWas there ever before a popular commotion ile funds from the Savings Banks, and the in England, of which the chief violence permanent ill feeling and struggle now
established between them and their em- | Court of Chancery. These bills were all ployers, will all tend to keep alive social passed, not without some, though noiseless, discontent and to create political disaffec. difficulty from individual interests; and tion; and we confess we look forward we believe they will be found very valuable. with no inconsiderable alarm to the further The County Courts Bill was reluctantly consequences of these anti-corn intrigues. postponed to another session. We do not We have, we fear, only scotched the snake, greatly regret it. The bill is certainly of not killed it: we expect that great uneasi- great importance, and something of the ness will survive, and cannot but fear the kind is much needed; but much difference possibility of a long and gloomy crisis of as to its details existed even amongst the distress and disquiet; but, for the present, friends of the measure, and we believe that we have only to repeat our belief that the the delay may be turned to good account. measures of the Government have mainly But the most important legal measure of conduced to diminish, though they could the session was undoubtedly the Cessio not wholly avert, a serious and imminent Bonorum bill introduced by Lord Brougham, danger.
and passed, with the assistance of the ChanWe cannot doubt that the great Conser- cellor and the Duke of Wellington in the vative party will see in this remarkable Lords, and the support of the Solicitorcircumstance additional grounds of confi. General and the Ministry in the House of dence in their leaders, and of self-gratulation Commons. This bill abolishes virtually the on the prudence and the patriotism with practice of imprisonment for debt,—a serious which they resisted every effort, insidious experiment, we admit, but one which in or avowed, to disunite them. There were the present state both of the law and of many matters on which an honest difference public opinion we think it is both safe and of opinion must have existed, and may expedient to try. even still survive ; but we think we may We should also have wished to have noassert that experience, short as it has been, ticed Lord Palmerston's clever—but rather has gone far towards removing the most unlucky-speech at the close of the sesserious doubts that were originally enter- sion, and Sir Robert Peel's still more clever tained of the policy of the ministerial and overwhelming reply; and we should measures, and that some gentlemen, who have been particularly glad to have made may have given a hesitating assent to this some observations on the improved aspect or ibat individual detail, are now satisfied of our foreigu relations. But this is beyond that their confidence was not misplaced, our present scope. Upon the wholeand that the well-regulated vigour and con- whether we look abroad or at home—to ciliatory energy of the Goverument have diplomatic or financial affairs--to public probably saved us from an awful convul. credit or public opinion—to social ameliorasion. It cannot, at least, be doubted that tions or legal reforms—it cannot be denied they_have already alleviated the pressure that the present Cabinet has, under all its of distress, and have opened a prospect of disadvantages, done more of real and usepeace abroad and prosperity at home, in ful business in one session than its bewilwhich at the beginning of the late session dered predecessors had even attempted in the most sanguine amongst us hardly ven- the six or seven years of their paralysed tured to indulge.
existence which they drawled and dragged We had intended to have added to this review of Sir Robert Peel's financial and economical policy an exposition of various Letting I dare not wait upon I would — administrative and legal improvements in
Like the poor cat in the adage ! troduced by the members or friends of his administration, and which, though some The country was wearied and ashamed of have been postponed, and some rendered snch a contemptible phantom of a ministry less perfect, have exhibited a striking con. -and, whatever question there may be ag trast to the poco curante and far niente to this or that measure of the present Cabiapathy of his predecessors. We should net, there is a universal satisfaction throughhave particularly wished to notice some out the country-and we believe throughmeasures of legal reform—the best and out the friendly nations of Europe-that most necessary of all reform-introduced by England, after a long and disgraceful inLord Lyndhurst, for expediting and cheap- terregnum, has at last an administration ening proceedings in Lunacy, in Bank- that can do its business, and a Government ruptcy, and in the general practice of the I that ventures to govern.
INDEX TO VOL. LXX.
Calderwood, Mrs., of the Coltness family-journa
of her tour in England and Flanders in 1756,
matters, 256 ; character of his account of the 208; George III. when Prince of Wales, 208;
Chouan war, the, 43. See Rio.
Clausewitz, General, review of the Belgian cam-
moving for leave to bring in a Bill for the regu 31.
to their state, ib.; measures to be adopted for
their amelioration, 87, 88; appearance of the
country when a new colliery is established, 88;
entrance to mines, 88, 89; temperature and ac-
over-men, 90; trappers, ib. ; drivers, putters, 91;
villages, ib. ; general characteristics of colliers,
and external appearance, 94; mental acquire-
ments, 94, 95; physical effects of the employ-
women, 97-99; women or children not employed
in Irish mines, 99; reasons advanced for letting
stant dangers to which colliers are exposed, 100;
employed in mining operations, 101; irruption of
in descending and ascending, 102; evils (in re-
handed down to posterity, 245; at Waterloo, 254, of coroners in Scotland to investigate the causes
thoughts to the condition of their miners, 105 ;
colliers and miners that have subsequently risen
to fame in other spheres of life, 106.
Coltness Collections, the, 195; progress of dubs in cording the progress of arts, ib. ; terrestrial phy-
England and Scotland for printing historical and sics, 32; names of contributors in natural his-
37; difficulties in the editing and production of
children employed in mines &c., Report of, 87. countries, 130.
Flower-garden, the, 108; royal personages, philoso-
phers, poets, and men of taste, who have made
gardening a favourite pursuit—the love of flow.
ers traceable from remote antiquity, 108, 109;
the Italian style of garden, 110; the French,
110, 111; gardens of Versailles, 111; the Eng.
lish, or natural style, 111, 112; Dutch, 112;
English gardeners of the eighteenth century,
112, 113, Price's threefold division of the do-
- main, 114; progress of horticulture in the pres-
and Letters of, 134; nature of the book, and real horticultural and floricultural worlds, 115; no-
chiffonniers, 6, 7; copying-clerks, 7, 8; conse-
quences to the students of the facilities to vice,
8, 9; the shopmen, 9; quarter of the city,' 9,
10; gamblers, 10; divisions of prostitution, ib.;
tain recruits, 13; questionable benefit resulting
history of encyclopædias, ib. ; the two methods 15, 16; le vol à l'Américaine, 15, 16; shop-
scoundrel compared, 18; preservatives from vice,
18, 19; influence of the press, 19; state of reli-
gion in France, 20; education, ib. ; residences of
the poor-illicit cohabitation in Paris, 21: erils